Virtual Prototyping of Biomanufacturing in Medical Applications

Conventional manufacturing processes for three-dimensional scaffolds
  • Y. S. Morsi
  • C. S. Wong
  • S. S. Patel


Tissue Engineering Porous Scaffold Tissue Engineering Application Virtual Prototype Compression Molding 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alhadlaq A, Mao JJ (2003) Tissue-engineered neogenesis of human-shaped mandibular condyle from rat mesenchymal stem cells. J Dent Res 82:951–956Google Scholar
  2. Almany L, Seliktar D (2005) Biosynthetic hydrogel scaffolds made from fibrinogen and polyethylene glycol for 3D cell cultures. Biomaterials 26:2467–2477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alsberg E, Kong HJ, Hirano Y, Smith MK, Albeiruti A, Mooney DJ (2003) Regulating bone formation via controlled scaffold degradation. J Dent Res 82(11):903–908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Biron M (2005) Foams, structural foams II – Physical blowing agents, Foam property overview. SpecialChem Polymer Additives and Colours article, Oct 3, 2005Google Scholar
  5. Buckley CT, O’Kelly KU (2004) Regular scaffold fabrication techniques for investigations in tissue engineering. In: P. J. Prendergast and P. E. McHugh (eds.) Topics in Bio-Mechanical Engineering. Dublin and Galway: Trinity Centre for Bioengineering & National Centre for Biomedical Engineering Science, Chapter 5, 147–166Google Scholar
  6. Cima LG, Vacanti JP, Vacanti C, Ingber D, Mooney D, Langer R (1991) Tissue engineering by cell transplantation using degradable polymer substrates. J. Biomech. Eng. 113(2):143–151Google Scholar
  7. Dagalakis N, Flink J, Stasikelis P, Burke JF, Yannas IV (1980) Design of an artificial skin. Part III. Control of pore structure. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 14(4):511–528Google Scholar
  8. Doillon CJ, Whyne CF, Brandwein S, Silver FH (1986) Collagen-based wound dressings: control of the pore structure and morphology. J. Biomed. Res. 20(8):1219–1228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Draghi L, Resta S, Pirozzolo MG, Tanzi MC (2005) Microspheres leaching for scaffold porosity. J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. In Med. 16:1093–1097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Freed LE, Marquis JC, Nohria A, Emmanual J, Mikos AG, Langer R (1993) Neocartilage formation in vitro and in vivo using cells cultured on synthetic biodegradable polymers. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 27:11–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Glicklis R, Shaprio L, Agbaria R, Merchuk JC, Cohen S (2000) Hepatocyte behaviour within three-dimensional porous alginate scaffolds. Biotechno. Bioeng. 67(3):344–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Goldstein AS, Zhu G, Morris GE, Meszlenyi RK, Mikos AG (1999) Effect of Osteoblastic Culture conditions on the structure of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) foam scaffolds. Tissue Engineering 5:421–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gulsen D, Chauhan A (2004) Ophthalmic drug delivery through contact lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 45:2342–2347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Halstenberg S, Panitch A, Rizzi S, Hall H, Hubbell JA (2002) Biologically engineered protein-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels: a cell adhesive and plasmin-degradable biosynthetic material for tissue repair. Biomacromolecules 3:710–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Harris LD, Kim B, Mooney DJ (1998) Open pore biodegradable matrices formed with gas foaming. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 42(3):396–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hou Q, Grijpma DW, Feijen J (2003) Porous polymeric structures for tissue engineering prepared by a coagulation, compression moulding and salt leaching technique. Biomaterials 24: 937–1947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ishaug-Riley SL, Crane-Kruger GM, Yaszemski MJ, Mikos AG (1998) Three-dimensional culture of rat calvarial osteoblasts in porous biodegradable polymers. Biomaterials 19:1405–1412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ishaug SL, Crane GM, Miller MJ, Yasko AW, Yaszemski MJ, Mikos AG (1997) Bone formation by three-dimensional stromal osteoblast culture in biodegradable polymer scaffolds. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 36:17–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kim H, Kim HW, Suh H (2003) Sustained release of ascorbate-2-phosphate and dexamethasone from porous PLGA scaffolds for bone tissue engineering using mesenchymal stem cells. Biomaterials 24(25):4671–4679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kim SS, Sun Park M, Jeon O, Yong Choi C, Kim BS (2006) Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/ hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Biomaterials 27(8):1399–1409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kisiday J, Jin M, Kurz B, Hung H, Semino C, Zhang S, Grodzinsky AJ (2002) Self-assembling peptide hydrogel fosters chondrocyte extracellular matrix production and cell division: implications for cartilage tissue repair. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99(15):9996–10001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lee WK, Ichi T, Ooya T, Yamamoto T, Katoh M, Yui N (2003) Novel poly(ethylene glycol) scaffolds crosslinked by hydrolysable polyrotaxane for cartilage tissue engineering. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. – Part A 67(4):1087–1092CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lips PAM, Velthoen IW, Dijkstra PJ, Wessling M, Feijen J (2005) Gas foaming of segmented poly(ester amide) films. Polymer 46(22):9396–9403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Liu L, Fishman ML, Hicks KB, Kende M, Ruthel G (2006) Pectin/zein beads for potential colon-specific drug delivery: synthesis and in vitro evaluation. Drug Deliv 13:417–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lo H, Kadiyala S, Guggino SE, Leong KW (1996) Poly(L-lactic acid) foams with cell seeding and controlled-release capacity. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 30:475–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lo H, Ponticiello MS, Leong KW (1995) Fabrication of controlled release biodegradable foams by phase separation. Tissue Engineering 1:15–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lutolf MP, Weber FE, Schmoekel HG, Schense JC, Kohler T, Muller R, Hubbell JA (2003) Repair of bone defects using synthetic mimetics of collagenous extracellular matrices. Nat Biotechnol 21:513–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Madihally SV, Matthew HW (1999) Porous chitosan scaffolds for tissue engineering. Biomaterils 20(12):1133–1142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. McGlohorn JB, Holder WD Jr, Grimes LW, Thomas CB, Burg KJ (2004) Evaluation of smooth muscle response using two types of porous polylactide scaffolds with differing pore topography. Tissue Eng. 10(3-4):505–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mikos AG, Thorsen AJ, Czerwonka LA, Bao Y, Langer R, Winslow DN, Vacanti JP (1994) Preparation and characterization of poly(L-lactic acid) foams. Polymer 35: 1068–1077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mikos AG, Bao Y, Cima LG, Ingber DE, Vacanti JP, Langer R (1993a) Preparation of Poly(glycolic acid) bonded fiber structures for cell attachment and transplantation. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 27:183–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mikos AG, Sarakinos G, Leite SM, Vacanti JP, Langer R (1993b) Laminated three-dimensional biodegradable foams for use in tissue engineering. Biomaterials 14:323–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mikos A.G, Sarakinos G, Lyman MD, Ingber DE, Vacanti JP, Langer R (1993c) Prevascularization of porous biodegradable polymers. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 42:716–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mikos AG, Temenoff JS (2000) Formation of highly porous biodegradable scaffolds for tissue engineering. Elec. J. Biotech. 3(2):114–119Google Scholar
  35. Miyata T, Sode T, Rubin AL, Stenzel KH (1971) Effects of ultraviolet irradiation on native and telopeptide-poor collagen. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 229(3):672–680Google Scholar
  36. Miyata T, Arai M, Sakumoto A, Washino M (1980) Effect of 60Co gamma-ray irradiation on dilute acqeous solution of phthalate. Radioisotopes 28(8):479–484Google Scholar
  37. Montjovent MO, Mathieu L, Hinz B, Applegate LL, Bourban PE, Zambelli PY, Manson JA, Pioletti DP (2005) Biocompatibility of bioresorbabale poly(L-lactic acid) composite scaffolds obtained by superficial gas foaming with human fetal bone cells. Tissue Eng. 11(11-12): 1640–1649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mooney DJ, Mazzoni CL, Breuer C, McNamara K, Hern D, Vacanti JP (1996) Stabilized polyglycolic acid fibre-based tubes for tissue engineering. Biomaterials 17:115–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nam YS, Yoon JJ, Park TG (2000) A novel fabrication method of macroporous biodegradable polymer scaffolds using gas foaming salt as a porogen additive. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research (Applied Biomaterials) 53:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Nam YS, Park TG (1999a) Biodegradable polymeric microcellular foams by modified thermally induced phase separation method. Biomaterials 20:1783–1790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nam YS, Park TG (1999b) Porous biodegradable polymeric scaffolds prepared by thermally induced phase separation. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 47:8–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nerem RM (2006) Tissue engineering: the hope, the hype, and the future. Tissue Eng 12: 1143–1150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Olde Damink LH, Dijkstra PJ, Van Luyn MJ, Van Wachem PB, Nieuwenhuis P, Feijen J (1995) Changes in mechanical properties of dermal sheep collagen during in vitro degradation. J Biomed. Mater. Res. 29(2):139–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ratner BD, Bryant SJ (2004) Biomaterials: where we have been and where we are going. Annu Rev Biomed Eng 6:41–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rosso F, Marino G, Giordano A, Barbarisi M, Parmeggiani D, Barbarisi A (2005) Smart materials as scaffolds for tissue engineering. J Cell Physiol 203:465–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ruijgrok JM, De Wijn JR, Boon ME (1994) Optimizing glutaraldehyde crosslinking of collagen: Effects of time, temperature and concentration as measured by shrinkage temperature. J Mater. Sci.: Mater. In Med. 5(2):80–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sachlos E, Czernuszka JT (2003) Making tissue engineering scaffolds work. Review of the application of solid freeform fabrication technology to the production of tissue engineering scaffolds. European Cells and Mater. 5:29–40Google Scholar
  48. Schoof H, Bruns L, Fischer A, Heschel I, Rau G (2000) Dendritic ice morphology in unidirectionally solidified collagen suspensions. J Crystal Growth 209:122–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Schoof H, Apel J, Heschel I, Rau G (2001) Control of pore structure and size in freeze-dried collagen sponges. J Biomed. Mater. Res. 58(4):352–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Schugens C, Maquet V, Grandfils C, Jerome R, Teyssie P (1996) Polylactide macroporous biodegradable implants for cell transplantation II. Preparation of polylactide foams for liquid-liquid phase separation. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 30: 449–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Shastri VP, Martin I, Langer R (2000) Macroporous polymer foams by hydrocarbon templating. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 97:1970–1975Google Scholar
  52. Sperling LH (1992) Introduction to physical polymer science. In: John Wiley and Sons (eds), 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  53. Temenoff JS, Athanasiou KA, LeBaron RG, Mikos AG (2002) Effect of poly(ethylene glycol) molecular weight on tensile and swelling properties of oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) hydrogels for cartilage tissue engineering. J Biomed Mater Res 59:429–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Thomson RC, Yaszemski MJ, Powers JM, Mikos AG (1995a) Hydroxyapatite fiber reinforced poly(a-hydroxy ester) foams for bone regeneration. Biomaterials 19:1935–1943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Thomson RC, Wake MC, Yaszemski MJ, Mikos AG (1995b) Biodegradable polymer scaffolds to regenerate organs. Advances in Polymer Science 122:245–274Google Scholar
  56. Thompson JI, Czernuszka JT (1995) The effect of two types of cross-linking on some mechanical properties of collagen. Biomed. Mater. Eng. 5(1):37–48Google Scholar
  57. Vacanti JP, Morse MA, Saltzman WM, Domb AJ, Perez-Atayde A, Langer R (1988) Selective cell transplantation using bioabsorbable artificial polymers as matrices. J Pediatr Surg 23:3–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Weadock K, Olson RM, Silver FH (1983-84) Evaluation of collagen crosslinking techniques. Biomater. Med. Devices Artif. Organs 11(4):293–318Google Scholar
  59. Whang K, Thomas CH, Healy KE, Nuber G (1995) A novel method to fabricate bioabsorbable scaffolds. Polymer 36:837–842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wu L, Zhang H, Zhang J, Ding J (2005) Fabrication of three-dimensional porous scaffolds of complicated shape for tissue engineering. I. Compression molding based on flexible-rigid combined mold. Tissue Eng. 11(7-8):1105–1114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Yang S, Leong K, Du Z, Chua C (2001) The Design of Scaffolds for Use in Tissue Engineering. Part I. Traditional Factors. Tissue Engineering 7(6):679–689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Yannas IV, Burke JF, Gordon PL, Huang C, Rubenstein RH (1980) Design of an artificial skin. II. Control of chemical composition. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 14(2):107–132Google Scholar
  63. Yoo HS, Lee EA, Yoon JJ, Park TG (2005) Hyaluronic acid modified biodegradable scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering. Biomaterials 26(14):1925–1933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ziegelaar BW, Fitton JH, Clayton AB, Platten ST, Maley MA, Chirila TV (1999) The modulation of corneal keratocyte and epithelial cell responses to poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) hydrogel surfaces: phosphorylation decreases collagenase production in vitro. Biomaterials 20:1979–1988CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Y. S. Morsi
    • 1
  • C. S. Wong
  • S. S. Patel
  1. 1.Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Group, FETS, Swinburne University of TechnologyHawthornAustralia

Personalised recommendations