Inhibitory B7 Family Members in Human Ovarian Carcinoma
Tumors express tumor-associated antigens (TAA), and thus should be the object of immune attack. Nonetheless, spontaneous clearance of established tumors is rare (1, 2). Much work has demonstrated that tumors have numerous strategies either to prevent presentation of TAA or to prevent TAA presentation in the context of T cell costimulatory molecules (3–12).
Thus, it was thought that a lack of TAA-specific immunity was largely a passive process; tumors simply did not present enough TAA, or antigen-presenting cells did not have sufficient stimulatory capacity. On this basis, attempts were made to bolster TAA-specific immunity by using optimal antigen-presenting cells (13–15), by growing TAA-specific effector T cells ex vivo followed by adoptive transfer (3–10, 16), by cytokine/chemokine immunotherapy (1, 17), or by peptide vaccination (18–21). These approaches were met with some success in mouse models of human tumors and showed some early clinical efficacy in human trials, although long-term efficacy remains to be established and logistical problems are considerable (3–12).
KeywordsOvarian Cancer Renal Cell Carcinoma Treg Cell Human Ovarian Cancer Ovarian Tumor Cell
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.