Papillomaviruses: Biology, Diversity, and Pathogenesis

  • Hans-Ulrich Bernard


The term “papilloma” refers to a wart, i.e., a benign epithelial tumor. The papillomaviruses received their name since the first isolates were detected in wart-like lesions of the skin of rabbits (cottontail rabbit papillomavirus, CRPV) and cattle (bovine papillomavirus type 1, BPV-1) and in flat warts of the foot soles (human papillomavirus type 1, HPV-1) and common warts of the hands and face of humans (HPV-2). The lesions that are caused by these four specific viruses are often large in size and a rich source of viral particles. Therefore, it was possible to readily isolate the first papillomavirus genomes, which subsequently could be used to search with DNA hybridization protocols for related viruses in various types of neoplastic and normal, cutaneous, and mucosal epithelia of humans and other mammals. Once data emerged that certain gene sequences of different papillomavirus genomes were highly conserved, strategies for the search of new papillomavirus genomes...


Long Control Region Common Wart Hoofed Animal Cutaneous Epithelium Viral Chromatin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Molecular Biology and BiochemistryUniversity of California IrvineIrvineUSA

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