Advertisement

Politics and the Environment

  • Robert J. Brulle
Part of the Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research book series (HSSR)

For nearly 150 years, environmental concerns have been part of the U.S. political agenda. As early as 1864, the U.S. Congress debated the proper use of national lands and, motivated by press accounts of the logging of Giant Sequoia trees, decided to protect Yosemite Valley for aesthetic reasons (Brulle 2000). Since then, as industrialization and environmental impacts have risen in tandem, environmental politics has expanded its range over an increasingly wide spectrum of political action, ranging from local level land use decisions to global controls over CO2 emissions. Thus, the study of environmental politics encompasses a range of issues across virtually all political arenas. As the range of environmental politics has expanded, so too has the scholarship on this topic. Using a wide variety of intellectual tools, ranging from legal studies to geospatial analysis, the literature on environmental politics has expanded into an immense field.

In this essay, I seek to summarize the key theoretical approaches that define this academic subfield and some of the leading research topics in environmental politics. It is important to realize that there is not one universal definition of environmentalism. Rather, environmentalism is defined by numerous discursive frames that define distinct policy fields. Thus, environmental politics is carried out in distinct communities, each focused on a particular aspect of environmental concerns. Thus, this essay begins with a discussion of the multiple frames that define environmentalism. Secondly, there are several intellectual frameworks that define the causes and cures to environmental problems. In the second part of this essay, I describe the major models regarding the causes of environmental degradation, and how these models inform different approaches to their solution. In the third section, I summarize the analysis of the drivers that are unique to the development of environmental policy. Here, I focus on specific applications of standard approaches to understanding environmental politics; (1) Changes in the political opportunity structure, (2) Movement activities, (3) Development and promulgation of new cultural belief systems, and (4) Condition of the natural environment, including major environmental disasters. This section concludes with a review of the literature on the dynamics of environmental policy.

Keywords

Environmental Policy Social Movement Environmental Degradation Environmental Politics Environmental Kuznets Curve 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research is supported by a research grant from the National Science Foundation, Sociology Program Grant NSF 0455195 for the project “Civil Society and the Environment: The Mobilization of the U.S. Environmental Movement0, 1900–2000”.

REFERENCES

  1. Agnone, Jon. 2007. “Amplifying Public Opinion: The Policy Impact of the U.S. Environmental Movement.” Social Forces. 85:1593–1620.Google Scholar
  2. Austin, A. 2002 “Advancing Accumulation and Managing its Discontents: The U.S. Anti-environmental Counter-movement” Sociological Spectrum 22:71–105Google Scholar
  3. Ayers, R.U., Ayres, L.W., and Warr, B. 2004. “Is the U.S. Economy Dematerializing? Main Indicators and Drivers”, pp. 57–93 in Bergh, CJM van den, and Janssen, M.S. 2004.Economics of Industrial Ecology: Materials, Structural Change, and Spatial Scales. MIT Press: Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  4. Ba″ckstrand K., and Lövbrand E. 2007. “Climate Governance Beyond 2012: Competing Discourses of Green Governmentality, Ecological Modernization and Civic Environmentalism”, pp. 123–148 in Pettenger, M.E. (ed.) The Social Construction of Climate Change: Power, Knowledge, Norms, Discourses. Ashgate, Hampshire UKGoogle Scholar
  5. Barber, Benjamin. 1984. Strong Democracy Berkeley: University of California PressGoogle Scholar
  6. Bartley, T. 2007. “How Foundations Shape Social Movements: The Construction of an Organizational Field and the Rise of Forest Certification”. Social Problems August 2007, 54(3), 229–255Google Scholar
  7. Baumgartner, F.R., and Jones, Bryan D. 1993. Agendas and Instability in American politics. University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  8. Benford, R. D. & Hunt, S. A. 1992. “Dramaturgy and Social Movements: The Social Construction and Communication of Power”. Sociological Inquiry , 62(1), 36–55.Google Scholar
  9. Benford, R. D. & Snow, D. A. 2000. “Framing Processes and Social Movements: An Overview and Assessment”. Annual Review of Sociology , 26, 611–639.Google Scholar
  10. Benford, R. D. 1993. “Frame Disputes Within the Nuclear Disarmament Movement”. Social Forces , 71, 677–701.Google Scholar
  11. Benford, Robert D., and Snow, David A. 2000. “Framing Processes and Social Movements: An Overview and Assessment.” Annual Review of Sociology 26, 611–639Google Scholar
  12. Berkes, Fikret and Folke, Carl 1998. “Linking Social and Ecological Systems for Resilience and Sustainability”, pp. 1–29 in Berkes, Fikret and Folke, Carl (eds.) 1998. Linking Social and Ecological Systems: Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience New York: Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  13. Bernstein, S. 2001. The Compromise of Liberal Environmentalism Columbia University Press: New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Birkland, Thomas A. 1997. After Disaster: Agenda Setting, Public Policy, and Focusing Events Georgetown University Press:Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  15. Birkland, Thomas A. 2006. Lessons of Disaster: Policy Change after Catastrophic Events Georgetown University Press: Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  16. Bittner E. 1965. “The Concept of Organization.” reprinted on 69–82 in Turner, Roy (ed.) 1974. Studies in Eth-nomethodology Baltimore: Penguin.Google Scholar
  17. Blühdorn, I. 2000. Post-ecologist Politics: Social Theory and the Abdication of the Ecologist Paragdigm RoutledgeGoogle Scholar
  18. Bosso, Christopher J. 1987. Pesticides and Politics: The Life Cycle of a Public issue University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh PAGoogle Scholar
  19. Brechin, S.R. 2003. “Comparative Public Opinion and Knowledge on Global Climatic Change and the Kyoto Protocol: the U.S. Versus the World?” International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 23(10) 106–134Google Scholar
  20. Brick, P., and R. Cawley. 1996. “Knowing the Wolf, Tending the Garden.” in Brick, and Cawley (eds.) A Wolf in the Garden Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  21. Brown, R.H. 1978. “Bureaucracy As Praxis: Toward A Political Phenomenology of Formal Organizations.” Administrative Science Quarterly 23(September): 365–382.Google Scholar
  22. Brulle RJ, Jenkins JC. 2005. Foundations and the environmental movement: priorities, strategies, and impact. in Faber D., McCarthy D. (eds.) Foundations for Social Change: Critical Perspectives on Philanthropy and Popular Movements., pp. 74. New York: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  23. Brulle RJ. 2000. Agency, Democracy, and Nature: The U.S. Environmental Movement from a Critical Theory Perspective Cambridge, MA: MIT.Google Scholar
  24. Brulle, Robert J. and J. Craig Jenkins. 2008. “Fixing the Environmental Movement” Contexts (spring).Google Scholar
  25. Brulle, Robert J., Turner, Liesel H., Jenkins, J. Craig., and Carmichael, Jason. 2007. “Measuring SMO Populations: A Comprehensive Census of U.S. Environmental Movement Organizations” Mobilization 12(3) 195–211Google Scholar
  26. Bunker, Stephen G. 1984. “Modes of Extraction, Unequal Exchange, and the Progressive Underdevelopment of an Extreme Periphery: The Brazilian Amazon, 1600–1980.” American Journal of Sociology , 89(5):1017–1064.Google Scholar
  27. Bunker, Stephen G. 1985. Underdeveloping the Amazon: Extraction, Unequal Exchange, and the Failure of the Modern State Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  28. Burns, Thomas J., Edward L. Kick, David A Murray, and Dixie A. Murray. 1994. “Demography, Development and Deforestation in a World-System Perspective.” International Journal of Comparative Sociology , 35(3–4):221–239.Google Scholar
