KSHV Epidemiology and Subtype Evolution

  • Gary S. Hayward
  • Denise Whitby



The etiology of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) posed a puzzle from the first description of the disease by Moritz Kaposi in 1872 (Kaposi 1872) until the discovery of the KSHV by Yuan Chang and Patrick Moore in 1994 (Chang et al. 1994). The disease described by Kaposi, now known as Classic KS, is one of the four distinct epidemiological manifestations of KS. Classic KS is a rare, benign skin disease seen in elderly men of Mediterranean origin. A second epidemiological cluster of KS cases was reported in the 1950s in sub-Saharan Africa (Oettle 1962) and is known as African endemic KS. As with CKS, cases occurred more frequently in men but African endemic KS was reported to be more aggressive (Taylor et al. 1971). Also in contrast to CKS, in Africa KS was also reported in children in whom lymph node involvement was the definitive characteristic (Ziegler and Katongole-Mbidde 1996).

In 1970s, a third epidemiological variant of KS emerged in recipients of solid organ...


Primary Effusion Lymphoma KSHV Infection Primary Effusion Lymphoma Cell KSHV Genome Chimeric Junction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The studies on strain variability at Johns Hopkins were funded at various times by NIH Research Grants to GSH from the National Cancer Institute and the Institute of Allergy and Infection Diseases, namely R01 CA81422, P01 CA81400, R01 CA73585 and R01 AI24576. Studies at NCI-Frederick were funded through contract N01-CO-12400 from the National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, Department of Health and Human Services. The authors would like to thank Rachel Bagni for phylogenetic analysis and assistance in the preparation of the figures. We would also like to thank Allen Kane for assistance with figures.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Molecular Virology LaboratoriesSidney-Kimmel Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Viral Oncology SectionAIDS-Vaccine Program, SAIC-Frederick, National Cancer Institute-FrederickUSA

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