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Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis)

  • Roberto Barrios

Abstract

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), also known as extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA), represents a group of lung diseases caused by repeated inhalation of a specific antigen or antigens in susceptible individuals. The lung is the site of a variety of complex inflammatory reactions in response to endogenous or exogenous stimuli. In HP the inflammation represents a tissue reaction against various environmental agents that vary from thermophilic bacteria, mammalian and avian proteins, and fungi, to a large number of organic particles and, rarely, low molecular weight compounds. Diffuse inflammation of the small airways and the peripheral gas-exchanging portion of the lung are characteristic of HP.1 Although the terms hypersensitivity and allergic might suggest an atopic disorder, HP is not associated with eosinophilia or excessive production of immunoglobulin E (IgE). Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is characterized by a bronchioloalveolitis sustained by CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes, interstitial granulomas, and, over time, the development of interstitial fibrosis. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis has a complex and poorly understood pathogenesis, and although it involves predominantly cell-mediated mechanisms, the production of specific antibodies directed against the offending antigens2 and nonimmunologic factors may play a role.

Keywords

Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis Pigeon Breeder Avian Antigen 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roberto Barrios
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PathologyThe Methodist HospitalHoustonUSA

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