  29. Buttel, Frederick H. 2000 “Ecological Modernization As Social Theory” Geoforum 31, 57–65Google Scholar
  30. Canan, Penelope, and George W. Pring. 1988. “Strategic Lawsuits Against Public Participation”. Social Problems 35:506–519.Google Scholar
  31. Cantor, Robin, and Yohe, Gary 1998. “Economic Analysis: Chapter One, Volume 3”, in Rayner, Steve and Malone, Elizabeth (eds.) 1998. Human Choice and Climate Change Columbus OH. Battelle PressGoogle Scholar
  32. Carmin, JoAnn, and Balser, Deborah, 2002. “Selecting Repertoires of Action in Environmental Movement Organizations: An Interpretive Approach”. Organization and Environment 15(4).Google Scholar
  33. Carson, Rachel. 1962. Silent Spring Boston: Little & Brown.Google Scholar
  34. Cawley, R. McGreggor. 1993. Federal Land, Western Anger: The Sagebrush Rebellion and Environmental Politics University Press of Kansas.Google Scholar
  35. Clark, B. 2002. “The Indigenous Environmental Movement in the United States”, Organization and Environment 15:4, 410–442Google Scholar
  36. Clepper, Henry. 1966. Origins of American Conservation. Ronald.Google Scholar
  37. Crenshaw, Edward M, and Jenkins, J. Craig 1996 “Social Structure and Global Climate Change: Sociological Propositions Concerning the Greenhouse Effect”. Sociological Focus 29:341–358Google Scholar
  38. Dalton, R., Recchia, S., and Rohrschneider, R. 2003. “The Environmental Movement and the Modes of Political Action”. Comparative Political Studies 36:7, 743–771Google Scholar
  39. Dalton, Russell. 1994. The Green Rainbow: Environmental Groups in Western Europe New Haven, Ct.: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Dana, S. T., and S. K. Fairfax. 1980. Forest and Range Policy: It's Development in the United States McGraw-Hill: New YorkGoogle Scholar
  41. DeSombre, B. 2000. Domestic Sources of international Environmental Policy; Industry, Environmentalists, and U.S. Power MIT PressGoogle Scholar
  42. Diani, M. 2000. “The Relational Deficit of Ideologically Structured Action”. Mobilization 5(1), 17–24.Google Scholar
  43. Dietz, Thomas and Eugene A. Rosa. 1994. “Rethinking the Environmental Impacts of Population, Affluence and Technology”. Human Ecology Review 1.2:277–300.Google Scholar
  44. Dietz, Thomas and Eugene A. Rosa. 1997. “Effects of Population and Affluence on CO2 Emissions”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , USA. 94:175–179.Google Scholar
  45. Dietz, Thomas and Rosa, Eugene A. 2002. “Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change”, Chapter 12, pp. 370–406 in Dunlap, Riley E., and Michelson, William (eds.) Handbook of Environmental Sociology , Westport CT: Greenwood PressGoogle Scholar
  46. Dinda, Soumyananda. 2004. “Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis: A Survey.” Ecological Economics 49:431–455.Google Scholar
  47. Douglas, M., Gasper, D., Ney, S., and Thompson, M., 1998. “Human Needs and Wants”, pp. 195–263 in Rayner, S., and Malone, E. (eds.) 1998. Human Choice and Climate Change Battelle Press: Columbus OhioGoogle Scholar
  48. Dreiling, M., and Wolf, B. 2001. “Environmental Movement Organizations and Political Strategy”, Organization and Environment 14:1 34–54Google Scholar
  49. Dunlap, R.E. 1993 “From Environmental to Ecological Problems” 707–738 in Calhoun, and Ritzer (eds.) Social Problems Google Scholar
  50. Dunlap, Riley E. and Angela G. Mertig. 1995. “Global Concern for the Environment: Is Affluence a Prerequisite?” Journal of Social Issues 51:121–137.Google Scholar
  51. Dunlap, Riley E. and Richard York. 2008. “The Globalization of Environmental Concern and the Limits of the PostMaterialist Explanation: Evidence from Four Cross-National Surveys.” Sociological Quarterly 49:529–563.Google Scholar
  52. Dunlap, Riley E., Chenyang Xiao and Aaron M. McCright. 2001. “Politics and Environment in America: Partisan and Ideological Cleavages in Public Support for Environmentalism.” Environmental Politics 10:23–48.Google Scholar
  53. Egan, M. 2007. Barry Commoner and the Science of Survival: The Remaking of American Environmentalism MIT Press: Cambridge MAGoogle Scholar
  54. Ehrlich, Paul R. and John P. Holdren. 1971. “Impact of Population Growth.” Science 171:1212–1217.Google Scholar
  55. Fiorina, M.P., and Skocpol, Theda. 1999, Civic Engagement in American Democracy Brookings Institution PressGoogle Scholar
  56. Fischer-Kowalski, M. and Amann, C. 2001. “Beyond IPAT and Kuznets Curves: Globalization as a Vital Factor in Analyzing the Environmental Impact of Socio-Economic Metabolism”. Population and Environment 23(1) 7–47Google Scholar
  57. Fisher, D.R., and Freudenberg, W.R. 2004. “Postindustrialization and Environmental Quality: An Empirical Analysis of the Environmental State.” Social Forces 83:1, 157–188Google Scholar
  58. Forsyth, Tim 2003. Critical Political Ecology: The Politics of Environmental Science New York: RoutledgeGoogle Scholar
  59. Frey, R. Scott. 1995. “The International Traffic in Pesticides.” Technological Forecasting and Social Change 50:151–169.Google Scholar
  60. Frey, R. Scott. 1998. “The Hazardous Waste Stream in the World-System.” pp. 84–103 in Paul Ciccantell and Stephen G. Bunker (eds.) Space and Transport in the World-System.Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  61. Fung, Archon, 2003. “Associations and Democracy: Between Theories, Hopes, and Realities”, Annual Review of Sociolo gy 29Google Scholar
  62. Gale, Richard. 1986. “Social Movements and the State: The Environmental Movement, Countermovement, and Government Agencies.” Sociological Perspectives 9(2)Google Scholar
  63. Gamson, William 1991. “Commitment and Agency in Social Movements”, Sociological Forum 6:27–50.Google Scholar
  64. Gamson, William and Andre Modigliani. 1989. “Media Discourse and Public Opinion on Nuclear Power”. American Journal of Sociology 95:1–37.Google Scholar
  65. Glover, Leigh. 2006. Postmodern Climate Change Routledge: New YorkGoogle Scholar
  66. Godwin, R. Kenneth, and Mitchell, Robert Cameron, 1984, “The Implications of Direct Mail for Political Organizations.” Social Science Quarterly 65:829–839.Google Scholar
  67. Goldstone, Jack and Charles Tilly. 2001. “Threat (and Opportunity)”. pp. 179–194 in Ronald Aminzade, Jack Goldstone, Doug McAdam, Elizabeth Perry, William Sewell, Sidney Tarrow and Charles Tilly (eds.) Silence and Voice in the Study of Contentious Politics. N.Y.: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  68. Gormleyuld, W. T. 2007. “Public Policy Analysis: Ideas and Impacts.” Annual Review of Political Science 10:297Google Scholar
  69. Gould KA, Schnaiberg A, Weinberg, 1996. Local Environmental Struggles: Citizen Activism in the Treadmill of Production Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. PressGoogle Scholar
  70. Graf, William L. 1990. Wilderness Preservation and the Sagebrush Rebellions Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  71. Grumbine, R. E. 1994. “Wildness, Wise Use, and Sustainable Development.” Environmental Ethics 16:227–249Google Scholar
  72. Habermas, Jürgen 1975. “Towards a Reconstruction of Historical Materialism.” Theory and Society 3(1) 287–300.Google Scholar
  73. Habermas, Jürgen. 1996. Between Facts and Norms: Contributions to a Discourse Theory of Law and Democracy MIT PressGoogle Scholar
  74. Hajer, M 1995. The Politics of Environmental Discourse: Ecological Modernization and the Policy Process Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  75. Hastie, J. 2007. “The Role of Science and Scientists in Environmental Policy.” pp. 519–535 in Pretty, J., Ball, A.S., Benton, T., Guivant, J.S., Lee, D.R., Orr, D., Pheffer, M.J., and Ward, H. (eds.) The Sage Handbook of Environment and Society Sage: Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  76. Helvarg, David. 1994. The War against the Greens: The.Wise-Use. Movement, the New Right, and Anti- Environmental Violence Sierra Club.Google Scholar
  77. Inglehart, Ronald and Christian Welzel. 2005. Modernization, Cultural Change and Democracy N.Y.: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  78. Inglehart, Ronald. 1990. Culture Shift in Advanced Industrial Society Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Inglehart, Ronald. 1997. Modernization and Postmodernization Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  80. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2000. Special Report on Emissions Scenarios Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  81. Issac, Larry and Lars Christiansen. 2002. “How the Civil Rights Movement Revitalized Labor Militancy.” American Sociological Review 67:722–746.Google Scholar
  82. Jenkins, J.C., Boughton, H., Carmichael, J., and Brulle, Robert In Review. How Do Movements Matter? The Legislative Success of the Environmental Movement Social Science QuarterlyGoogle Scholar
  83. Jenkins, J. C., H. Boughton, J. Carmichael and R. Brulle. 2007. “When Does Protest Matter? The Environmental Movement and Environmental Policy, 1971–2001.” Paper presented at American Sociological Association meetings, New York, August 2007.Google Scholar
  84. Jenkins, J. Craig and Abigail Halcli. 1999. “Grassrooting the System? Recent Trends in Social Movement Philanthropy, 1953–1990” Pp. 277–299 in Ellen Condliffe-Lageman (ed.) Studying Philanthropic Foundations Bloomington, IN: University of Indiana Press.Google Scholar
  85. Jenkins, J. Craig, David Jacobs and Jon Agnone. 2003. “Political Opportunities and African-American Protest, 1947– 1997”. American Journal of Sociology Google Scholar
  86. Johnson, Paul E. 1998 “Interest Group Recruiting: Finding Members and Keeping Them” in Cigler, A.J., and Loomis, B.A. (eds.) Interest Group Politics Congressional Quarterly Press: Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  87. Jorgenson, Andrew K. and Thomas J. Burns. 2007. “The Political-Economic Causes of Change in the Ecological Footprint of Nations, 1991–2001.” Social Science Research 36:834–53.Google Scholar
  88. Jorgenson, Andrew K., Christopher Dick, Matthew C. Mahutga. 2007. “Foreign Investment Dependence and the Environment: An Ecostructural Approach.” Social Problems 54:371–394.Google Scholar
  89. Kick, Edward L., Thomas J. Burns, Byron L. Davis, David A. Murray, and Dixie A. Murray. 1996. “Impacts of Domestic Population Dynamics and Foreign Wood Trade on Deforestation: A World-System Perspective.” Journal of Developing Societies , 12(1):68–87.Google Scholar
  90. Knoke, David. 1990. Political Networks N.Y.: Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  91. Knox, Margaret L. 1990. “The Wise Use Guys.”. Buzzworm 2(6): 30–36.Google Scholar
  92. Lankard, A., and McLaughlin, W. 2003. “Marketing an Environmental Issue: A Case Study of the Wilderness Society's Core Message to Promote national Forest Conservation from 1964 to 2000” Society and Natural Resources 16:5, 415–434Google Scholar
  93. Leiserowitz, A., Kates, Robert, and Parris, T. 2006. “Sustainability Values, Attitudes, and Behaviors: A Review of Multinational and Global Trends.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources 31:413–44Google Scholar
  94. Lounsbury, Michael, Marc Ventresca and Paul M. Hirsch. 2003. “Social Movements, Field Frames and Industry Emergence.” Socio-Economic Review 1:71–104.Google Scholar
  95. Maniates, M. 2002. “Individualization: Plant a Tree, Buy a Bike, Save the World?” pp. 43–66 in Princen, T., Maniates, M., and Conca, K. (eds.) 2002. Confronting Consumption MIT Press: Cambridge MAGoogle Scholar
  96. Maughan, Ralph, and Douglas Nilson. 1993. “What.s Old and What.s New About the Wise Use Movement”. Presented at Western Social Science Association Convention.Google Scholar
  97. Mazur, Allan. 1994. “How Does Population Growth Contribute to Rising Energy Consumption in America?” Population and Environment 15:371–378.Google Scholar
  98. Melucci, Alberto. 1989. Nomads of the Present Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  99. Melucci, Alberto. 1996. Challenging Codes N.Y.: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  100. Meyer, David S., and Suzanne Staggenborg. 1996. “Movements, Countermovements, and the Structure of Political Opportunity.” American Journal of Sociology 101:1628–60.Google Scholar
  101. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: A Framework for Assessment Island Press, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  102. Minkoff, Debra. 1997. “The Sequencing of Social Movements”. American Sociological Review 62:779–799.Google Scholar
  103. Mishra, V. , O'Neill, B, Prakash, S., and Wexler, L. 1998. “Population and Climate Change”, pp. 89–194 in Rayner, S., and Malone, E. (eds.) 1998. Human Choice and Climate Change Battelle Press: Columbus OhioGoogle Scholar
  104. Mol, A.P. 2001. Globalization and Environmental Reform: The Ecological Modernization of the Global Economy MIT Press: Cambridge MAGoogle Scholar
  105. Mol, Arthur and Sonnenfeld, D. 2000. “Ecological Modernization Around the World — Introduction.” Environmental Politics (9)1:3–16 Spring 2000Google Scholar
  106. Murphy, J. 2000. “Editorial: Ecological Modernisation” Geoforum 31:1–8Google Scholar
  107. National Research Council 1992. Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions Washington DC: National Academy PressGoogle Scholar
  108. O'Callaghan, Kate. 1992. Whose agenda for America? Audubon Magazine , September–OctoberGoogle Scholar
  109. O'Connor, James. 1973. The Fiscal Crisis of the State Blackwell.Google Scholar
  110. O'Connor, James. 1984. Accumulation Crisis Blackwell.Google Scholar
  111. O'Connor, James. 1987. The Meaning of Crisis Blackwell.Google Scholar
  112. Oelschlaeger, Max. 1991. The Idea of Wilderness: From Prehistory to the Age of Ecology , New Haven: Yale.Google Scholar
  113. Pichardo, Nelson A. 1995. “The Power Elite and Elite-Driven Countermovements: The Associated Farmers of California during the 1930s.” Sociological Forum 10, no. 1Google Scholar
  114. Putnam, Robert D. 2000. Bowling Alone NY: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  115. Repetto, Robert (ed.) 2006. Punctuated Equilibrium and the Dynamics of U.S. Environmental Policy Yale University Press: New Haven CTGoogle Scholar
  116. Richardson, Elmo R. 1962. The Politics of Conservation: Crusades and Controversies 1897–1913 University of California Press.Google Scholar
  117. Robbins, Roy M. 1962. Our Landed Heritage: The Public Domain, 1776–1936 University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  118. Rochon, Thomas R. 1998. Culture Moves Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  119. Rootes, Christopher. 2004. “Environmental Movements.” pp. 608–640 in D. A. Snow, S. A. Soule, and H. Kriesi (eds.) The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements Oxford U.K.: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  120. Rosa, Eugene A. 1997 “Cross-National Trends in Aggregate Consumption, Societal Well-Being and Carbon Releases.” pp. 100–109 in Environmentally Significant Consumption: Research Directions The National Research Council/ National Academy of Sciences. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  121. Rubin, Beth, Larry Griffin and Michael Wallace. 1983 “Provided That Their Voice Was Strong” Work and Occupations 10:325–347.Google Scholar
  122. Schnaiberg A, Gould K. 1994. Environment and Society: The Enduring Conflict New York: St. MartinGoogle Scholar
  123. Schnaiberg A. 1980. The Environment: From Surplus to Scarcity New York: Oxford Univ. PressGoogle Scholar
  124. Sewell, William H. 1992 “A Theory of Structure: Duality, Agency, and Transformation.” American Journal of Sociology 98(1) 1–29Google Scholar
  125. Shabecoff, Philip. 1993. A Fierce Green Fire: The American Environmental Movement Hill and Wang.Google Scholar
  126. Shi, Anqing. 2003. “The Impact of Population Pressure on Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Evidence from Pooled Cross-Country Data.” Ecological Economics 44:24–42.Google Scholar
  127. Short, Brant. 1989. Ronald Reagan and the Public Lands Texas A & M University Press.Google Scholar
  128. Skocpol, Theda. 1999 Advocates without Members in Fiorina, Morris P. and Skocpol, Theda, (eds.) Civic Engagement in American Democracy Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution PressGoogle Scholar
  129. Snow, David A., Daniel M. Cress, Liam Downey, and Andrew W. Jones. 1998. “Disrupting the Quotidian”. Mobilization 3:1–22.Google Scholar
  130. Soulé, P.T. and DeHart, J.L. 1998. “Assessing IPAT Using Production- and Consumptionbased Measures of I.” Social Science Quarterly V. 79:754–765.Google Scholar
  131. Soule, S. and S. Olzak. 2007. “The Cross-Cutting Influences of Environmental Protest and Legislation.” Paper presented at the American Sociological Association meetings, New York, August 2007.Google Scholar
  132. Spaargaren, G. (1997), The Ecological Modernization of Production and Consumption. Essays in Environmental Sociology Wageningen: WAUGoogle Scholar
  133. Spaargaren, G. and A.P.J. Mol (1992), “Sociology, Environment and Modernity: Ecological Modernisation as a Theory of Social Change”, Society and Natural Resources 5(4), 323–344Google Scholar
  134. Spillman, Lyn 1995. “Culture, Social Structures, and Discursive Fields” Current Perspectives in Social Theory 15:129–154Google Scholar
  135. Stapleton, Richard M. 1992. “Greed vs. Green”. National Parks Magazine , November–December.Google Scholar
  136. Stern, David I. (2004) “The Rise and Fall of the Environmental Kuznets Curve”, World Development 32(8): 1419–1439.Google Scholar
  137. Torgerson, Douglas. 1995. “The Uncertain Quest for Sustainability: Public Discourse and the Politics of Environmen-talism”. in F. Fischer and M. Black (eds.) Greening Environmental Policy , ed. St. Martins Press.Google Scholar
  138. Tschinkel, V.J. 1989. “The Rise and Fall of Environmental Expertise”. pp. 159–166 in National Research Council. Technology and the Environment National Academy Press: Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  139. Waggoner, P E; Ausubel, J H “A Framework for Sustainability Science: A Renovated IPAT Identity.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99(12), (2002): 7860 (6 pages)Google Scholar
  140. Walsh, Edward. 1988. Democracy in the Shadows N.Y.: Greenwood.Google Scholar
  141. Williams, Rhys H. 2004. “The Cultural Contexts of Collective Action: Constraints, Opportunities, and the Symbolic Life of Social Movements.”. pp. 89–115 in D. A. Snow, S. A. Soule, and H. Kriesi (eds.) The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements Oxford UK: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  142. Wright E. O. 2004. “Interrogating the Treadmill of Production: Some Questions I Still Want to Know about and Am Not Afraid to Ask.” Organization and Environment 17(3) 317–322Google Scholar
  143. York, Richard 2003. “Cross-National Variation in the Size of Passenger Car Fleets: A Study in Environmentally Significant Consumption.” Population and Environment 25(2), (2003): 119–140Google Scholar
  144. York, Richard and Eugene A. Rosa. 2003. “Key Challenges to Ecological Modernization Theory: Institutional Efficacy, Case Study, Evidence, Units of Analysis, and Pace of Eco-Efficiency.” Organization and Environment 16:273–288.Google Scholar
  145. York, Richard, Eugene A. Rosa and Thomas Dietz. 2002. “Bridging Environmental Science with Environmental Policy: Plasticity of Population, Affluence and Technology.” Social Science Quarterly 83:18–34.Google Scholar
  146. York, Richard, Eugene A. Rosa, and Thomas Dietz. 2003a. “Footprints on the Earth: The Environmental Consequences of Modernity.” American Sociological Review 68:279–300.Google Scholar
  147. York, Richard, Eugene A. Rosa and Thomas Dietz. 2003b. “STIRPAT, IPAT and ImPACT: Analytic Tools for Unpacking the Driving Forces of Environmental Impact.” Ecological Economics 46:351–365.Google Scholar
  148. York, Richard, Eugene A. Rosa and Thomas Dietz. 2003c. “A Rift in Modernity? Assessing the Anthropogenic Sources of Global Climate Change with the STIRPAT Model.” International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 23.10:31–51.Google Scholar
  149. Zald, Mayer N. 2000. “Ideologically Structured Action: An Enlarged Agenda for Social Movement Research.”. Mobilization 5:1–16.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert J. Brulle
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Culture and CommunicationsDrexel UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations