Advertisement

Pulmonary Vascular Disease

  • Steve D. Groshong
  • Joseph F. TomashefskiJr.
  • Carlyne D. Cool

Abstract

The pulmonary vasculature is an anatomic compartment that is frequently overlooked in the histologic review of lung biopsy samples, other than those obtained specifically to assess pulmonary vascular disease.1 Though often of a nonspecific nature, the histologic pattern of vascular remodeling may at times suggest its underlying pathogenesis and provide clues to the cause of pulmonary hypertension.2 Disproportionately severe vascular pathology may further indicate alternate disease processes, such as congestive heart failure or thromboemboli, contributing to the patient’s overall respiratory condition.

Keywords

Pulmonary Artery Pulmonary Hypertension Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Bronchial Artery Primary Pulmonary Hypertension 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Wagenvoort CA. Lung biopsy specimens in the evaluation of pulmonary vascular disease. Chest 1980;77:614–625.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wagenvoort CA. Classifying pulmonary vascular disease. Chest 1973;64:503–504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Newman JH. Pulmonary hypertension. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2005;172:1072–1077.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Heath D, Edwards JE. The pathology of hypertensive pulmonary vascular disease. A description of six grades of structural changes in the pulmonary arteries with special reference to congenital cardiac septal defects. Circulation 1958;18:533–547.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Simonneau G, Galie NL, Rubin J, et al. Third World Symposium on Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Venice (June 23–25, 2003). Clinical classification of pulmonary hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;43:5S–12S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Larsen WJ. Human embryology, 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone, 2001:201–204.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tomashefski JF Jr, Richmond B. Lung development. In: Carlo WA, Chatburn RL, eds. Neonatal respiratory care, 2nd ed. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers, 1988:1–39.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rossi RN, Hislop A, Anderson RH, et al. Systemic-to-pulmonary blood supply in tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia. Cardiol Young 2002;12:373–388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Larsen WJ. Human embryology, 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone, 2001:167–169.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Boyden EA. The developing bronchial arteries in a fetus of the twelfth week. Am J Anat 1970;129:357–368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hislop A, Reid L. Growth and development of the respiratory system—anatomical development. In: Davis JA, Dobbing J, eds. Scientific foundations of paediatrics, 2nd ed. London: Wm. Heinemann Medical Books, 1981:214–254.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wagenvoort CA, Wagenvoort N. Pulmonary hypertension in congenital malformation of pulmonary vessels. In: Wagenvoort CA, Wagenvoort N, eds. Wagenvoort CA, Wagenvoort N, eds. Pathology of pulmonary hypertension. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1977:291–310.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pool PE, Vogel JHK, Blount SG. Congenital unilateral absence of a pulmonary artery. The importance of flow in pulmonary hypertension. Am J Cardiol 1962;10:796–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bahler RC, Carson P, Traks E, et al. Absent right pulmonary artery. Am J Med 1969;46:64–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kochiadekis GE, Chrysostomakis SI, Igoumenidis NE, et al. Anomalous collateral from the coronary artery to the affected lung in a case of congential absence of the left pulmonary artery. Effect on coronary circulation. Chest 2002;121:2063–2066.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Moser KM, Olson LK, Schlusselbert M, et al. Chronic thromboembolic occlusion in the adult can mimic pulmonary artery agenesis. Chest 1989;95:503–508.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tabakin BS, Hanson JS, Adhikari PK, et al. Physiologic studies in congenital absence of the left main pulmonary artery. Circulation 1960;22:1107–1111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ko T, Gatz MG, Reisz GR. Congenital unilateral absence of a pulmonary artery: a report of two adult cases. Am Rev Respir Dis 1990;141:795–798.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Madoff IM, Gaensler EA, Strieder JW. Congenital absence of the right pulmonary artery. N Engl J Med 1952;247:149–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Subramanian R, Virmani R. Pathology of the pulmonary circulation before and after correction of low flow states. In: Saldana MJ, ed. Pathology of pulmonary disease. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1994:261–271.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wagenvoort CA, Nauta J, van der Scaar PJ, et al. Vascular changes in pulmonic stenosis and tetralogy of Fallot studied in lung biopsies. Circulation 1967;36:924–932.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wagenvoort CA, Edwards JE. The pulmonary arterial tree in pulmonic atresia. Arch Pathol 1961;71:646–653.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rich AR. A hitherto unrecognized tendency to the development of widespread pulmonary vascular obstruction in patients with congenital pulmonary stenosis (tetralogy of Fallot). Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp 1948;82:389–402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Heath D, DuShane JW, Wood EH, et al. The aetiology of pulmonary thrombosis in cyanotic congenital heart disease with pulmonary stenosis. Thorax 1958;12:213–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hales MR, Liebow AA. Collateral circulation to the lungs in congenital pulmonic stenosis. Bull Int Assoc Med Museums 1948;28:1–22.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wagenvoort CA, Wagenvoort N. Postoperative pulmonary hypertension in tetralogy of Fallot. In: Wagenvoort CA, Wagenvoort N, eds. Pathology of pulmonary hypertension. Philadelphia: John Wiley & Sons, 1977:311–322.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wagenvoort CA. Medial defects of lung vessels: a new cause of pulmonary hypertension. Hum Pathol 1986;17:722–726.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wagenvoort CA. Misalignment of lung vessels: a syndrome causing persistent neonatal pulmonary hypertension. Hum Pathol 1986;17:727–730.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Parker TA, Ivy DD, Kinsella JP, et al. Combined therapy with inhaled nitric oxide and intravenous prostacyclin in an infant with alveolar-capillary dysplasia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997;155:743–746.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Janney CG, Askin FB, Kuhn C III. Congenital alveolar capillary dysplasia—an unusual cause of respiratory distress in the newborn. Am J Clin Pathol 1981;76:722–727.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cater G, Thibeault DW, Beatty EC Jr, et al. Misalignment of lung vessels and alveolar capillary dysplasia: a cause of persistent pulmonary hypertension. J Pediatr 1989;114:293–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Khorsand J, Tennant R, Gillies C, et al. Congenital alveolar capillary dysplasia: a developmental vascular anomaly causing persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. Pediatr Pathol 1985;3:299–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cullinane C, Cox PN, Silver MM. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn due to alveolar capillary dysplasia. Pediatr Pathol 1992;12:499–514.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rabinovitch M, Haworth SG, Vance Z, et al. Early pulmonary vascular changes in congenital heart disease studied in biopsy tissue. Hum Pathol 1980;11:499–509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wagenvort CA, Wagenvoort N. Normal pulmonary and bronchial vasculature. In: Wagenvoort CA, Wagenvoort N, eds. Pathology of pulmonary hypertension. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1977:17–55.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wagenvoort CA, Wagenvoort N. Pulmonary hypertension in left to right cardiac shunts. In: Wagenvoort CA, Wagenvoort N, eds. Pathology of pulmonary hypertension. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1977:56–94.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hatano S, Strasser T. Primary pulmonary hypertension. Report of a W.H.O. Meeting, Geneva, 1975, 1–46, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Drut R. Pulmonary hypertension in congenital heart disease. In: Saldana MJ, ed. Pathology of pulmonary disease. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1994:217–223.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Virmani R, Roberts WC. Pulmonary arteries in congential heart disease: A structure-function analysis. In: Roberts WC, ed. Adult congenital heart disease. Philadelphia: FA Davis, 1987:455–499.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wagenvoort CA, DuShane JW, Edwards JE. Hypertensive pulmonary arterial lesions as a late result of anastomosis of systemic and pulmonary circulations. Mayo Clin Proc 1960;35:186–191.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hofschire PJ, Rosenquist GC, Ruckerman RN, et al. Pulmonary vascular disease complicating the Blalock-Taussig anastomosis. Circulation 1977;56:124–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Newfeld EA, Waldman JD, Paul MH, et al. Pulmonary vascular disease after systemic pulmonary arterial shunt operations. Am J Cardiol 1977;39:715–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rich S, Rubin LJ, Abenhail L, et al. Executive summary from the World Symposium on primary pulmonary hypertension (Evian, France, September 6–10, 1998). World Health Organization publication. http://www.who.int/cardiovascular_diseases/resources/publications/en.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Simonneau G, Galie NL, Rubin J, et al. Third World Symposium on Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Venice (June 23–25, 2003). Clinical classification of pulmonary hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;43:4S–12S.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Zaiman A, Fijalkowska I, Hassoun PM, et al. One hundred years of research in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2005;33:425–431.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rubin LJ. American College of Chest Physicians Consensus Statement. Chest 1993;104:236–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Macnee W. Pathophysiology of cor pulmonale in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Part One. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994;150:833–852.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    World Health Organization. Chronic cor pulmonale. A report of the expert committee. Circulation 1963;27:594–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Fulton RM, Hutchinson EC, Jones AM. Ventricular weight in cardiac hypertrophy. Br Heart J 1952;14:413–420.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Rich S, Dantzker DR, Ayres SM, et al. Primary pulmonary hypertension: a national prospective study. Ann Intern Med 1987;107:216–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Widlitz A, Barst RJ. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. Eur Respir J 2003;21:155–176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Greenwood RD, Nadas AS. The clinical course of cardiac disease in Down’s syndrome. Pediatrics 1976;58:893–897.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Chi TPL, Krovetz LJ. The pulmonary vascular bed in children with Down’s syndrome. J Pediatr 1975;86:533–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Yamaki S, Horiuchi T, Takahashi T. Pulmonary changes in congenital heart disease with Down’s syndrome: their significance as a cause of postoperative respiratory failure. Thorax 1985;40:380–386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Cool CD, Pradeep RR, Yeager ME, et al. Expression of human herpes virus 8 in primary pulmonary hypertension. N Engl J Med 2003;349:1113–1122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Klaes R, Friedrich T, Spitkovsky D, et al. Overexpression of pl6(INK4A) as a specific marker for dysplastic and neoplastic epithelial cells of the cervix uteri. Int J Cancer 2001;92:276–284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Sgonc R, Gruschwitz MS, Dietrich H, et al. Endothelial cell apoptosis is a primary pathogenetic event underlying skin lesions in avian and human scleroderma. J Clin Invest 1996;98:785–792.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Sullivan CC, Du L, Chu D, et al. Induction of pulmonary hypertension by an angiopoietin l/TIE2/serotonin pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2003;100:1231–1236.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Davie N, Haleen SJ, Upton PD, et al. ET(A) and ET(B) receptors modulate the proliferation of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002;165:398–405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Tuder RM, Cool CD, Yeager M, et al. The pathobiology of pulmonary hypertension. Endothelium. Clin Chest Med 2001;22:405–418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Geraci MW, Moore M, Gesell T, et al. Gene expression patterns in the lungs of patients with primary pulmonary hypertension: a gene microarray analysis. Circ Res 2001;88:555–562.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ameshima S, Golpon H, Cool CD, et al. Peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) expression is decreased in pulmonary hypertension and affects endothelial cell growth. Circ Res 2003;92:1162–1169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Fishman AP. Changing concepts of the pulmonary plexi-form lesion. Physiol Res 2000;49:485–492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Loyd JE, Butler MG, Foroud TM, et al. Genetic anticipation and abnormal gender ratio at birth in familial primary pulmonary hypertension. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995;152:93–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lane KB, Machado RD, Pauciulo MW, et al. Heterozygous germline mutations in a TGF-beta receptor, BMPR2, are the cause of familial primary pulmonary hypertension. Nature Genet 2000;26:81–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Thomson JR, Machado RD, Pauciulo MW, et al. Sporadic primary pulmonary hypertension is associated with germ-line mutations of the gene encoding BMPR-II, a receptor member of the TGF family. J Med Genet 2000;37:741–745.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Fagan K, Badesch DB. Pulmonary hypertension associated with connective tissue disease. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2002;45:225–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Yousem SA. The pulmonary pathologic manifestations of the CREST syndrome. Hum Pathol 1990;21:467–474.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Hoffman RW, Greidinger EL. Mixed connective tissue disease. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2000;12:386–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Pan TL, Thumboo J, Boey ML. Primary and secondary pulmonary hypertension in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus 2000;9:338–342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Hoeper MM. Pulmonary hypertension in collagen vascular disease. Eur Respir J 2002;19:571–576.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Cool CD, Kennedy D, Voekel NF, et al. Pathogenesis and evolution of plexiform lesions in pulmonary hypertension associated with scleroderma and human immunodeficiency virus infections. Hum Pathol 1997;28:434–442.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Eddahibi S, Humbert M, Sediame S, et al. Imbalance between platelet vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet derived growth factor in pulmonary hypertension. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;162:1493–1499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Voelkel NF, Hoeper M, Maloney J, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor in pulmonary hypertension. Ann NY Acad Sci 1996;796:186–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hoeper MM, Sosada M, Fabel H. Plasma coagulation profiles in patients with severe primary pulmonary hypertension. Eur Respir J 1998;12:1446–1449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Welsh CH, Hassell KL, Badesch DB, et al. Coagulation and fibrinolytic profiles in patients with severe pulmonary hypertension. Chest 1996;110:710–717.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Budhiraja R, Hassoun PM. Portopulmonary hypertension: a tale of two circulations. Chest 2003;123:562–576.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    McDonnell PJ, Toye PA, Hutchins GM. Primary pulmonary hypertension and cirrhosis: are they related? Am Rev Respir Dis 1983;127:437–441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hadengue A, Benhayoun MK, Lebrec D, et al. Pulmonary hypertension complicating portal hypertension: prevalence and relation to splanchnic hemodynamics. Gastroenterology 1991;100:520–528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kuddus RH, Nalesnik MA, Subbotin VM, et al. Enhanced synthesis and reduced metabolism of endothelin-1 (ET-1) by hepatocytes—an important mechanism of increased endogenous levels of ET-1 in liver cirrhosis. J Hepatol 2000;33:725–732.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Gandhi CR, Kang Y, De Wolf A, et al. Altered endothelin homeostasis in patients undergoing liver transplantation. Liver Transplant Surg 1996;2:362–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Speich R, Jenni R, Opravil M, et al. Primary pulmonary hypertension in HIV infection. Chest 1991;100:1268–1271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Mesa RA, Edell ES, Dunn WF, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and pulmonary hypertension: two new cases and a review of 86 reported cases. Mayo Clin Proc 1998;73:37–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Pellicelli AM, Barbaro G, Palmieri F, et al. Primary pulmonary hypertension in HIV patients: a systematic review. Angiology 2001;52:31–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Mette SA, Palevsky Hi, Pietra GG, et al. Primary pulmonary hypertension in association with human immunodeficiency virus infection: a possible viral etiology for some forms of pulmonary arteriopathy. Am Rev Respir Dis 1992;145:1196–1200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Humbert M, Monti G, Fartoukh M, et al. Platelet derived growth factor expression in primary pulmonary hypertension: comparison of HIV seropositive and HIV seronegative patients. Eur Respir J 1998;11:554–559.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Ehrenreich H, Riechmann P, Sinowatz F, et al. Potent stimulation of monocyte endothelin-1 production by HIV-1 glycoprotein. J Immunol 1993;150:4601–4609.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Giaid A, Yanagisawa M, Langleben D. Expression of endothelin-1 in lungs of patients with pulmonary hypertension. N Engl J Med 1993;328:1732–1739.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Morse JH, Barst RJ, Itescu S, et al. Primary pulmonary hypertension in HIV infection. An outcome determined by particular HLA class II alleles. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996;153:1299–1301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Connolly HM, Crary JL, McGoon MD, et al. Valvular heart disease associated with fenfluramine-phentermine. N Engl J Med 1997;337:581–588PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Fishman AP Aminorex to fen/phen. An epidemic foretold. Circulation 1999;99:156–161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Mark EJ, Patalas ED, Chang HT, et al. Fatal pulmonary hypertension associated with short-term use of fenfluramine and phentermine. N Engl J Med 1997;337:602–606.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Tomita T, Zhao Q. Autopsy findings of heart and lungs in a patient with primary pulmonary hypertension associated with use of fenfluramine and phentermine. Chest 2002;121:649–652.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Strother J, Fedullo P, Yi ES, et al. Complex vascular lesions at autopsy in a patient with phentermine-fenfluramine use and rapidly progressing pulmonary hypertension. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1999;123:539–540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Rothman RB, Ayestas MA, Dersch CM, et al. Fenfluramine and chlorphentermine are serotonin transporter substrates. Implications for primary pulmonary hypertension. Circulation 1999;100:869–875.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Eddahibi S, Humbert M, Fadel E, et al. Hyperplasia of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells is causally related to overexpression of the serotonin transporter in primary pulmonary hypertension. Chest 2002;121(suppl):97S–98S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Kay JM, Smith P, Heath D. Aminorex and the pulmonary circulation. Thorax 1971;26:262–270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Gurtner HP. Aminorex and pulmonary hypertension: a review. Cor Vasa 1985:27;160–171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kramer MS, Lane DA. Aminorex, Dexfenfluramine and primary pulmonary hypertension. J Clin Epidemiol 1998:51;361–364.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Sanchez-Porro VP, Posada de la Paz M, de Andres CP, et al. Toxic oil syndrome: survival in the whole cohort between 1981 and 1995. J Clin Epidemiol 2003;56:701–708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Gomez-Sanchez MA, Saenz de la Calzada C, Gomez-Pajuelo C, et al. Clinical and pathologic manifestations of pulmonary vascular disease in the toxic oil syndrome. J Am Coll Cardiol 1991;18:1539–1545.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Garcia-Dorado D, Miller DD, Garcia EJ, et al. An epidemic of pulmonary hypertension after toxic rapeseed oil ingestion in Spain. J Am Coll Cardiol 1983;10:1216–1222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Murray R, Smialek J, Golle M, et al. Pulmonary artery medial hypertrophy in cocaine users without foreign particle microembolization. Chest 1989;96:1050–1053.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Schaiberger P, Kennedy T, Miller F, et al. Pulmonary hypertension associated with long-term inhalation of ‘crank’ methamphetamine. Chest 1993;104:614–616.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Robertson C, Reynolds R, Wilson J. Pulmonary hypertension and foreign body granulomas in intravenous drug users. Am J Med 1976;61:657–664.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Shannon M. Clinical toxicity of cocaine adulterants. Ann Emerg Med 1988;17:1243–1247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Katz A, Hoffman R, Silverman R. Phenytoin toxicity from smoking crack cocaine adulterated with phenytoin. Ann Emerg Med 1993;22:1485–1487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Murray R, Smialek J, Golle M, et al. Pulmonary vascular abnormalities in cocaine users. Am Rev Respir Dis (Suppl) 1988;137:459.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Yakovlevitch M, Siegal M, Hoch DH, et al. Pulmonary hypertension in a patient with tryptophan-induced eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome. Am J Med 1991;90:272–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Tazelaar HD, Myers JL, Drage CW, et al. Pulmonary disease associated with L-tryptophan-induced eosinophilic myalgia syndrome. Clinical and pathologic features. Chest 1990;97:1032–1036.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Catton CK, Elmer JC, Whitehouse AC, et al. Pulmonary involvement in the eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome. Chest 1991;99:327–329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Kernan WN, Viscoli CM, Brass LM, et al. Phenylpropanolamine and the risk of hemorrhagic stroke. N Engl J Med 2000;343:1826–1832.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Barst RJ, Abenhaim L. Fatal pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with phenylpropanolamine exposure. Heart 2004;90:e42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Wagenvoort CA, Wagenvoort N. Wagenvoort CA, Wagenvoort N, eds. Pathology of pulmonary hypertension. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1977:21–23.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Heath D, Wood EH, DuShane JW, et al. The structure of the pulmonary trunk at different ages and in cases of pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary stenosis. J Pathol Bacteriol 1959;77:443–456.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Saldana M, Arias-Stella J. Studies on the structure of the pulmonary trunk. I. Normal changes in the elastic configuration of the human pulmonary trunk at different ages. Circulation 1963;27:1086–1093.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Oppenheimer EG, Esterly JR. Medial mucoid lesions of the pulmonary artery in cystic fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, and other disorders. Lab Invest 1974;30:411–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Heath D, Wood EG, DuShane JW, et al. The relation of age and blood pressure to atheroma in the pulmonary arteries and thoracic aorta in congenital heart disease. Lab Invest 1960;9:259–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Moore GW, Smith RRL, Hutchins GM. Pulmonary artery atherosclerosis. Correlation with systemic atherosclerosis and hypertensive pulmonary vascular disease. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1982;106:378–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Vanek J. Fibrous bands and networks of postembolic origin in the pulmonary arteries. J Pathol Bacteriol 1961;81:537–539.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Wagenvoort CA, Wagenvoort N. Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. In: Wagenvoort CA, Wagenvoort N, eds. Pathology of pulmonary hypertension. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1977:232–259.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Wagenvoort CA, Mooi WJ. Biopsy pathology of the pulmonary vasculature. London: Chapman and Hall, 1989.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Cool CD, Stewart JS, Werahera P, et al. Three-dimensional reconstruction of pulmonary arteries in plexiform pulmonary hypertension using cell-specific markers. Evidence for a dynamic and heterogeneous process of pulmonary endothelial cell growth. Am J Pathol 1999;155:411–419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    D’Alonzo GE, Barst RJ, Ayres SM, et al. Survival in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. Results from a national prospective registry. Ann Intern Med 1991;115:343–349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Rubin LJ. Primary pulmonary hypertension. N Engl J Med 1997;336:111–117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Rich S, Kaufmann E, Levy PS. The effect of high doses of calcium-channel blockers on survival in primary pulmonary hypertension. N Engl J Med 1992;327:76–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Barst RJ, Rubin LJ, Long WA, et al. A comparison of continuous intravenous epoprostenol (prostacyclin) with conventional therapy for primary pulmonary hypertension. The Primary Pulmonary Hypertension Study Group. N Engl J Med 1996;334:296–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Annual report of the U. S. scientific registry of transplant recipients and the organ procurement and transplantation network. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, Bureau of Health Resources Development, Division of Transplantation, 1997:186.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Mariette X, Brenot F, Brouet JC. Recovery from pulmonary hypertension with steroid therapy in a patient with Sjogren’s syndrome and polymyositis. J Rheumatol 1994;21:772–773.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Speich R, Jenni R, Opravil M, Jaccard R. Regression of HIV-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension and long-term survival during antiretroviral therapy. Swiss Med Wkly 2001;131:663–665.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Pellicelli AM, Palmieri F, D’Ambrosio C, et al. Role of human immunodeficiency virus in primary pulmonary hypertension-case reports. Angiology 1998;49:1005–1011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Deterling RA Jr, Clagett OT. Aneurysm of the pulmonary artery: review of the literature and report of a case. Am Heart J 1947;34:471–498.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Bartter T, Irwin RS, Nash G. Aneurysms of the pulmonary arteries. Chest 1988;94:1065–1075.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Charlton RW, DePlessis LA. Multiple pulmonary artery aneurysms. Thorax 1961;16:364–371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Goh TH. Mycotic aneurysm of the pulmonary artery: a report of 2 cases. Br Heart J 1974;36:387–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Butto F, Lucas RV, Edwards JE. Pulmonary arterial aneurysms. A pathological study of five cases. Chest 1987;91:237–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Epstein S, Naji AF. Pulmonary artery aneurysm with dissection after Blalock operation for tetralogy of Fallot. Am J Cardiol 1960;5:560–563.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Navarro C, Dickenson PC, Kondlapoodi P, et al. Mycotic aneurysms of the pulmonary arteries in intravenous drug addicts: report of three cases and review of the literature. Am J Med 1984;76:1124–1131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Barbour DJ, Roberts WC. Aneurysm of the pulmonary trunk unassociated with intracardiac or great vessel left-to-right shunting. Am J Cardiol 1987;59:192–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Steurer J, Jenni R, Medici TC, et al. Dissecting aneurysm of the pulmonary artery with pulmonary hypertension. Am Rev Respir Dis 1990;142:1219–1221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Boyd LJ, McGavack TH. Aneurysm of the pulmonary artery: a review of the literature and report of 2 new cases. Am Heart J 1939;18:562–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Shull WK, Kapadia SB, Zuberbuhler JR. Aneurysm of the main pulmonary artery. Association with patent ductus arteriosus and ostium secundum defect. Am J Dis Child 1970;119:507–509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    D’Aunoy R, von Haam E. Aneurysm of the pulmonary artery with patent ductus arteriosus (Botallo’s duct). Report of two cases and review of the literature. J Pathol 1938;38:39–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Nguyen GK, Dowling GP. Dissecting aneurysm of the pulmonary trunk. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1989;113:1178–1180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Natelson EA, Watts HD. Cystic medionecrosis of the pulmonary arteries. Chest 1970;57:333–335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Tung H-L, Liebow AA. Marfan’s syndrome: observations at necropsy with special reference to medionecrosis of the great vessels. Lab Invest 1952;1:382–406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Dennison AR, Watkins RM, Bunning AJ. Simultaneous aortic and pulmonary artery aneurysms due to giant cell arteritis. Thorax 1985;40:156–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Durieux P, Bletry O, Huchon, et al. Multiple pulmonary artery aneurysms in Behcet’s disease and Hughes-Stovin syndrome. Am J Med 1981;71:736–741.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Aroussi AA, Redai M, El Ouardi F, et al. Bilateral pulmonary artery aneurysm in Behcet syndrome: report of two operative cases. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2005;129:1170–1171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Hughes JP, Stovin PGI. Segmental pulmonary artery aneurysms with peripheral venous thrombosis. Br J Dis Chest 1959;53:19–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Frater RWM, Beck W, Schruke V. The syndrome of pulmonary artery aneurysms, pulmonary artery thrombi, and peripheral venous thrombi. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1965;49:330–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Erkan D, Yazici Y, Sanders A, et al. Is Hughes-Stovin syndrome Behcet’s disease? Clin Experiment Rheumatol 2004;22:S64–S68.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Symbas PN, Scott HW. Traumatic aneurysm of the pulmonary artery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1963;45:645–649.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Saluja S, Henderson KJ, White RI Jr. Embolotherapy in the bronchial and pulmonary circulations. Radiol Clin North A 2000;38:425–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Rosenow EC III, Osmundson PJ, Brown ML. Pulmonary embolism. Mayo Clin Proc 1981;56:161–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Moser KM. Venous thromboembolism. Am Rev Respir Dis 1990;141:235–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Goldhaber SZ. Pulmonary embolism. Lancet 2004;363:1295–1305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Morpurgo M, Schmid C. The spectrum of pulmonary embolism. Chest 1995;107(suppl):18S–20S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Tomashefski JF, Zorn S. Pulmonary embolism: a new look at an old problem. Geriatrics 1973;September:78–82.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Freeman DG, Suyemoto J, Wessler S. Frequency of pulmonary thromboembolism in man. N Engl J Med 1965;272:1278–1280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Havig O. Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Acta Chirurgica Scandinavica 1977;478(suppl):24–37.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Morrell T, Dunnill MS. The post-mortem incidence of pulmonary embolism in a hospital population. Br J Surg 1968;55:347–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Rubinstein I, Murray D, Hoffstein V. Fatal pulmonary emboli in hospitalized patients. An autopsy study. Arch Intern Med 1988;148:1425–1426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Tapson VF, Carroll BA, Davison BL, et al. The diagnostic approach to acute venous thromboembolism. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;160:1043–1066.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Connors AF, Castele RJ, Farhat NZ, et al. Complications of right heart catheterization. A prospective autopsy study. Chest 1985;88:567–572.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Bell WR, Simon TL, DeMets DL. The clinical features of submassive and massive pulmonary emboli. Am J Med 1977;62:355–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Stein PD, Hull RD, Patel KC, et al. D-dimer for the exclusion of acute venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: a systematic review. Ann Intern Med 2004;140:589–602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Bockenstedt P. D-Dimer in venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med 2003;349;13:1203–1204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Wagenvoort CA. Pathology of pulmonary thromboembolism. Chest 1995;107(suppl):10S–17S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Wagenvoort CA, Wagenvoort N. Embolic pulmonary hypertension In: Wagenvoort CA, Wagenvoort N, eds. Pathology of pulmonary hypertension. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1977:143–176.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Meyer JS. Thromboembolic pulmonary arterial necrosis and arteritis in man. Arch Pathol 1960;70:63–72.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Olsen EGJ. Ischemic disease of the myocardium and its complications. In: Silver MD, ed. Cardiovascular pathology. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1983:411–112.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Korn D, Gore I, Blenke A, et al. Pulmonary arterial bands and webs: an unrecognized manifestation of organized pulmonary emboli. Am J Pathol 1962;40:129–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Irniger W. Histologische Altersbestimmung von Thrombosen und Embolien. Virchows Arch Pathol Anat 1963;220–237.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Castleman B. Healed pulmonary infarcts. Arch Pathol 1940;30:130–142.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Ellis FG, Grindlay JH, Edwards JE. The bronchial arteries. II. Their role in pulmonary embolism and infarction. Surgery 1952;31:167–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Schraufnagel DE, Tsao MS, Yao YT. Factors associated with pulmonary infarction. Am J Clin Pathol 1985;84:15–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Dalen JE, Haffajee CI, Alpert JS, et al. Pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hemorrhage and pulmonary infarction. N Engl J Med 1977;196:1431–1436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Hampton AO, Castleman B. Correlation of postmortem chest teleroentgenograms with autopsy findings. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther 1940;43:305–326.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Libby LS, King TE, Laforce FM, et al. Pulmonary cavitation following pulmonary infarction. Medicine 1985;64:342–348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Jaffe RB, Koschmann EB. Septic pulmonary emboli. Radiology 1970;96:527–532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Huang RM, Naidich DP, Lubat E, et al. Septic pulmonary emboli: CT-radiographic correlation. AJR 1989;153:41–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Redline S, Tomashefski JF, Altose MD. Cavitating lung infarction after bland pulmonary thromboembolism in patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Thorax 1985;40:915–919.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Miller JI, Harrison EG, Bernatz PE. Surgically treated unsuspected pulmonary infarction. Ann Thorac Surg 1972;14:181–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Houk VN, Hufnagel CA, McClenathan JE, et al. Chronic thrombotic obstruction of major pulmonary arteries. Report of a case successfully treated by thromboendarterectomy, and a review of the literature. Am J Med 1963;35:269–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Fedullo PD, Auger WR, Kerr KM, et al. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. N Engl J Med 2001;345:1465–1472.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Rich S, Levitsky S, Brundage BH. Pulmonary hypertension from chronic pulmonary thromboembolism. Ann Intern Med 1988;108:425–434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Williamson TL, Kim NH, Rubin LJ. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2002;45:203–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Moser KM, Houk VN, Jones RC, et al. Chronic, massive thrombotic obstruction of the pulmonary arteries. Analysis of four operated cases. Circulation 1965;32:377–385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Pengo V, Lensing AWA, Prins MH, et al. Incidence of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary embolism. N Engl J Med 2004;350:225–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Ball KP, Goodwin JF, Harrison CV. Massive thrombotic occlusion of the large pulmonary arteries. Circulation 1956;14:766–783.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Scully RE, Mark EJ, McNeely BU. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 38-1981. N Engl J Med 1981;305:685–693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Moser KM, Daily PO, Peterson K, et al. Thromboendarterectomy for chronic, major-vessel thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Ann Intern Med 1987;107:560–564.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Archibald CJ, Auger WR, Fedullo PF, et al. Long-term outcome after pulmonary thromboendarterectomy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;160:523–528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Lang IM. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension—not so rare after all. N Engl J Med 2004;350:2236–2237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Hirsch AM, Moser KM, Auger WR, et al. Unilateral pulmonary artery thrombotic occlusion: is distal arteriopathy a consequence? Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996;154:491–196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Blauwet LA, Edwards WD, Tazelaar HD, et al. Surgical pathology of pulmonary thromboendarterectomy: a study of 54 cases from 1990 to 2001. Hum Pathol 2003;34:1290–1298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Berry DF, Buccigrossi D, Peabody J, et al. Pulmonary vascular occlusion and fibrosing mediastinitis. Chest 1986;89:296–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Hicks GL Jr. Fibrosing mediastinitis. Causing pulmonary artery and vein obstruction with hemoptysis. NY State J Med 1983;242–244.Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Moser KM, Bloor CM. Pulmonary vascular lesions occurring in patients with chronic major vessel thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Chest 1993;103:685–692.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Owen WR, Thomas WA, Castleman B, et al. Unrecognized emboli to the lungs with subsequent cor pulmonale. N Engl J Med 1953;249:919–926.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Carson JL, Kelley MA, Duff A, et al. The clinical course of pulmonary embolism. N Engl J Med 1992;326:1240–1245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Paraskos JA, Adelstein SJ. Smith RE, et al. Late prognosis of acute pulmonary embolism. N Engl J Med 1973;289:55–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Piatt OS. The acute chest syndrome of sickle cell disease. N Engl J Med 2000;342:1904–1906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Minter KR, Gladwin MT. Pulmonary complications of sickle cell anemia. A need for increased recognition, treatment, and research. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;164:2016–2019.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Weil JV, Castro O, Malik AB, et al. Pathogenesis of lung disease in sickle hemoglobinopathies. Am Rev Respir Dis 1993;148:249–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Bromberg PA. Pulmonary aspects of sickle cell disease. Arch Intern Med 1974;133:652–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Barrett-Connor E. Bacterial infection and sickle cell anemia. An analysis of 250 infections in 166 patients and a review of the literature. Medicine 1971;50:97–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Barrett-Connor E. Pneumonia and pulmonary infarction in sickle cell anemia. JAMA 1973;224:997–1000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Sears DA. The morbidity of sickle cell trait. A review of the literature. Am J Med 1978;64:1021–1036.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Israel RH, Salipante JS. Pulmonary infarction in sickle cell trait. Am J Med 1979;66:867–869.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Davies SC, Winn AA, Luce PJ, et al. Acute chest syndrome in sickle-cell disease. Lancet 1984;1:36–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Vichinsky EP, Neumayr LD, Earles AN, et al. Causes and outcomes of the acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease. N Engl J Med 2000;342:1855–1865.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Shelley WM, Curtis EM. Bone marrow and fat embolism in sickle cell anemia and sickle cell-hemoglobin C disease. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp 1958;103:8–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Haynes J Jr, Allison RC. Pulmonary edema. Complication in the management of sickle cell pain crisis. Am J Med 1986;80:833–840.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Powars D, Weidman JA, Odom-Maryon T, et al. Sickle cell chronic lung disease: prior morbidity and the risk of pulmonary failure. Medicine 1983;67:66–76.Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    Collins FS, Orringer EP. Pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale in the sickle hemoglobinopathies. Am J Med 1982;73:814–821.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Gladwin MT. Sachdev V, Jison ML, et al. Pulmonary hypertension as a risk factor for death in patients with sickle cell disease. N Engl J Med 2004;350:886–895.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    CPC Conference. Sudden death in a young woman with sickle cell anemia. Am J Med 1992;92:556–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Haupt HM, Moore GW, Bauer TW, et al. The lung in sickle cell disease. Chest 1982;81:332–337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Adedeji MO, Cespedes J, Allen K. Pulmonary thrombotic arteriopathy in patients with sickle cell disease. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2001;125:1436–1442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Oppenheimer EH, Esterly JR. Pulmonary changes in sickle cell disease. Am Rev Respir Dis 1971;103:858–859.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Yung GL, Channick RN, Fedullo PF, et al. Successful pulmonary thromboendarterectomy in two patients with sickle cell disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;157:1690–1693.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Haque AK, Gokhale S, Rampy BA, et al. Pulmonary hypertension in sickle cell hemoglobinopathy: a clinicopathologic study of 20 cases. Hum Pathol 2002;33:1037–1051.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Scully RE, Mark EJ, McNeely BU, et al. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 52-1983. N Engl J Med 1983;309:1627–1636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Yater WM, Hansmann GH. Sickle-cell anemia: a new cause of cor pulmonale. Report of two cases with numerous disseminated occlusions of the small pulmonary arteries. Am J Med Sci 1936;191:474–484.Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    Scully RE, Mark EJ, McNeely WF, et al. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 34-1997. N Engl J Med 1997;337:1293–1301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Eckardt P, Raez LE, Restrepo A, et al. Pulmonary bone marrow embolism in sickle cell disease. South Med J 1999;92:245–247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Godeau B, Schaeffer A, Bachir D, et al. Bronchoalveolar lavage in adult sickle cell patients with acute chest syndrome: value for diagnostic assessment of fat embolism. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996;153:1691–1696.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Heath D, Thompson IM. Bronchopulmonary anastomoses in sickle-cell anaemia. Thorax 1969;24:232–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Hebbel RP. Blockade of adhesion of sickle cells to endothelium by monoclonal antibodies. N Engl J Med 2000;342:1910–1911.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Hammerman SI, Kourembanas S, Conca TJ. Endothelin-1 production during the acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997;156:280–285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Rossi SE, Goodman PC, Franquet T. Nonthrombotic pulmonary emboli. AJR 2000;174:1499–1508.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Havig O, Gruner OPN. Pulmonary bone marrow embolism. Acta Path Microbiol Scand 1973;81:276–280.Google Scholar
  235. 235.
    Rappaport H, Horrell RM. Bone marrow embolism. Am J Pathol 1951;27:407–435.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Pyun KS, Katzenstein RE. Widespread bone marrow embolism with myocardial involvement. Arch Pathol 1979;89:378–381.Google Scholar
  237. 237.
    McCarty PJ, Shmookler BM, Pierce LE. Fatal bone marrow pulmonary emboli in multiple myeloma. Ann Intern Med 1977;86:317–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Yanoff M. Incidence of bone marrow embolism due to closed-chest cardiac massage. N Engl J Med 1963;269:837–839.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Garvey JW, Zak FG. Pulmonary bone marrow emboli in patients receiving external cardiac massage. JAMA 1964;187:59–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Abrahams C, Catchatourian R. Bone fragment emboli in the lungs of patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation. Am J Clin Pathol 1983;79:360–363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Sharnoff JG, Kim ES. Evaluation of pulmonary megakaryocytes. Arch Pathol 1958;66:176–182.Google Scholar
  242. 242.
    Wells S. Sissons M, Hasleton PS. Quantitation of pulmonary megakaryocytes and fibrin thrombi from patients dying from burns. Histopathology 1984;8:517–527.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Straus R. Pulmonary emboli caused by liver tissue. Arch Pathol 1942;33:69–71.Google Scholar
  244. 244.
    Lie JT. Myocardium as emboli in the systemic and pulmonary circulation. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1997;111:261–264.Google Scholar
  245. 245.
    Tackett LB. Brain tissue pulmonary emboli. Arch Pathol 1964;78:292–294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    McMillan JB. Emboli of cerebral tissue in the lungs following severe head injury. Am J Pathol 1956;32:405–415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Levine SB. Embolism of cerebral tissue to lungs. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1973;96:183–185.Google Scholar
  248. 248.
    Oppenheimer EH. Massive pulmonary embolization by cerebral cortical tissue. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp 1954;94:86–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Andrew JH. Pulmonary skin embolism: a case report. Pathology 1976;8:185–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Bassiri AG, Haghighi B, Doyle RL, et al. Pulmonary tumor embolism. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997;155:2089–2095.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Soares FA, Landell GAM, de Oliveira JAM. Pulmonary tumor embolism to alveolar septal capillaries. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1991;115:127–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Kane RD, Hawkins HK, Miller JA. Microscopic pulmonary tumor emboli associated with dyspnea. Cancer 1975;36:1473–1482.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    von Herbay A, Hies A, Waldherr R, et al. Pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy with pulmonary hypertension. Cancer 1990;66:587–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Saphir O. The fate of carcinoma emboli in the lung. Am J Pathol 1946;23:245–253.Google Scholar
  255. 255.
    Iwasaki T. Histological and experimental observations on the destruction of tumour cells in the blood vessels. J Pathol 1915;20:85–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Harris NL, McNeely WF, Shepard JAO, et al. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 13-2002. N Engl J Med 2002;346:1309–1318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Yao DX, Flieder DB, Hoda SA. Pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2001;125:304–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Schriner RW, Ryu JH, Edwards WD. Microscopic pulmonary tumor embolism causing subacute cor pulmonale: a difficult antemortem diagnosis. Mayo Clin Proc 1991;66:143–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Brill IC, Robertson TD. Subacute cor pulmonale. Arch Intern Med 1937;60:1043–1057.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Winterbauer RH, Elfenbein IB, Ball WC. Incidence and clinical significance of tumor embolization to the lungs. Am J Med 1968;45:271–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Gonzalez A, Altieri PI, Marquez E, et al. Massive pulmonary embolism associated with a right ventricular myxoma. Am J Med 1980;69:795–798.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Scully RE. Fat embolism in Korean battle casualties: its incidence, clinical significance and pathologic aspects. Am J Pathol 1956;32:379–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Sevitt S. The significance and classification of fat embolism. Lancet 1960;2:825–828.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Chan KM, Tham KT, Chiu HS, et al. Posttraumatic fat embolism. Its clinical and subclinical presentations. J Trauma 1984;24:45–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Liban E, Raz S. A clinicopathologic study of fourteen cases of amniotic fluid embolism. Am J Clin Pathol 1969;51:477–486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Attwood HD. Amniotic fluid embolism. Pathol Annu 1972;7:145–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Attwood HD, Park WW. Embolism to the lungs by trophoblast. J Obstet Gynecol 1961;68:611–617.Google Scholar
  268. 268.
    Roffman BY, Simons M. Syncytial trophoblastic embolism associated with placenta increta and preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1969;104:1218–1219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Trotter RF, Tieche HL. Maternal death due to pulmonary embolism of trophoblastic cells. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1956;71:1114–1118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Arnold HA, Bainborough AR. Subacute cor pulmonale following trophoblastic pulmonary emboli. Can Med Assoc J 1957;76:478–482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Delmis J, Preifer D, Ivanisevic M, et al. Sudden death from trophoblastic embolism in pregnancy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2000;92:225–227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Park WW. The occurrence of decidual tissue within the lung: report of a case. J Pathol Bacteriol 1954;67:563–570.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Schneider CL. Rupture of the basal (decidual) plate in abruptio placentae: a pathway of autoextraction from the decidua into the maternal circulation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1952;63:1078–1090.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Flieder DB, Moran CA, Travis WD, et al. Pleuropulmonary endometriosis and pulmonary ectopic deciduosis: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 10 cases with emphasis on diagnostic pitfalls. Hum Pathol 1998;29:1495–1503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Dimmick JE, Bove KE, McAdams AJ, et al. Fiber embolization: a hazard of cardiac surgery and catheterization. N Engl J Med 1975;292:685–687.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Tang TT, Chamers CG, Gallen WJ, et al. Pulmonary fiber embolism and granuloma. JAMA 1978;239:948–950.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Glassroth J, Adams GD, Schnoll S. The impact of substance abuse on the respiratory system. Chest 1987;91:596–602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Tomashefski JF Jr, Hirsch CS. The pulmonary vascular lesions of intravenous drug abuse. Hum Pathol 1980;11:133–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Tomashefski JF Jr, Felo JA. The pulmonary pathology of illicit drug and substance abuse. Current Diagn Pathol 2004;10:413–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Pomerance HH, Rader RE. Crystal formation: a new complication of total parenteral nutrition. Pediatr 1973;52:864–866.Google Scholar
  281. 281.
    Knowles JB, Cussons G, Smith M, et al. Pulmonary deposition of calcium phosphate crystals as a complication of home total parenteral nutrition. J Parent Enteral Nutr 1989;13:209–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Hill SE, Heldman LS, Goo EDG, et al. Fatal microvascular pulmonary emboli from precipitation of a total nutrient admixture solution. J Parent Enteral Nutr 1995;20:81–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Dahms BB, Halpin TC Jr. Pulmonary arterial lipid deposits in newborn infants receiving intravenous lipid infusion. J Pediatr 1980;97:800–805.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Redline RW, Dahms BB. Malassezia pulmonary vasculitis in an infant on long-term Intralipid therapy. N Engl J Med 1981;305:1395–1398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Sabatine MS, Oelbert DA, Mark EJ, et al. Pulmonary cholesterol crystal embolization. Chest 1997;112:1687–1692.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Scully RE, Mark EJ, McNeely WF, et al. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 11-1996. N Engl J Med 1996;334:973–979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Joels CS, Sing RF, Heniford BT. Complications of inferior vena cava filters. Am Surg 2003;69:654–659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Weingarten J, Kauffman SL. Teflon embolization of pulmonary arteries. Ann Thorac Surg 1977;23:371–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Chung KY, Kim SH, Hwon IH, et al. Clinicopathologic review of pulmonary silicone embolism with special emphasis on the resultant histologic diversity in the lung—a review of five cases. Yonsei Med J 2002;43:152–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Chen YM, Lu CC, Perng RP. Silicone fluid-induced pulmonary embolism. Am Rev Respir Dis 1993;147:1299–1302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    Chastre J, Brun P, Soler P, et al. Acute and latent pneumonitis after subcutaneous injections of silicone in transsexual men. Am Rev Respir Dis 1987;135:236–240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    Chastre J, Basset F, Viau F, et al. Acute pneumonitis after subcutaneous injections of silicone in transsexual men. N Engl J Med 1983;308:764–767.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Oliver RM, Thomas MR, Cornsby AJ, et al. Mercury pulmonary emboli following intravenous self-injection. Br J Dis Chest 1987;81:76–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Gutierrez F, Leon L. Elemental mercury embolism to the lung. Images in Clinical Medicine. N Engl J Med 2000;342:1791.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Truemner KM, White S. Fatal embolization of pulmonary capillaries. Report of case associated with routine barium enema. JAMA 1960;173:119–1092.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. 296.
    Balogh K. Pulmonary bile emboli. Sequelae of iatrogenic trauma. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1984;108:814–816.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    Smith RRL, Hutchins GM. Pulmonary fecal embolization complicating the Budd-Chiari syndrome. N Engl J Med 1978;298:1069–1070.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. 298.
    Wagenvoort CA, Mooi WJ. Vascular diseases. In: Dail DH, Hammar SP, eds. Pulmonary pathology, 2nd ed. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1993:985–1026.Google Scholar
  299. 299.
    Tomashefski JF, Cohen AM, Doershuk CF. Longterm histopathologic follow-up of bronchial arteries after therapeutic embolization with polyvinyl alcohol (Ivalon) in patients with cystic fibrosis. Hum Pathol 1988;19:555–561.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    Ro JY, Tsakalakis PJ, White VA. Pulmonary dirofilariasis: the great imitator of primary or metastatic lung tumor. A clinicopathologic analysis of seven cases and a review of the literature. Hum Pathol 1989;20:69–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. 301.
    Flieder DB, Moran CA. Pulmonary dirofilariasis: a clinicopathologic study of 41 lesions in 39 patients. Hum Pathol 1999;30:251–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. 302.
    Gutierrez Y. Diagnostic pathology of parasitic infections with clinical correlations, 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000:545–576.Google Scholar
  303. 303.
    Matthay MA. Pathophysiology of pulmonary edema. Clin Chest Med 1985;6:301–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. 304.
    Pietra GG. Biology of disease. New insights into mechanisms of pulmonary edema. Lab Invest 1984;51:489–494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. 305.
    Staub NC. The pathogenesis of pulmonary edema. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 1980;23:53–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. 306.
    Staub NC. The pathophysiology of pulmonary edema. Hum Pathol 1970;1:420–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. 307.
    Wagenvoort CA, Wagenvoort N. Pulmonary venous hypertension In: Wagenvoort CA, Wagenvoort N, eds. Pathology of pulmonary hypertension. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1977:177–216.Google Scholar
  308. 308.
    Heath D, Edwards JE. Histological changes in the lung in diseases associated with pulmonary venous hypertension. Br J Dis Chest 1959;53:8–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. 309.
    Scully RE, Mark EJ, McNeely WF, et al. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 17-1995. N Engl J Med 1995;332:1566–1572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. 310.
    Bindelglass IL, Trubowitz S. Pulmonary vein obstruction: an uncommon sequel to chronic fibrous mediastinitis. Ann Intern Med 1958;48:876–891.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. 311.
    Edwards JE, Burchell HB. Multilobar pulmonary venous obstruction with pulmonary hypertension. “Protective” arterial lesions in the involved lobes. AMA Arch Intern Med 1951;87:373–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. 312.
    Davis FW, Andrus EC. Mitral stenosis in facsimile. N Engl J Med 1954;251:297–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. 313.
    Botticelli JT, Schlueter DP, Lange RL. Pulmonary venous and arterial hypertension due to chronic fibrous mediastinitis. Hemodynamics and pulmonary function. Circulation 1966;33:862–871.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. 314.
    Inkley SR, Abbott GR. Unilateral pulmonary arteriosclerosis. Unusual fibrous connective tissue growth associated: review of literature and discussion of possible physiological mechanisms involved in these changes. Arch Intern Med 1961;108:147–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. 315.
    Goodale F Jr, Sanchez G, Friedlich AL. Correlation of pulmonary arteriolar resistance with pulmonary vascular changes in patients with mitral stenosis before and after valvulotomy. N Engl J Med 1955;252:979–983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. 316.
    Heath D, Whitaker W. The pulmonary vessels in mitral stenosis. J Pathol Bacteriol 1955;70:2391–298.Google Scholar
  317. 317.
    Ward C, Hancock BW. Extreme pulmonary hypertension caused by mitral valve disease: natural history and results of surgery. Br Heart J 1975;37:74–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. 318.
    Bates DV, Macklem PT, Christie RV. Respiratory function in disease. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1971:330–333.Google Scholar
  319. 319.
    Cortese DA. Pulmonary function in mitral stenosis. Mayo Clin Proc 1978;53:321–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. 320.
    Moolten SE. Pulmonary fibrosis in rheumatic heart disease. Am J Med 1962;33:421–441.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. 321.
    Parker F Jr, Weiss S. The nature and significance of the structural changes in the lungs in mitral stenosis. Am J Pathol 1936;12:573–598.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. 322.
    Jing X, Yokoi T, Nakamura Y, et al. Pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis: a unique feature of congestive vasculopathy associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1998;122:94–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. 323.
    Taylor HE, Strong GF. Pulmonary hemosiderosis in mitral stenosis. Ann Intern Med 1955;42:26–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. 324.
    Heath D, Whitaker W. The relation of pulmonary haemosiderosis to hypertension in the pulmonary arteries and veins in mitral stenosis and congenital heart disease. J Pathol Bacteriol 1956;122:531–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. 325.
    Weir JA, Piccoli AJ, Greene DG, et al. Mitral stenosis with exertional cyanosis and pulmonary hemosiderosis. Circulation 1952;6:868–873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. 326.
    Walton KW, Heath D. Iron incrustation of the pulmonary vessels in patent ductus arteriosus with congenital mitral disease. Br Heart J 1960;22:440–444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. 327.
    Pai U, McMahon J, Tomashefski JF Jr. Mineralizing pulmonary elastosis in chronic cardiac failure. Am J Clin Pathol 1994;101:22–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  328. 328.
    Jordan SC, Hicken P, Watson DA, et al. Pathology of the lungs in mitral stenosis in relation to respiratory function and pulmonary haemodynamics. Br Heart J 1966;28:101–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. 329.
    Thomas WA, Lee KT, Rabin ER, et al. Mitral stenosis and pulmonary arteriosclerosis. Correlation of pulmonary arteriosclerosis, right ventricular hypertrophy, and thromboembolism in autopsied patients who died with mitral stenosis. AMA Arch Pathol 1956;62:257–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. 330.
    Heath D, Hicken P. The relation between left atrial hypertension and lymphatic distension in lung biopsies. Thorax 1960;15:54–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. 331.
    Heath D, Segel N, Bishop J. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. Circulation 1966;34:242–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. 332.
    Wagenvoort CA. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. Entity or syndrome? Chest 1976;69:82–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. 333.
    Mandel J, Mark EJ, Hales C. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;162:1964–1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. 334.
    Hasleton PS, Ironside JW, Whittaker JS, et al. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. A report of four cases. Histopathology 1986;10:933–934.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. 335.
    Chawla SK, Kittle CF, Faber LP, et al. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. Ann Thorac Surg 1976;22:249–253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. 336.
    Dail DH. Uncommon tumors. In: Dail DH, Hammar SP, eds. Pulmonary pathology, 2nd ed. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1993:1424–1430.Google Scholar
  337. 337.
    Bolster MA, Hogan J, Bredin CP. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease presenting as sudden death. Med Sci Law 1990;30:26–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  338. 338.
    Cagle P, Langston C. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease as a cause of sudden infant death. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1984;108:338–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  339. 339.
    Doll DC, Yarbro JW. Vascular toxicity associated with chemotherapy and hormonotherapy. Curr Opin Oncol 1994;6:345–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. 340.
    Salzman D, Adkins DR, Craig F, et al. Malignancy-associated pulmonary veno-occlusive disease: report of a case following autologous bone marrow transplantation and review. Bone Marrow Transplant 1996;18:755–760.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. 341.
    Tsuo E, Waldhorn RE, Kerwin DM, et al. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1984:64:281–284.Google Scholar
  342. 342.
    Davies P, Reid L. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease in siblings: case report and morphometric study. Hum Pathol 1982;13:911–915.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. 343.
    Wagenvoort CA, Wagenvoort N, Takahashi T. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. Involvement of pulmonary arteries and review of the literature. Hum Pathol 1985;16:1033–1041.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. 344.
    Palmer SM, Robinson LJ, Wang A, et al. Massive pulmonary edema and death after prostacyclin infusion in a patient with pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. Chest 1998;113:237–240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  345. 345.
    Sanderson JE, Spiro SG, Hendry AT, et al. A case of pulmonary veno-occlusive disease responding to treatment with azathioprine. Thorax 1977;32:140–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. 346.
    Shackelford GD, Sacks EJ, Mullins JD, et al. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease: case report and review of the literature. Am J Roentgenol 1977;128:643–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. 347.
    Wagenvoort CA, Beetstra A, Spijker J. Capillary haemangiomatosis of the lung. Histopathology 1978;2:401–406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  348. 348.
    Faber CN, Yousem SA, Dauber JH, et al. Pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis: a report of three cases and a review of the literature. Am Rev Respir Dis 1989;140:808–813.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. 349.
    Tron V, Magee F, Wright JL, et al. Pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis. Hum Pathol 1986;17:1144–1149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  350. 350.
    Oviedo A, Abramson LP, Worthington R, et al. Congenital pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis: report of two cases and review of the literature. Pediatr Pulmonol 2003;36:253–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  351. 351.
    Langleben D, Heneghan JM, Batten AP, et al. Familial pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis resulting in primary pulmonary hypertension. Ann Intern Med 1988;109:106–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  352. 352.
    White CW, Sondheimer HM, Crouch EC, et al. Treatment of pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis with recombinant interferon alpha-2a. N Engl J Med 1989;320:1197–1200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. 353.
    Havlik DM, Massie LW, Williams WL, et al. Pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis-like foci. An autopsy study of 8 cases. Am J Clin Pathol 2000;113:655–662.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  354. 354.
    Almagro P, Julia J, Sanjaume M, et al. Pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis associated with primary pulmonary hypertension. Medicine 2002;81:417–424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. 355.
    Umezu H, Naito M, Yagisawa K, et al. An autopsy case of pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis without evidence of pulmonary hypertension. Virchows Arch 2001;439:586–592.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. 356.
    de Perrot M, Waddell TK, Chamberlain D, et al. De novo pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis occurring rapidly after bilateral lung transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant 2003;22:698–700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. 357.
    Fishman AP Hypoxia on the pulmonary circulation. How and where in acts. Circ Res 1976:38:221–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  358. 358.
    Bergofsky EH, Bass BG, Ferretti R, et al. Pulmonary vasoconstriction in response to precapillary hypoxemia. J Clin Invest 1963;42:1201–1215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  359. 359.
    Hasleton PS, Heath D, Brewer DB. Hypertensive pulmonary vascular disease in state of chronic hypoxia. J Pathol Bacteriol 1968;95:431–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  360. 360.
    Saldana MJ, Arias-Stella J. Pulmonary hypertension and pathology at high altitudes. In: Saldana MJ, ed. Pathology of pulmonary disease. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1994:247–259.Google Scholar
  361. 361.
    Hurtado A. Chronic mountain sickness. JAMA 1942;120:1278–1282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. 362.
    Gupta ML, Rao KS, Anand IS, et al. Lack of smooth muscle in the small pulmonary arteries of the native Ladakhi. Is the Himalayan highlander adapted? Am Rev Respir Dis 1992;145:1201–1204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  363. 363.
    Monge C. High altitude disease. Arch Intern Med 1937;59:32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  364. 364.
    Millman RP, Fishman AR Sleep apnea syndromes. In: Fishman A, ed. Pulmonary diseases and disorders, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1998:1347–1359.Google Scholar
  365. 365.
    Young T, Palta M, Dempsey J, et al. The occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing among middle-aged adults. N Engl J Med 1993;328:1230–123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. 366.
    Phillipson EA. Sleep apnea—a major public health problem. N Engl J Med 1993;328:1271–1273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  367. 367.
    Shamsuzaman ASM, Gersh BJ, Somers VK. Obstructive sleep apnea. Implications for cardiac and vascular disease. JAMA 2003;14:1906–1914.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  368. 368.
    Shepard JW Jr. Cardiopulmonary consequences of obstructive sleep apnea. Mayo Clin Proc 1990;65:1250–1259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  369. 369.
    Carroll D. A peculiar type of cardiopulmonary failure associated with obesity. Am J Med 1956;21:819–824.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  370. 370.
    Counihan TB. Heart failure due to extreme obesity. Br Heart J 1956;18:425–426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  371. 371.
    Estes EH Jr, Sieker HO, Mcintosh HD, et al. Reversible cardiopulmonary syndrome with extreme obesity. Circulation 1957;26:179–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  372. 372.
    Seide MJ. Heart failure due to extreme obesity. N Engl J Med 1957;257:1227–1230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  373. 373.
    Burwell CS, Robin, Whaley RD, et al. Extreme obesity associated with alveolar hypoventilation—a Pickwickian syndrome. Am J Med 1956;21:811–818.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  374. 374.
    James TN, Frame B, Coates EO. De subitaneis mortibus. III. Pickwickian syndrome. Circulation 1973;68:1311–1320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. 375.
    Garni AS, Howard DE, Olson EJ, et al. Day-night pattern of sudden death in obstructive sleep apnea. N Engl J Med 2005;352:1206–1212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  376. 376.
    Sajkov D, Cowie RJ, Thornton AT, et al. Pulmonary hypertension and hypoxemia in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994;149:416–422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  377. 377.
    Atwood CW Jr, McCrory D, Garcia JG, et al. Pulmonary artery hypertension and sleep-disordered breathing: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest 2004;126:72S–77S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  378. 378.
    Sanner BM, Doberauer C, Konermann M, et al. Pulmonary hypertension in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Arch Intern Med 1997;157:2483–2487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  379. 379.
    Bady E, Achkar A, Pascal S, et al. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in patients with sleep apnoea syndrome. Thorax 2000;55:934–939.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  380. 380.
    Guidry UC, Mendes LA, Evans JC, et al. Echocardiographic features of the right heart in sleep-disordered breathing. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;164:933–938.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  381. 381.
    Hanley T, Platts MM, Clifton M, et al. Heart failure of the hunchback. Q J Med 1958;27:155–171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  382. 382.
    Bates DV, Macklem PT, Christie RV. Respiratory function in disease. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1971:245–248.Google Scholar
  383. 383.
    Naeye RL. Kyphoscoliosis and cor pulmonale. A study of the pulmonary vascular bed. Am J Pathol 1961;38:561–573.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  384. 384.
    Jeffrey TK, Morrell NW. Molecular and cellular basis of pulmonary vascular remodeling in pulmonary hypertension. Progr Cardiovas Dis 2002;45:173–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  385. 385.
    Meyrick B, Reid L. The effect of continued hypoxia on rat pulmonary arterial circulation. An ultrastructural study. Lab Invest 1978;38:188–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  386. 386.
    Hislop A, Reid L. New findings in pulmonary arteries of rats with hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Br J Exp Pathol 1976;57:542–554.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  387. 387.
    Hislop A, Reid L. Changes in the pulmonary arteries of the rat during recovery from hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Br J Exp Pathol 1977;58:653–662.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  388. 388.
    Howell K, Ooi H, Preston R, et al. Structural basis of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension: the modifying effect of chronic hypercapnia. Exp Physiol 2004;89:66–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  389. 389.
    Palmer LA, Semenza GL, Stoler MH, et al. Hypoxia induces type II NOS gene expression in pulmonary artery endothelial cells via HIF-1. Am J Physiol 1998;274:LK212–L219.Google Scholar
  390. 390.
    Yu AY, Frid MH, Shimoda LA, et al. Temporal, spatial, and oxygen-regulated expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 in the lung. Am J Physiol 1998;275:L818–L826.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  391. 391.
    Saldana M, Arias-Stella J. Studies on the structure of the pulmonary trunk II. The evolution of the elastic configuration of the pulmonary trunk in people native to high altitudes. Circulation 1963;27:1094–1100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  392. 392.
    Saldana M, Arias-Stella J. Studies on the structure of the pulmonary trunk. III. The thickness of the media of the pulmonary trunk and ascending aorta in high altitude natives. Circulation 1963;27:1101–1104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  393. 393.
    Naeye RL. Hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension. Arch Pathol 1961;71:447 52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  394. 394.
    Ahmed Q, Chung-Park M, Tomashefski JF Jr. Cardiopulmonary pathology in patients with sleep apnea/obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Hum Pathol 1997;28:264–269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  395. 395.
    Arias-Stella J, Saldana M. The terminal portion of the pulmonary arterial tree in people native to high altitudes. Circulation 1962;28:915–925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  396. 396.
    Naeye RL. Pulmonary vascular changes with chronic unilateral pulmonary hypoxia. Circ Res 1965;17:160–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  397. 397.
    Wagenvoort CA, Wagenvoort N. Pulmonary veins in high-altitude residents: a morphometric study. Thorax 1982;37:931–935.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  398. 398.
    Davies G, Reid L. Effect of scoliosis on growth of alveoli and pulmonary arteries and on right ventricle. Arch Dis Child 1971;46:623–632.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  399. 399.
    Heath D, Edwards C, Harris P. Post-mortem size and structure of the human carotid body. Its relation to pulmonary disease and cardiac hypertrophy. Thorax 1970;25:129–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  400. 400.
    Lack EE. Carotid body hypertrophy in patients with cystic fibrosis and cyanotic congenital heart disease. Hum Pathol 1977;8:39–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  401. 401.
    Saldana MJ, Salem LE, Travezan R. High altitude hypoxia and chemodectomas. Hum Pathol 1973;4:251–263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  402. 402.
    Kennedy JI, Fulmer JD, Pulmonary hypertension in the interstitial lung diseases. Chest 1985;87:558–559.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  403. 403.
    Heath D, Gillund TD, Kay JM, et al. Pulmonary vascular disease in honeycomb lung. J Pathol Bacteriol 1968;95:423–430.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  404. 404.
    Enson Y, Thomas HM III, Bosken CH, et al. Pulmonary hypertension in interstitial lung disease: relation of vascular resistance to abnormal lung structure. Trans Assoc Am Phys 1975;88:248–255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  405. 405.
    Tomashefski JF Jr. Pulmonary pathology of the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Diffuse alveolar damage. In: Matthay MA, ed. Acute respiratory distress syndrome. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2003:75–114.Google Scholar
  406. 406.
    Tomashefski JF Jr, Davies P, Boggis L, et al. The pulmonary vascular lesions of the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Pathol 1983;112:112–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  407. 407.
    Zapol WM, Snider MT. Pulmonary hypertension in severe acute respiratory failure. N Engl J Med 1977;296:476–480.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  408. 408.
    Greene R, Zapol WM, Snider MT, et al. Early bedside detection of pulmonary vascular occlusion during acute respiratory failure. Am Rev Respir Dis 1981;124:593–601.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  409. 409.
    Barth PJ, Knoch M, Muller E. et al. Morphometry of parenchymal and vascular alterations in ARDS after extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal therapy (ECCO2-R-therapy). Path Res Pract 1992;188:653–656.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  410. 410.
    Wilkinson M, Langhorne CA, Heath D, et al. A pathophysiological study of 10 cases of hypoxic cor pulmonale. Quart J Med 1988;249:65–85.Google Scholar
  411. 411.
    Chaouat A, Bugnet AS, Kadaoui N, et al. Severe pulmonary hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2005;172:189–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  412. 412.
    Hicken P, Heath D, Brewer DB, et al. The small pulmonary arteries in emphysema. J Pathol Bacteriol 1965;90:107–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  413. 413.
    Naeye RL, Greenberg D. Small pulmonary vessels in advanced pulmonary emphysema. Arch Pathol 1974;97:216–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  414. 414.
    Magee F, Wright JL, Wiggs BR, et al. Pulmonary vascular structure and function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax 1988;43:183–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  415. 415.
    Hale KA, Niewoehner DE, Cosio MH. Morphologic changes in the muscular pulmonary arteries: relationship to cigarette smoking, airway disease, and emphysema. Am Rev Respir Dis 1980;122:273–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  416. 416.
    Dunnill MS. An assessment of the anatomical factor in cor pulmonale in emphysema. J Clin Pathol 1961;14:246–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  417. 417.
    Bignon J, Khoury F, Even P, et al. Morphometric study in chronic obstructive bronchopulmonary disease. Am Rev Respir Dis 1969;99:669–695.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  418. 418.
    Liebow AA. The bronchopulmonary venous collateral circulation with special reference to emphysema. Am J Pathol 1953;29:251–263.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steve D. Groshong
    • 1
  • Joseph F. TomashefskiJr.
    • 2
    • 3
  • Carlyne D. Cool
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PathologyUniversity of Colorado Health Sciences CenterDenverUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pathology Case Western ReserveUniversity School of MedicineClevelandUSA
  3. 3.Department of PathologyMetroHealth Medical CenterClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations