Advertisement

Abstract

Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology that primarily affects the lung and the lymph nodes.1 Since its first description in 1877 by John Hutchinson,2 its clinical and pathologic complexities have continued to challenge clinicians and pathologists. The term sarcoid comes from the description by Boeck,3 who, in 1899, described the lesions as “benign forms of sarcoma,” implying the lesion is a neoplasm. In the subsequent 100 years, physicians and scientists have tried with little success to clarify both the etiologic agent and the clinical features of the disease. In an attempt to guide diagnosis and treatment and to promote scientific research, the American Thoracic Society (ATS) formed an expert panel that proposed adoption of standard diagnostic criteria. The panel defined the disease as follows:

Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disorder of unknown cause(s). It commonly affects young and middle-aged adults and frequently presents with bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy, pulmonary infiltration, ocular and skin lesions. The liver, spleen, lymph nodes, salivary glands, heart, nervous system, muscles, bones, and other organs may also be involved. The diagnosis is established when clinicoradiologic findings are supported by histologic evidence of noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas.4

Keywords

Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Respir Crit Human Leukocyte Antigen Class Open Lung Biopsy Pulmonary Sarcoidosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Thomas PD, Hunninghake GW. Current concepts of the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1987;135(3):747–760.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hutchinson J. Case of livid papillary psoriasis. Illustrations of Clinical Surgery. London: J and A Churchill, 1877:42.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Boeck C. Multiple benign sarcoid of the skin. J Cutan Gen Urin Dis 1899;17:543–550.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hunninghake GW, Costabel U, Ando M, et al. ATS/ERS/WASOG statement on sarcoidosis. American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society/World Association of Sarcoidosis and other Granulomatous Disorders. Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis 1999;16(2):149–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Reich JM. Eight fundamental unsolved problems in sarcoidosis. Eur J Intern Med 2004;15(5):269–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Costabel U, Hunninghake GW. ATS/ERS/WASOG statement on sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis Statement Committee. American Thoracic Society. European Respiratory Society. World Association for Sarcoidosis and Other Granulomatous Disorders. Eur Respir J 1999;14(4):735–737.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rybicki BA, Major M, Popovich J Jr, et al. Racial differences in sarcoidosis incidence: a 5-year study in a health maintenance organization. Am J Epidemiol 1997;145(3):234–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Newman LS, Rose CS, Maier LA. Sarcoidosis. N Engl J Med 1997;336(17):1224–1234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Milman N, Selroos O. Pulmonary sarcoidosis in the Nordic countries 1950–1982. II. Course and prognosis. Sarcoidosis 1990;7(2):113–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Alsbirk PH. Epidemiologic studies on sarcoidosis in Denmark based on a nation-wide central register. A preliminary report. Acta Med Scand Suppl 1964;425:106–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Byg KE, Milman N, Hansen S. Sarcoidosis in Denmark 1980–1994. A registry-based incidence study comprising 5536 patients. Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis 2003;20(1):46–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hillerdal G, Nou E, Osterman K, et al. Sarcoidosis: epidemiology and prognosis. A 15-year European study. Am Rev Respir Dis 1984;130(1):29–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Henke CE, Henke G, Elveback LR, et al. The epidemiology of sarcoidosis in Rochester, Minnesota: a population-based study of incidence and survival. Am J Epidemiol 1986;123(5):840–845.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Baculard A, Blanc N, Boule M, et al. Pulmonary sarcoidosis in children: a follow-up study. Eur Respir J 2001;17(4):628–635.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Baughman RP, Lynch JP. Difficult treatment issues in sarcoidosis. J Intern Med 2003;253(1):41–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Moller DR, Chen ES. Genetic basis of remitting sarcoidosis: triumph of the trimolecular complex? Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2002;27(4):391–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vourlekis JS, Sawyer RT, Newman LS. Sarcoidosis: developments in etiology, immunology, and therapeutics. Adv Intern Med 2000;45:209–257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ziegenhagen MW, Muller-Quernheim J. The cytokine network in sarcoidosis and its clinical relevance. J Intern Med 2003;253(1):18–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Borchers AT, So C, Naguwa SM, et al. Clinical and immunologic components of sarcoidosis. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2003;25(3):289–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Baughman RP, Lower EE, du Bois RM. Sarcoidosis. Lancet 2003;361:1111–1118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Martin WJ, Iannuzzi MC, Gail DB, et al. Future directions in sarcoidosis research: summary of an NHLBI working group. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2004;170(5):567–571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Muller-Quernheim J. Sarcoidosis: immunopathogenetic concepts and their clinical application. Eur Respir J 1998;12(3):716–738.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Moseley PL, Hemken C, Monick M, et al. Interferon and growth factor activity for human lung fibroblasts. Release from bronchoalveolar cells from patients with active sarcoidosis. Chest 1986;89(5):657–662.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Moller DR. Pulmonary fibrosis of sarcoidosis. New approaches, old ideas. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2003;29(3 suppl):S37–S41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Moller DR. Treatment of sarcoidosis—from a basic science point of view. J Intern Med 2003;253(1):31–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rosen Y, Vuletin JC, Pertschuk LP, et al. Sarcoidosis: from the pathologist’s vantage point. Pathol Annu 1979;14 (pt 1):405–439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Reich JM. What is sarcoidosis? Chest 2003;124(1):367–371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Iannuzzi MC, Maliarik M, Rybicki BA. Nomination of a candidate susceptibility gene in sarcoidosis: the complement receptor 1 gene. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2002;27(1):3–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kon OM, du Bois RM. Mycobacteria and sarcoidosis. Thorax 1997;52(suppl 3):S47–S51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kent DC, Houk VN, Elliott RC, et al. The definitive evaluation of sarcoidosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1970;101(5):721–727.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Nethercott SE, Strawbridge WG. Identification of bacterial residues in sarcoid lesions. Lancet 1956;271(6953):1132–1134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Vanek J, Schwarz J. Demonstration of acid-fast rods in sarcoidosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1970;101(3):395–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cantwell AR Jr. Histologic observations of variably acid-fast pleomorphic bacteria in systemic sarcoidosis: a report of 3 cases. Growth 1982;46(2):113–125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bocart D, Lecossier D, De Lassence A, et al. A search for mycobacterial DNA in granulomatous tissues from patients with sarcoidosis using the polymerase chain reaction. Am Rev Respir Dis 1992;145(5):1142–1148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Drake WP, Pei Z, Pride DT, et al. Molecular analysis of sarcoidosis tissues for mycobacterium species DNA. Emerg Infect Dis 2002;8(11):1334–1341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Grosser M, Luther T, Muller J, et al. Detection of M. tuberculosis DNA in sarcoidosis: correlation withT-cell response. Lab Invest 1999;79(7):775–784.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ikonomopoulos JA, Gorgoulis VG, Zacharatos PV, et al. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the detection of mycobacterial DNA in cases of tuberculosis and sarcoidosis. Mod Pathol 1999;12(9):854–862.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Saboor SA, Johnson NM, McFadden J. Detection of mycobacterial DNA in sarcoidosis and tuberculosis with polymerase chain reaction. Lancet 1992;339(8800):1012–1015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Li JY, Lo ST, Ng CS. Molecular detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in tissues showing granulomatous inflammation without demonstrable acid-fast bacilli. Diagn Mol Pathol 2000;9(2):67–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Popper HH, Klemen H, Hoefler G, et al. Presence of mycobacterial DNA in sarcoidosis. Hum Pathol 1997;28(7):796–800.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Klemen H, Husain AN, Cagle PT, et al. Mycobacterial DNA in recurrent sarcoidosis in the transplanted lung—a PCR-based study on four cases. Virchows Arch 2000;436(4):365–369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Richter E, Greinert U, Kirsten D, et al. Assessment of mycobacterial DNA in cells and tissues of mycobacterial and sarcoid lesions. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996;153(1):375–380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    du Bois RM, Goh N, McGrath D, et al. Is there a role for microorganisms in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis? J Intern Med 2003;253(1):4–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Almenoff PL, Johnson A, Lesser M, et al. Growth of acid fast L forms from the blood of patients with sarcoidosis. Thorax 1996;51(5):530–533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gerdes J, Richter E, Rusch-Gerdes S, et al. Mycobacterial nucleic acids in sarcoid lesions. Lancet. 1992;339:1536–1537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ghossein RA, Ross DG, Salomon RN, et al. A search for mycobacterial DNA in sarcoidosis using the polymerase chain reaction. Am J Clin Pathol 1994;101(6):733–737.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wilsher ML, Menzies RE, Croxson MC. Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in tissues affected by sarcoidosis. Thorax 1998;53(10):871–874.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Milman N, Lisby G, Friis S, et al. Prolonged culture for mycobacteria in mediastinal lymph nodes from patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. A negative study. Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis 2004;21(1):25–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Richter E, Kataria YP, Zissel G, et al. Analysis of the Kveim-Siltzbach test reagent for bacterial DNA. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;159(6):1981–1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Vokurka M, Lecossier D, du Bois RM, et al. Absence of DNA from mycobacteria of the M. tuberculosis complex in sarcoidosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997;156:1000–1003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Brown ST, Brett I, Almenoff PL, et al. Recovery of cell wall-deficient organisms from blood does not distinguish between patients with sarcoidosis and control subjects. Chest 2003;123(2):413–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Minami J, Eishi Y, Ishige Y, et al. Pulmonary granulomas caused experimentally in mice by a recombinant trigger-factor protein of Propionibacterium acnes. J Med Dent Sci 2003;50(4):265–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Eishi Y, Suga M, Ishige I, et al. Quantitative analysis of mycobacterial and propionibacterial DNA in lymph nodes of Japanese and European patients with sarcoidosis. J Clin Microbiol 2002;40(1):198–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ishige I, Usui Y, Takemura T, et al. Quantitative PCR of mycobacterial and propionibacterial DNA in lymph nodes of Japanese patients with sarcoidosis. Lancet 1999;354(9173):120–123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Nishiwaki T, Yoneyama H, Eishi Y, et al. Indigenous pulmonary Propionibacterium acnes primes the host in the development of sarcoid-like pulmonary granulomatosis in mice. Am J Pathol 2004;165(2):631–639.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Nilsson K, Pahlson C, Lukinius A, et al. Presence of Rickettsia helvetica in granulomatous tissue from patients with sarcoidosis. J Infect Dis 2002;185(8):1128–1138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Puolakkainen M, Campbell LA, Kuo CC, et al. Serological response to Chlamydia pneumoniae in patients with sarcoidosis. J Infect 1996;33(3):199–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Jacob F. Could Borrelia burgdorferi be a causal agent of sarcoidosis? Med Hypotheses 1989;30(4):241–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ishihara M, Ohno S, Ono H, et al. Seroprevalence of anti-Borrelia antibodies among patients with confirmed sarcoidosis in a region of Japan where Lyme borreliosis is endemic. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 1998;236(4):280–284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Mitchell DN, McSwiggan DA, Mikhail JR, et al. Antibody to herpes-like virus in sarcoidosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1975;111(6):880–882.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Gazouli M, Ikonomopoulos J, Trigidou R, et al. Assessment of mycobacterial, propionibacterial, and human herpesvirus 8 DNA in tissues of Greek patients with sarcoidosis. J Clin Microbiol 2002;40(8):3060–3063.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Di Alberti L, Piattelli A, Artese L, et al. Human herpesvirus 8 variants in sarcoid tissues. Lancet 1997;350:1655–1661.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kreider ME, Christie JD, Thompson B, et al. Relationship of environmental exposures to the clinical phenotype of sarcoidosis. Chest 2005;128(1):207–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Newman LS, Rose CS, Bresnitz EA, et al. A case control etiologic study of sarcoidosis: environmental and occupational risk factors. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2004;170(12):1324–1330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Sharma OP, Neville E, Walker AN, et al. Familial sarcoidosis: a possible genetic influence. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1976;278:386–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Rybicki BA, Maliarik MJ, Major M, et al. Epidemiology, demographics, and genetics of sarcoidosis. Semin Respir Infect 1998;13(3):166–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    McGrath DS, Daniil Z, Foley P, et al. Epidemiology of familial sarcoidosis in the UK. Thorax 2000;55(9):751–754.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Rybicki BA, Iannuzzi MC, Frederick MM, et al. Familial aggregation of sarcoidosis. A case-control etiologic study of sarcoidosis (ACCESS). Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;164(11):2085–2091.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Mclntyre JA, McKee KT, Loadholt CB, et al. Increased HLA-B7 antigen frequency in South Carolina blacks in association with sarcoidosis. Transplant Proc 1977;9(1 suppl 1):173–176.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Grunewald J, Eklund A, Olerup O. Human leukocyte antigen class I alleles and the disease course in sarcoidosis patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2004;169(6):696–702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Rossman MD, Thompson B, Frederick M, et al. HLA-DRB1*1101: a significant risk factor for sarcoidosis in blacks and whites. Am J Hum Genet 2003;73(4):720–735.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Rossman M, Thompson B, Frederick M, et al. Sarcoidosis: association with human leukocyte antigen class II amino acid epitopes and interaction with environmental exposures. Chest 2002;121(3 suppl):14S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    du Bois RM. The genetic predisposition to interstitial lung disease: functional relevance. Chest 2002;121(3 suppl):14S–20S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Odum N, Milman N, Jakobsen BK, et al. HLA class II (DR, DQ, DP) in patients with sarcoidosis: evidence of an increased frequency of DRw6. Exp Clin Immunogenet 1991;8(4):227–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Maliarik MJ, Chen KM, Major ML, et al. Analysis of HLA-DPB1 polymorphisms in African-Americans with sarcoidosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;158(1):111–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Sato H, Grutters JC, Pantelidis P, et al. HLA-DQB1*0201: a marker for good prognosis in British and Dutch patients with sarcoidosis. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2002;27(4):406–412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Schurmann M, Lympany PA, Reichel P, et al. Familial sarcoidosis is linked to the major histocompatibility complex region. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;162:861–864.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Schurmann M, Reichel P, Muller-Myhsok B, et al. Results from a genome-wide search for predisposing genes in sarcoidosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;164(5):840–846.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Foley PJ, McGrath DS, Puscinska E, et al. Human leukocyte antigen-DRBl position 11 residues are a common protective marker for sarcoidosis. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2001;25(3):272–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Schurmann M, Bein G, Kirsten D, et al. HLA-DQB1 and HLA-DPB1 genotypes in familial sarcoidosis. Respir Med 1998;92(4):649–652.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Ina Y, Takada K, Yamamoto M, et al. HLA and sarcoidosis in the Japanese. Chest 1989;95(6):1257–1261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kunikane H, Abe S, Yamaguchi E, et al. Analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism for the HLA-DR gene in Japanese patients with sarcoidosis. Thorax 1994;49(6):573–576.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Swider C, Schnittger L, Bogunia-Kubik K, et al. TNF-alpha and HLA-DR genotyping as potential prognostic markers in pulmonary sarcoidosis. Eur Cytokine Netw 1999;10(2):143–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Berlin M, Fogdell-Hahn A, Olerup O, et al. HLA-DR predicts the prognosis in Scandinavian patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997;156(5):1601–1605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Grunewald J, Berlin M, Olerup O, et al. Lung T-helper cells expressing T-cell receptor AV2S3 associate with clinical features of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;161:814–818.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Petrek M, Drabek J, Kolek V, et al. CC chemokine receptor gene polymorphisms in Czech patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;162:1000–1003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    McGrath DS, Foley PJ, Petrek M, et al. Ace gene I/D polymorphism and sarcoidosis pulmonary disease severity. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;164(2):197–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Morohashi K, Takada T, Omori K, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor gene polymorphisms in Japanese patients with sarcoidosis. Chest 2003;123(5):1520–1526.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Spagnolo P, Renzoni EA, Wells AU, et al. C-C chemokine receptor 2 and sarcoidosis: association with Lofgren’s syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003;168(10):1162–1166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Tobin MJ. Tuberculosis, lung infections, and interstitial lung disease in AJRCCM 2000. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;164:1774–1788.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Baughman RP, Teirstein AS, Judson MA, et al. Clinical characteristics of patients in a case control study of sarcoidosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;164:1885–1889.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. ]92.
    Statement on sarcoidosis. Joint Statement of the American Thoracic Society (ATS), the European Respiratory Society (ERS) and the World Association of Sarcoidosis and Other Granulomatous Disorders (WASOG) adopted by the ATS Board of Directors and by the ERS Executive Committee, February 1999. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;160(2):736–755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Lynch JP, III, Kazerooni EA, Gay SE. Pulmonary sarcoidosis. Clin Chest Med 1997;18(4):755–785.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    McLoud TC, Epler GR, Gaensler EA, et al. A radiographic classification for sarcoidosis: physiologic correlation. Invest Radiol 1982;17(2):129–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Scadding JG. Prognosis of intrathoracic sarcoidosis in England. A review of 136 cases after five years’ observation. Br Med J 1961;5261:1165–1172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Schabel SI, Foote GA, McKee KA. Posterior lymphade-nopathy in sarcoidosis. Radiology 1978;129(3):591–593.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Siltzbach LE. Sarcoidosis: clinical features and management. Med Clin North Am 1967;51(2):483–502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Neville E, Walker AN, James DG. Prognostic factors predicting the outcome of sarcoidosis: an analysis of 818 patients. Q J Med 1983;52(208):525–533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Clarke D, Mitchell AW, Dick R, et al. The radiology of sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis 1994;11(2):90–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Pipavath S, Godwin JD. Imaging of interstitial lung disease. Clin Chest Med 2004;25(3):455–456.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Wells A. High resolution computed tomography in sarcoidosis: a clinical perspective. Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis 1998;15(2):140–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    van der Schoot JB, Groen AS, de Jong J. Gallium-67 scintigraphy in lung diseases. Thorax 1972;27(5):543–546.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Rizzato G, Blasi A. A European survey on the usefulness of 67Ga lung scans in assessing sarcoidosis. Experience in 14 research centers in seven different countries. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1986;465:463–478.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Brantley SD, Orzel JA, Weiland FL, et al. Parotid gland biopsy and 67Ga imaging correlation in systemic sarcoidosis. Chest 1987;91(3):403–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Karma A, Poukkula AA, Ruokonen AO. Assessment of activity of ocular sarcoidosis by gallium scanning. Br J Ophthalmol 1987;71(5):361–367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Mishkin FS, Tanaka TT, Niden AH. Abnormal gallium scan patterns of the salivary gland in pulmonary sarcoidosis. Ann Intern Med 1978;89(6):933–934.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Mana J. Nuclear imaging. 67Gallium, 201thallium, 18F-labeled fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography. Clin Chest Med 1997;18(4):799–711.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Israel HL, Albertine KH, Park CH, et al. Whole-body gallium 67 scans. Role in diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1991;144(5):1182–1186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Sheffield EA. Pathology of sarcoidosis. Clin Chest Med 1997;18(4):741–754.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Dunn TL, Watters LC, Hendrix C, et al. Gas exchange at a given degree of volume restriction is different in sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Am J Med 1988;85(2):221–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Harrison BD, Shaylor JM, Stokes TC, et al. Airflow limitation in sarcoidosis—a study of pulmonary function in 107 patients with newly diagnosed disease. Respir Med 1991;85(1):59–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Shorr AF, Torrington KG, Hnatiuk OW. Endobronchial involvement and airway hyperreactivity in patients with sarcoidosis. Chest 2001;120(3):881–886.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Bechtel JJ, Starr T III, Dantzker DR, et al. Airway hyperreactivity in patients with sarcoidosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1981;124(6):759–761.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Huang CT, Heurich AE, Rosen Y, et al. Pulmonary sarcoidosis: roentgenographic, functional, and pathologic correlations. Respiration 1979;37(6):337–345.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Young RC Jr, Carr C, Shelton TG, et al. Sarcoidosis: relationship between changes in lung structure and function. Am Rev Respir Dis 1967;95(2):224–238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Carrington CB. Structure and function in sarcoidosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1976;278:265–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Young RL, Lordon RE, Krumholz RA, et al. Pulmonary sarcoidosis. 1. Pathophysiologic correlations. Am Rev Respir Dis 1968;97(6):997–1008.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Lama VN, Martinez FJ. Resting and exercise physiology in interstitial lung diseases. Clin Chest Med 2004;25(3):435–453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    James DG, Turiaf J, Hosoda Y, et al. Description of sarcoidosis: Report of the Subcommittee on Classification and Definition. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1976;278:742.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Mason RS, Frankel T, Chan YL, et al. Vitamin D conversion by sarcoid lymph node homogenate. Ann Intern Med 1984;100(1):59–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Costabel U, Teschler H. Biochemical changes in sarcoidosis. Clin Chest Med 1997;18(4):827–842.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Eklund A, Blaschke E, Danielsson B. Subcellular localization of angiotensin-converting enzyme in the human alveolar macrophage. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1987;47(1):47–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Lieberman J. Elevation of serum angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) level in sarcoidosis. Am J Med 1975;59(3):365–372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Lieberman J. The specificity and nature of serumangiotensin-converting enzyme (serum ACE) elevations in sarcoidosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1976;278:488–497.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Munro CS, Mitchell DN, Poulter LW, et al. Early cellular responses to intradermal injection of Kveim suspension in normal subjects and those with sarcoidosis. J Clin Pathol 1986;39(2):176–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Costabel U, King TE. International consensus statement on idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Eur Respir J 2001;17(2):163–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Teirstein AS, Judson MA, Baughman RP, et al. The spectrum of biopsy sites for the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis 2005;22(2):139–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Descombes E, Gardiol D, Leuenberger P. Transbronchial lung biopsy: an analysis of 530 cases with reference to the number of samples. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 1997;52(4):324–329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Koontz CH, Joyner LR, Nelson RA. Transbronchial lung biopsy via the fiberoptic bronchoscope in sarcoidosis. Ann Intern Med 1976;85(1):64–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Whitcomb ME, Hawley PC, Domby WR, et al. The role of fiberoptic bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Clinical conference in pulmonary disease from Ohio State University, Columbus. Chest 1978;74(2):205–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Friedman OH, Blaugrund SM, Siltzbach LE. Biopsy of the bronchial wall as an aid in diagnosis of sarcoidosis. JAMA 1963;183:646–650.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Halme M, Piilonen A, Taskinen E. Comparison of endobronchial and transbronchial biopsies with high-resolution CT (HRCT) in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. APMIS 2001;109(4):289–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Gilman MJ, Wang KP. Transbronchial lung biopsy in sarcoidosis. An approach to determine the optimal number of biopsies. Am Rev Respir Dis 1980;122(5):721–724.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Koerner SK, Sakowitz AJ, Appelman RI, et al. Transbronchial lung biopsy for the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. N Engl J Med 1975;293(6):268–270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Roethe RA, Fuller PB, Byrd RB, et al. Transbronchoscopic lung biopsy in sarcoidosis. Optimal number and sites for diagnosis. Chest 1980;77(3):400–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Chapman JT, Mehta AC. Bronchoscopy in sarcoidosis: diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2003;9(5):402–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Gupta D, Mahendran C, Aggarwal AN, et al. Endobronchial vis a vis transbronchial involvement on fiberoptic bronchoscopy in sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis 2001;18(1):91–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Armstrong JR, Radke JR, Kvale PA, et al. Endoscopic findings in sarcoidosis. Characteristics and correlations with radiographic staging and bronchial mucosal biopsy yield. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1981;90:339–343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Wang KP, Fuenning C, Johns CJ, et al. Flexible transbronchial needle aspiration for the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1989;98:298–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Mehta AC, Kavuru MS, Meeker DP, et al. Transbronchial needle aspiration for histology specimens. Chest 1989;96(6):1228–1232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Cetinkaya E, Yildiz P, Altin S, et al. Diagnostic value of transbronchial needle aspiration by Wang 22-gauge cytology needle in intrathoracic lymphadenopathy. Chest 2004;125(2):527–531.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Morales CF, Pateneld AJ, Strollo PJ Jr, et al. Flexible transbronchial needle aspiration in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Chest 1994;106(3):709–711.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Leonard C, Tormey VJ, O’Keane C, et al. Bronchoscopic diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Eur Respir J 1997;10(12):2722–2724.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Bilaceroglu S, Perim K, Gunel O, et al. Combining trans-bronchial aspiration with endobronchial and transbronchial biopsy in sarcoidosis. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 1999;54(3):217–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Trisolini R, Agli LL, Cancellieri A, et al. The value of flexible transbronchial needle aspiration in the diagnosis of stage I sarcoidosis. Chest 2003;124(6):2126–2130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Takayama K, Nagata N, Miyagawa Y, et al. The usefulness of step sectioning of transbronchial lung biopsy specimen in diagnosing sarcoidosis. Chest 1992;102(5):1441–1443.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Hsu RM, Connors AF Jr, Tomashefski JF Jr. Histologic, microbiologic, and clinical correlates of the diagnosis of sarcoidosis by transbronchial biopsy. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1996;120(4):364–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    James DG, Rizzato G, Sharma OP. Bronchopulmonary lavage (BAL). A window of the lungs. Sarcoidosis 1992;9(1):3–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Winterbauer RH, Lammert J, Selland M, et al. Bronchoalveolar lavage cell populations in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Chest 1993;104(2):352–361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Wahlstrom J, Berlin M, Skold CM, et al. Phenotypic analysis of lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Thorax 1999;54(4):339–346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Kantrow SP, Meyer KC, Kidd P, et al. The CD4/CD8 ratio in BAL fluid is highly variable in sarcoidosis. Eur Respir J 1997;10(12):2716–2721.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Milman N, Graudal N, Jacobsen GK. Bronchoalveolar lavage in radiologically detected diffuse lung disease. Diagnostic value of total and differential cell count in a series of 130 patients. APMIS 1995;103(10):764–768.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Poulter LW, Rossi GA, Bjermer L, et al. The value of bronchoalveolar lavage in the diagnosis and prognosis of sarcoidosis. Eur Respir J 1990;3(8):943–944.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Ward K, O’Connor C, Odium C, et al. Prognostic value of bronchoalveolar lavage in sarcoidosis: the critical influence of disease presentation. Thorax 1989;44(1):6–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Drent M, Jacobs JA, de Vries J, et al. Does the cellular bronchoalveolar lavage fluid profile reflect the severity of sarcoidosis? Eur Respir J 1999;13(6):1338–1344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Baughman RP. Pulmonary sarcoidosis. Clin Chest Med 2004;25(3):521–530, vi.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Judson MA, Baughman RP, Thompson BW, et al. Two year prognosis of sarcoidosis: the ACCESS experience. Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis 2003;20(3):204–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Reich JM. Mortality of intrathoracic sarcoidosis in referral vs population-based settings: influence of stage, ethnicity, and corticosteroid therapy. Chest 2002;121(1):32–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Reich JM, Johnson RE. Course and prognosis of sarcoidosis in a nonreferral setting. Analysis of 86 patients observed for 10 years. Am J Med 1985;78(1):61–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Seitzer U, Gerdes J, Muller-Quernheim J. Genotyping in the MHC locus: potential for defining predictive markers in sarcoidosis. Respir Res 2002;3(1):6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Culver DA, Thomassen MJ, Kavuru MS. Pulmonary sarcoidosis: new genetic clues and ongoing treatment controversies. Cleve Clin J Med 2004;71(2):88, 90, 92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Baughman RP, Lower EE. A clinical approach to the use of methotrexate for sarcoidosis. Thorax 1999;54(8):742–746.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Hunninghake GW. Goal of the treatment for sarcoidosis. Minimize harm for the patient. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997;156(5):1369–1370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Shorr AF, Helman DL, Davies DB, et al. Sarcoidosis, race, and short-term outcomes following lung transplantation. Chest 2004;125(3):990–996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Nunley DR, Hattler B, Keenan RJ, et al. Lung transplantation for end-stage pulmonary sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis 1999;16(1):93–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Adams DO. The biology of the granuloma. In: Ioachim HL, ed. Pathology of granulomas. New York: Raven Press, 1983:1–20.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Uehlinger EA. The morbid anatomy of sarcoidosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1961;84(5, pt 2):6–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Roman J, Galis ZS. Sarcoidosis: a mysterious tale of inflammation, tissue remodeling, and matrix metalloproteinases. Hum Pathol 2002;33(12):1155–1157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Ricker W. Sarcoidosis: a clinicopathologic review of three hundred cases, including twenty-two autopsies. Am J Clin Pathol 1949;19:725–749.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Teilum G. Morphogenesis and development of sarcoid lesions. Similarities to the group of collagenoses. Acta Med Scand Suppl 1964;425:14–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Ziegenhagen MW, Rothe ME, Zissel G, et al. Exaggerated TNFalpha release of alveolar macrophages in corticosteroid resistant sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis 2002;19(3):185–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Black MM, Epstein WL. Formation of multinucleate giant cells in organized epithelioid cell granulomas. Am J Pathol 1974;74(2):263–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Bybee JD, Bahar D, Greenberg SD, et al. Bronchoscopy and bronchial mucosal biopsy in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1968;97(2):232–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Cohen M, Sahn SA. Bronchiectasis in systemic diseases. Chest 1999;116(4):1063–1074.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Goldenberg GJ, Greenspan RH. Middle-lobe atelectasis due to endobronchial sarcoidosis, with hypercalcemia and renal impairment. N Engl J Med 1960;262:1112–1116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Westcott JL, Noehren TH. Bronchial stenosis in chronic sarcoidosis. Chest 1973;63(6):893–897.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Hadfield JW, Page RL, Flower CD, et al. Localised airway narrowing in sarcoidosis. Thorax 1982;37(6):443–447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Sharma OP, Hewlett R, Gordonson J. Nodular sarcoidosis: an unusual radiographic appearance. Chest 1973;64(2):189–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Kurogouchi F, Fujimori Y, Oharazawa A, et al. Sarcoidosis associated with multiple large pulmonary nodules. Respirology 1998;3(4):273–276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Rosen Y. Sarcoidosis. In Dail DH, Hammar SP, eds. Pulmonary pathology. 2nd ed. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1995:615–645.Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Aiello M, Chetta A, Marangio E, et al. Pleural involvement in systemic disorders. Curr Drug Targets Inflamm Allergy 2004;3(4):441–447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Wilen SB, Rabinowitz JG, Ulreich S, et al. Pleural involvement in sarcoidosis. Am J Med 1974;57(2):200–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Chusid EL, Siltzbach LE. Sarcoidosis of the pleura. Ann Intern Med 1974;81(2):190–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Blackmon GM, Raghu G. Pulmonary sarcoidosis: a mimic of respiratory infection. Semin Respir Infect 1995;10(3):176–186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Brauner MW, Grenier P, Mompoint D, et al. Pulmonary sarcoidosis: evaluation with high-resolution CT. Radiology 1989;172(2):467–471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Ohmichi M, Hiraga Y, Hirasawa M. Pulmonary involvements of sarcoidosis. Nihon Kyobu Shikkan Gakkai Zasshi 1990;28(1):48–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Soskel NT, Sharma OP. Pleural involvement in sarcoidosis. Curr Opin Pulmon Med 2000;6(5):455–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Takemura T, Matsui Y, Oritsu M, et al. Pulmonary vascular involvement in sarcoidosis: granulomatous angiitis and microangiopathy in transbronchial lung biopsies. Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histopathol 1991;418(4):361–368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Yamaguchi T, Yokoyama T, Koike M. A histologic and histometric study of transbronchial lung biopsy in pulmonary sarcoidosis. Nihon Kyobu Shikkan Gakkai Zasshi 1986;24(3):264–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Rosen Y, Moon S, Huang CT, et al. Granulomatous pulmonary angiitis in sarcoidosis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1977;101(4):170–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Takemura T, Matsui Y, Saiki S, et al. Pulmonary vascular involvement in sarcoidosis: a report of 40 autopsy cases. Hum Pathol 1992;23(11):1216–1223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Battesti JP, Georges R, Basset F, et al. Chronic cor pulmonale in pulmonary sarcoidosis. Thorax 1978;33(1):76–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Smith LJ, Lawrence JB, Katzenstein AA. Vascular sarcoidosis: a rare cause of pulmonary hypertension. Am J Med Sci 1983;285(1):38–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Levine BW, Saldana M, Hutter AM. Pulmonary hypertension in sarcoidosis. A case report of a rare but potentially treatable cause. Am Rev Respir Dis 1971;103(3):413–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Hoffstein V, Ranganathan N, Mullen JB. Sarcoidosis simulating pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. Am Rev Respir Dis 1986;134(4):809–811.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Iwai K, Takemura T, Kitaichi M, et al. Pathological studies on sarcoidosis autopsy. II. Early change, mode of progression and death pattern. Acta Pathol Jpn 1993;43(7–8):377–385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Hennebicque AS, Nunes H, Brillet PY, et al. CT findings in severe thoracic sarcoidosis. Eur Radiol 2005;15(1):23–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Schaumann J. Schaumann bodies. Acta Med Scand 1941;106:239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Topal AN, Canda MS, Gunel O. Schaumann bodies in bronchial and bronchioalveolar lavage fluid in a case of sarcoidosis. Acta Cytol 2003;47(2):320–321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Aisner SC, Gupta PK, Frost JK. Sputum cytology in pulmonary sarcoidosis. Acta Cytol 1977;21(3):394–398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Williams WJ, Wallach ER. Laser microprobe mass spectrometry (LAMMS) analysis of beryllium, sarcoidosis and other granulomatous diseases. Sarcoidosis 1989;6(2):111–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Kirkpatrick CJ, Curry A, Bisset DL. Light and electron microscopic studies on multinucleated giant cells in sarcoid granuloma: new aspects of asteroid and Schaumann bodies. Ultrastruct Pathol 1988;12(6):581–597.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Reid JD, Andersen ME. Calcium oxalate in sarcoid granulomas. With particular reference to the small ovoid body and a note on the finding of dolomite. Am J Clin Pathol 1988;90(5):545–558.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Jones WW. The nature and origin of Schaumann bodies. J Pathol Bacteriol 1960;79:193–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Cain H, Kraus B. Immunofluorescence microscopic demonstration of vimentin filaments in asteroid bodies of sarcoidosis. A comparison with electron microscopic findings. Virchows Arch B Cell Pathol Incl Mol Pathol 1983;42(2):213–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Cain H, Kraus B. Asteroid bodies: derivatives of the cytosphere. An electron microscopic contribution to the pathology of the cytocentre. Virchows Arch B Cell Pathol 1977;26(2):119–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Gadde PS, Moscovic EA. Asteroid bodies: products of unusual microtubule dynamics in monocyte-derived giant cells. An immunohistochemical study. Histol Histopathol 1994;9(4):633–642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Brenner DS, Drachenberg CB, Papadimitriou JC. Structural similarities between hematoidin crystals and asteroid bodies: evidence of lipid composition. Exp Mol Pathol 2001;70(1):37–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Papadimitriou JC, Drachenberg CB. Ultrastructural analysis of asteroid bodies: evidence for membrane lipid bilayer nature of components. Ultrastruct Pathol 1992;16(4):413–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Wargotz ES, Jannotta F. Asteroid bodies. Acta Cytol 1986;30(5):556–558.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Doyle WF, Brahman HD, Burgess JH. The nature of yellow-brown bodies in peritoneal lymph nodes. Arch Pathol 1973;96(5):320–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Gal AA, Koss MN. The pathology of sarcoidosis. Curr Opin Pulmon Med 2002;8(5):445–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Crystal RG, Gadek JE, Ferrans VJ, et al. Interstitial lung disease: current concepts of pathogenesis, staging and therapy. Am J Med 1981;70(3):542–568.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Rosen Y, Athanassiades TJ, Moon S, et al. Nongranulomatous interstitial pneumonitis in sarcoidosis. Relationship to development of epithelioid granulomas. Chest 1978;74(2):122–125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Perez RL, Rivera-Marrero CA, Roman J. Pulmonary granulomatous inflammation: from sarcoidosis to tuberculosis. Semin Respir Infect 2003;18(1):23–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Agostini C, Facco M, Chilosi M, et al. Alveolar macrophage-T cell interactions during Th1-type sarcoid inflammation. Microsc Res Tech 2001;53(4):278–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Colby TB. Infiltrative lung disease. In Thurlbeck WM, Churg AM, eds. Pathology of the lung. 2nd ed. New York: Thieme Medical; 1995:589–738.Google Scholar
  218. 218.
    Karakantza M, Matutes E, MacLennan K, et al. Association between sarcoidosis and lymphoma revisited. J Clin Pathol 1996;49(3):208–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Askling J, Grunewald J, Eklund A, et al. Increased risk for cancer following sarcoidosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;160(5 Pt 1):1668–1672.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Brincker H. Sarcoid reactions in malignant tumours. Cancer Treat Rev 1986;13(3):147–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Brincker H, Wilbek E. The incidence of malignant tumours in patients with respiratory sarcoidosis. Br J Cancer 1974;29(3):247–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Sato Y, Sasano S, Oyama K, et al. Lung cancer associated with sarcoidosis. Jpn J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2003;51(1):21–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Cheung OY, Muhm JR, Helmers RA, et al. Surgical pathology of granulomatous interstitial pneumonia. Ann Diagn Pathol 2003;7(2):127–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Newman LS. Metals that cause sarcoidosis. Semin Respir Infect 1998;13(3):212–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Sharma OP, Fujimura N. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: a noninfectious granulomatosis. Semin Respir Infect 1995;10(2):96–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Freiman DG, Hardy HL. Beryllium disease. The relation of pulmonary pathology to clinical course and prognosis based on a study of 130 cases from the U.S. beryllium case registry. Hum Pathol 1970;1(1):25–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Hardy HL. Delayed chemical pneumonitis in workers exposed to beryllium compounds. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 1946;28:197–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Dutra FR. The pneumonitis and granulomatosis peculiar to beryllium workers. Am J Pathol 1948;24:1137–1165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Denardi JM, Van Ordstrand HS, Curtis GH, et al. Berylliosis; summary and survey of all clinical types observed in a twelve-year period. AMA Arch Ind Hyg Occup Med 1953;8(1):1–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Chiarappa-Zucca ML, Finkel RC, Martinelli RE, et al. Measurement of beryllium in biological samples by accelerator mass spectrometry: applications for studying chronic beryllium disease. Chem Res Toxicol 2004;17(12):1614–1620.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Newman LS, Mroz MM, Balkissoon R, et al. Beryllium sensitization progresses to chronic beryllium disease: a longitudinal study of disease risk. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2005;171(1):54–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Fireman E, Haimsky E, Noiderfer M, et al. Misdiagnosis of sarcoidosis in patients with chronic beryllium disease. Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis 2003;20(2):144–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    De Vuyst P, Dumortier P, Schandene L, et al. Sarcoidlike lung granulomatosis induced by aluminum dusts. Am Rev Respir Dis 1987;135(2):493–497.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Chen WJ, Monnat RJ Jr, Chen M, et al. Aluminum induced pulmonary granulomatosis. Hum Pathol 1978;9(6):705–711.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Shaver CG. Lung changes associated with the manufacture of alumina abrasives. J Ind Hyg Tox 1947;29:145–157.Google Scholar
  236. 236.
    Shaver C. Pulmonary changes encountered in employees engaged in the manufacture of alumina abrasives. Occup Med 1948;5:718–728.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Redline S, Barna BP, Tomashefski JF Jr, et al. Granulomatous disease associated with pulmonary deposition of titanium. Br J Ind Med 1986;43(10):652–656.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Vincent M, Chemarin C, Peyrol S, et al. Use of talc and sarcoidosis. Rev Mal Respir 2004;21(4 pt 1):811–814.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Drent M, Bomans PH, Van Suylen RJ, et al. Association of man-made mineral fibre exposure and sarcoidlike granulomas. Respir Med 2000;94(8):815–820.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Sarno M. Sarcoidosis. In: Hasleton PS, ed. Spencer’s pathology of the lung. 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996.Google Scholar
  241. 241.
    Sharma OP, Koss M, Buck F. Sarcoidosis and amyloidosis. Is the association causal or co-incidental? Sarcoidosis 1987;4(2):139–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Liebow AA. The J. Burns Amberson lecture—pulmonary angiitis and granulomatosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1973;108(1):1–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Popper HH, Klemen H, Colby TV, et al. Necrotizing sarcoid granulomatosis—is it different from nodular sarcoidosis? Pneumologie 2003;57(5):268–271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Churg A, Carrington CB, Gupta R. Necrotizing sarcoid granulomatosis. Chest 1979;76(4):406–413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carol F. Farver
    • 1
  1. 1.Pulmonary Pathology, Department of Anatomic PathologyThe Cleveland Clinic FoundationClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations