Advertisement

Modelling Fine Aerosol and Black Carbon over Europe to Address Health and Climate Effects

  • M. Schaap
  • P. J. H. Builtjes
Conference paper

Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of anthropogenic and natural airborne particles. Particulate matter in ambient air has been associated consistently with excess mortality and morbidity in human populations (e.g., Brunekreef, 1997; Hoek et al., 2002). The European air quality standards currently focus on all particles smaller than 10 μm in diameter (PM10), which covers the inhalable size fraction of PM. Mass and composition of PM10 tend to divide into two principal groups: coarse particles, mostly larger than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter, and fine particles, mostly smaller than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter. The fine particles contain secondary aerosols, combustion particles and condensed organic and metal vapours. The larger particles usually contain sea salt, earth crust materials and fugitive dust from roads and industries. Although adverse health effects are associated with elevated levels of both PM10 and PM2.5, these health effects were most strongly and consistently associated with particles derived from fossil fuel combustion (e.g. Hoek et al. 2002), which mostly occur in the PM2.5 size range.

Keywords

Black Carbon Former Soviet Union Secondary Aerosol Black Carbon Concentration Fugitive Dust 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Schaap
    • 1
  • P. J. H. Builtjes
    • 1
  1. 1.TNO Institute of Environmental SciencesEnergy and Process Innovation (TNO-MEP)AHThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations