Regional Anesthesia Complications Related to Acute Pain Management

  • Narinder Rawal


There is a large variety of available routes for administration of analgesic drugs to manage postoperative pain; these include: enteral (oral, sublingual, buccal, transmucosal), rectal, parenteral [subcutaneous, intramuscular (i.m.), intravenous (i.v.)], surface (topical, transdermal), cavity (intranasal, inhalational, intra-articular), and neural (neuraxial and peripheral) routes. Table 16-1 shows the regional techniques available to manage postoperative pain. The problems associated with regional techniques generally are covered elsewhere in this book; these include technique-related issues, infection, nerve injury, systemic local anesthetic (LA) toxicity, etc. Also, it is clear that “epidural analgesia” is not a generic term. Its effects on outcome and complications may differ depending on whether epidural injections consist of opioids, LAs, or both. In addition, the insertion site for the epidural catheter (lumbar, low thoracic, or high thoracic) will significantly alter physiologic effects when LAs are used.


Respiratory Depression Epidural Analgesia Epidural Catheter Epidural Morphine Intrathecal Morphine 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Narinder Rawal
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive CareUniversity HospitalÖrebroSweden

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