Modelling Fine Aerosol and Black Carbon over Europe to Address Health and Climate Effects
Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of anthropogenic and natural airborne particles. Particulate matter in ambient air has been associated consistently with excess mortality and morbidity in human populations (e.g., Brunekreef, 1997; Hoek et al., 2002). The European air quality standards currently focus on all particles smaller than 10 μm in diameter (PM10), which covers the inhalable size fraction of PM. Mass and composition of PM10 tend to divide into two principal groups: coarse particles, mostly larger than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter, and fine particles, mostly smaller than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter. The fine particles contain secondary aerosols, combustion particles and condensed organic and metal vapours. The larger particles usually contain sea salt, earth crust materials and fugitive dust from roads and industries. Although adverse health effects are associated with elevated levels of both PM10 and PM2.5, these health effects were most strongly and consistently associated with particles derived from fossil fuel combustion (e.g. Hoek et al. 2002), which mostly occur in the PM2.5 size range.
KeywordsBlack Carbon Former Soviet Union Secondary Aerosol Black Carbon Concentration Fugitive Dust
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