Advertisement

Asthma and Related Eosinophilic Infiltrates

  • Donald G. GuineeJr.

Abstract

Eosinophils were first recognized by Ehrlich1 in 1879 as a distinct type of cell within the peripheral blood characterized by a bilobed nucleus with distinct cytoplasmic granules staining positively with eosin. Eosinophils are thought to have evolved as a major component in the defense against helminth parasites. The dense granules within eosinophils contain substances such as major basic protein, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, peroxidase, cat-ionic protein, and activated oxygen species, which are toxic to helminth parasites.

Keywords

Allergy Clin Immunol Respir Crit Diffuse Alveolar Damage Atopic Asthma Hypereosinophilic Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Ehrlich P. Ueber die specifischen granulationen des blutes. Arch Anat Physiol 1879;3:571.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Conroy DM, Williams TJ. Eotaxin and the attraction of eosinophils to the asthmatic lung. Respir Res 2001;2:150–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Huber HL, Koessler KK. The pathology of bronchial asthma. Arch Intern Med 1922;30:689–760.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Crofton JW, Livingstone JL, Oswald NC, Roberts ATM. Pulmonary eosinophilia. Thorax 1952;7:1–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Reeder WH, Goodrich BE. Pulmonary infiltration with eosinophilia (PIE syndrome). Ann Intern Med 1952;36:1217–1240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Robinson DS, Hamid Q, Ying S, et al. Predominant TH2-like bronchoalveolar T-lymphocyte population in atopic asthma. N Engl J Med 1992;326:298–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brightling CE, Symon FA, Birring SS, Bradding P, Pavord ID, Wardlaw AJ. TH2 cytokine expression in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid T lymphocytes and bronchial submucosa is a feature of asthma and eosinophilic bronchitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;110:899–905.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chinen J, Shearer WT. Advances in asthma, allergy and immunology series 2004: basic and clinical immunology. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;114:398–405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Busse WW, Lemanske RF Jr. Asthma. N Engl J Med 2001;344:350–362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Allen JN. Drug-induced eosinophilic lung disease. Clin Chest Med 2004;25:77–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lu L, Lin ZH, Shen RN, Warren DJ, Leemhuis T, Broxmeyer HE. Influence of interleukins 3,5, and 6 on the growth of eosinophil progenitors in highly enriched human bone marrow in the absence of serum. Exp Hematol 1990;18:1180–1186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wang JM, Rambaldi A, Biondi A, Chen ZG, Sanderson CJ, Mantovani A. Recombinant human interleukin 5 is a selective eosinophil chemoattractant. Eur J Immunol 1989;19:701–705.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Katoh S, Matsumoto N, Fukushima K, et al. Elevated chemokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with eosinophilic pneumonia. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;106:730–736.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kita H, Sur S, Hunt LW, et al. Cytokine production at the site of disease in chronic eosinophilic pneumonitis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996;153:1437–1441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Griffiths-Johnson DA, Collins PD, Rossi AG, Jose PJ, Williams TJ. The chemokine, eotaxin, activates guinea-pig eosinophils in vitro and causes their accumulation into the lung in vivo. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1993;197:1167–1172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jose PJ, Griffiths-Johnson DA, Collins PD, et al. Eotaxin: a potent eosinophil chemoattractant cytokine detected in a guinea pig model of allergic airways inflammation. J Exp Med 1994;179:881–887.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ponath PD, Qin S, Ringler DJ, et al. Cloning of the human eosinophil chemoattractant, eotaxin. Expression, receptor binding, and functional properties suggest a mechanism for the selective recruitment of eosinophils. J Clin Invest 1996;97:604–612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kitaura M, Nakajima T, Imai T, et al. Molecular cloning of human eotaxin, an eosinophil-selective CC chemokine, and identification of a specific eosinophil eotaxin receptor, CC chemokine receptor 3. J Biol Chem 1996;271:7725–7730.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Garcia-Zepeda EA, Rothenberg ME, Ownbey RT, Celestin J, Leder P, Luster AD. Human eotaxin is a specific chemoattractant for eosinophil cells and provides a new mechanism to explain tissue eosinophilia. Nat Med 1996;2:449–456.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ying S, Robinson DS, Meng Q, et al. Enhanced expression of eotaxin and CCR3 mRNA and protein in atopic asthma. Association with airway hyperresponsiveness and predominant co-localization of eotaxin mRNA to bronchial epithelial and endothelial cells. Eur J Immunol 1997;27:3507–3516.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lamkhioued B, Renzi PM, Abi-Younes S, et al. Increased expression of eotaxin in bronchoalveolar lavage and airways of asthmatics contributes to the chemotaxis of eosinophils to the site of inflammation. J Immunol 1997;159:4593–4601.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Li L, Xia Y, Nguyen A, et al. Effects of Th2 cytokines on chemokine expression in the lung: IL-13 potently induces eotaxin expression by airway epithelial cells. J Immunol 1999;162:2477–2487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sanz MJ, Ponath PD, Mackay CR, et al. Human eotaxin induces alpha 4 and beta 2 integrin-dependent eosinophil accumulation in rat skin in vivo: delayed generation of eotaxin in response to IL-4. J Immunol 1998;160:3569–3576.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zimmermann N, Hogan SP, Mishra A, et al. Murine eotaxin-2: a constitutive eosinophil chemokine induced by allergen challenge and IL-4 overexpression. J Immunol 2000;165:5839–5846.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zhu Z, Homer RJ, Wang Z, et al. Pulmonary expression of interleukin-13 causes inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, subepithelial fibrosis, physiologic abnormalities, and eotaxin production. J Clin Invest 1999;103:779–788.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Palframan RT, Collins PD, Williams TJ, Rankin SM. Eotaxin induces a rapid release of eosinophils and their progenitors from the bone marrow. Blood 1998;91:2240–2248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Yang M, Hogan SP, Mahalingam S, et al. Eotaxin-2 and IL-5 cooperate in the lung to regulate IL-13 production and airway eosinophilia and hyperreactivity. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;112:935–943.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Daugherty BL, Siciliano SJ, DeMartino JA, Malkowitz L, Sirotina A, Springer MS. Cloning, expression, and characterization of the human eosinophil eotaxin receptor. J Exp Med 1996;183:2349–2354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ponath PD, Qin S, Post TW, et al. Molecular cloning and characterization of a human eotaxin receptor expressed selectively on eosinophils. J Exp Med 1996;183:2437–2448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Akinbami LJ, Schoendorf KC. Trends in childhood asthma: prevalence, health care utilization, and mortality. Pediatrics 2002;110:315–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Guill MF. Asthma update: epidemiology and pathophysiology. Pediatr Rev 2004;25:299–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Strachan DP. The epidemiology of childhood asthma. Allergy 1999;54(suppl 49):7–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Expert Panel Report 2: Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma. In: National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute publication No. 97-4051. Bethesda, MD: 1997:1–153.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Novak N, Bieber T. Allergic and nonallergic forms of atopic diseases. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;112:252–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    McFadden ER Jr. Acute severe asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003;168:740–759.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wardlaw AJ, Brightling CE, Green R, Woltmann G, Bradding P, Pavord ID. New insights into the relationship between airway inflammation and asthma. Clin Sci (Lond) 2002;103:201–211.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Colby TV. Bronchiolitis. Pathologic considerations. Am J Clin Pathol 1998;109:101–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Djukanovic R, Roche WR, Wilson JW, et al. Mucosal inflammation in asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 1990;142:434–457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Laitinen A, Laitinen LA. Airway morphology: epithelium/basement membrane. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994;150:S14–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Carroll N, Elliot J, Morton A, James A. The structure of large and small airways in nonfatal and fatal asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 1993;147:405–410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Thurlbeck WM. Chronic airflow obstruction. In: Thurlbeck WM, Churg AM, eds. Pathology of the lung. 2nd ed. New York: Thieme, 1995:739–825.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Dunnill MS. The pathology of asthma, with special reference to changes in the bronchial mucosa. J Clin Pathol 1960;13:27–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Earle BV. Fatal bronchial asthma. A series of fifteen cases with a review of the literature. Thorax 1953;8:195–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Houston JC, Navasquez SD, Trounce JR. A clinical and pathological study of fatal cases of status asthmaticus. Thorax 1953;8:207–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Dunnill MS, Massarella GR, Anderson JA. A comparison of the quantitative anatomy of the bronchi in normal subjects, in status asthmaticus, in chronic bronchitis, and in emphysema. Thorax 1969;24:176–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hossain S, Heard BE. Hyperplasia of bronchial muscle in chronic bronchitis. J Pathol 1970;101:171–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Salvato G. Some histological changes in chronic bronchitis and asthma. Thorax 1968;23:168–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Takizawa T, Thurlbeck WM. Muscle and mucous gland size in the major bronchi of patients with chronic bronchitis, asthma, and asthmatic bronchitis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1971;104:331–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Schluter C, Duchrow M, Wohlenberg C, et al. The cell proliferation-associated antigen of antibody Ki-67: a very large, ubiquitous nuclear protein with numerous repeated elements, representing a new kind of cell cycle-maintaining proteins. J Cell Biol 1993;123:513–522.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Curschmann H. Uber Bronchiolitis exsudativa und irh Verhaltnis zum Asthma Nervosum. Dtsch Arch Klin Med 1883;32:1–34.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Azzawi M, Bradley B, Jeffery PK, et al. Identification of activated T lymphocytes and eosinophils in bronchial biopsies in stable atopic asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 1990;142:1407–1413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Beasley R, Burgess C, Crane J, Pearce N, Roche W. Pathology of asthma and its clinical implications. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1993;92:148–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Beasley R, Roche WR, Roberts JA, Holgate ST. Cellular events in the bronchi in mild asthma and after bronchial provocation. Am Rev Respir Dis 1989;139:806–817.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bentley AM, Menz G, Storz C, et al. Identification of T lymphocytes, macrophages, and activated eosinophils in the bronchial mucosa in intrinsic asthma. Relationship to symptoms and bronchial responsiveness. Am Rev Respir Dis 1992;146:500–506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bradley BL, Azzawi M, Jacobson M, et al. Eosinophils, T-lymphocytes, mast cells, neutrophils, and macrophages in bronchial biopsy specimens from atopic subjects with asthma: comparison with biopsy specimens from atopic subjects without asthma and normal control subjects and relationship to bronchial hyperresponsiveness. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1991;88:661–674.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Djukanovic R, Wilson JW, Britten KM, et al. Quantitation of mast cells and eosinophils in the bronchial mucosa of symptomatic atopic asthmatics and healthy control subjects using immunohistochemistry. Am Rev Respir Dis 1990;142:863–871.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kay AB. Pathology of mild, severe, and fatal asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996;154:S66–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Robinson DS, Bentley AM, Hartnell A, Kay AB, Durham SR. Activated memory T helper cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with atopic asthma: relation to asthma symptoms, lung function, and bronchial responsiveness. Thorax 1993;48:26–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Wardlaw AJ, Dunnette S, Gleich GJ, Collins JV, Kay AB. Eosinophils and mast cells in bronchoalveolar lavage in subjects with mild asthma. Relationship to bronchial hyperreactivity. Am Rev Respir Dis 1988;137:62–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Vignola AM, Chanez P, Campbell AM, et al. Airway inflammation in mild intermittent and in persistent asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;157:403–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Murray JJ, Tonnel AB, Brash AR, et al. Release of prostaglandin D2 into human airways during acute antigen challenge. N Engl J Med 1986;315:800–804.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Metzger WJ, Richerson HB, Worden K, Monick M, Hunninghake GW. Bronchoalveolar lavage of allergic asthmatic patients following allergen bronchoprovocation. Chest 1986;89:477–483.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Haley KJ, Sunday ME, Wiggs BR, et al. Inflammatory cell distribution within and along asthmatic airways. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;158:565–572.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kraft M, Djukanovic R, Wilson S, Holgate ST, Martin RJ. Alveolar tissue inflammation in asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996;154:1505–1510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Roche WR, Beasley R, Williams JH, Holgate ST. Subepithelial fibrosis in the bronchi of asthmatics. Lancet 1989;1:520–524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Bentley AM, Maestrelli P, Saetta M, et al. Activated T-lymphocytes and eosinophils in the bronchial mucosa in isocyanate-induced asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1992;89:821–829.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Rafferty P, Holgate ST. Terfenadine (Seldane) is a potent and selective histamine HI receptor antagonist in asthmatic airways. Am Rev Respir Dis 1987;135:181–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Brightling CE, Bradding P, Symon FA, Holgate ST, Wardlaw AJ, Pavord ID. Mast-cell infiltration of airway smooth muscle in asthma. N Engl J Med 2002;346:1699–1705.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Holgate ST. The bronchial epithelial origins of asthma. Chem Immunol 2000;78:62–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Saetta M, Di Stefano A, Rosina C, Thiene G, Fabbri LM. Quantitative structural analysis of peripheral airways and arteries in sudden fatal asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 1991;143:138–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Elliot JG, Jensen CM, Mutavdzic S, Lamb JP, Carroll NG, James AL. Aggregations of lymphoid cells in the airways of nonsmokers, smokers, and subjects with asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2004;169:712–718.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Pratt PC. Emphysema and chronic airways disease. In: Dail DH, Hammar SP, eds. Pulmonary pathology. 2nd ed. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1994:847–865.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Cartier A, Thomson NC, Frith PA, Roberts R, Hargreave FE. Allergen-induced increase in bronchial responsiveness to histamine: relationship to the late asthmatic response and change in airway caliber. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1982;70:170–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Drazen JM, Israel E, O’Byrne PM. Treatment of asthma with drugs modifying the leukotriene pathway. N Engl J Med 1999;340:197–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    O’Byrne PM, Dolovich J, Hargreave FE. Late asthmatic responses. Am Rev Respir Dis 1987;136:740–751.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Page S, Ammit AJ, Black JL, Armour CL. Human mast cell and airway smooth muscle cell interactions: implications for asthma. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2001;281:L1313–1323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Gauvreau GM, Doctor J, Watson RM, Jordana M, O’Byrne PM. Effects of inhaled budesonide on allergen-induced airway responses and airway inflammation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996;154:1267–1271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Azzawi M, Johnston PW, Majumdar S, Kay AB, Jeffery PK. T lymphocytes and activated eosinophils in airway mucosa in fatal asthma and cystic fibrosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1992;145:1477–1482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Jeffery PK, Wardlaw AJ, Nelson FC, Collins JV, Kay AB. Bronchial biopsies in asthma. An ultrastructural, quantitative study and correlation with hyperreactivity. Am Rev Respir Dis 1989;140:1745–1753.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hamid Q, Azzawi M, Ying S, et al. Interleukin-5 mRNA in mucosal bronchial biopsies from asthmatic subjects. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1991;94:169–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Ying S, Durham SR, Corrigan CJ, Hamid Q, Kay AB. Phenotype of cells expressing mRNA for TH2-type (interleukin 4 and interleukin 5) and TH1-type (interleukin 2 and interferon gamma) cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage and bronchial biopsies from atopic asthmatic and normal control subjects. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 1995;12:477–487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Humbert M, Durham SR, Ying S, et al. IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA and protein in bronchial biopsies from patients with atopic and nonatopic asthma: evidence against “intrinsic” asthma being a distinct immunopathologic entity. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996;154:1497–1504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Nakamura Y, Ghaffar O, Olivenstein R, et al. Gene expression of the GATA-3 transcription factor is increased in atopic asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;103:215–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Robinson DS, Ying S, Bentley AM, et al. Relationships among numbers of bronchoalveolar lavage cells expressing messenger ribonucleic acid for cytokines, asthma symptoms, and airway methacholine responsiveness in atopic asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1993;92:397–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Mattoli S, Stacey MA, Sun G, Bellini A, Marini M. Eotaxin expression and eosinophilic inflammation in asthma. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1997;236:299–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Wenzel SE, Schwartz LB, Langmack EL, et al. Evidence that severe asthma can be divided pathologically into two inflammatory subtypes with distinct physiologic and clinical characteristics. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;160:1001–1008.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Pavord ID, Brightling CE, Woltmann G, Wardlaw AJ. Noneosinophilic corticosteroid unresponsive asthma. Lancet 1999;353:2213–2214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Douwes J, Gibson P, Pekkanen J, Pearce N. Noneosinophilic asthma: importance and possible mechanisms. Thorax 2002;57:643–648.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Anticevich SZ, Hughes JM, Black JL, Armour CL. Induction of hyperresponsiveness in human airway tissue by neutrophils-mechanism of action. Clin Exp Allergy 1996;26:549–556.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Hiemstra PS, van Wetering S, Stolk J. Neutrophil serine proteinases and defensins in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: effects on pulmonary epithelium. Eur Respir J 1998;12:1200–1208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Gibson PG, Simpson JL, Saltos N. Heterogeneity of airway inflammation in persistent asthma: evidence of neutrophilic inflammation and increased sputum interleukin-8. Chest 2001;119:1329–1336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Lummus ZL, Alam R, Bernstein JA, Bernstein DI. Diisocyanate antigen-enhanced production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha by peripheral mononuclear cells of workers with occupational asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;102:265–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Jung KS, Park HS. Evidence for neutrophil activation in occupational asthma. Respirology 1999;4:303–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Becker S, Clapp WA, Quay J, Frees KL, Koren HS, Schwartz DA. Compartmentalization of the inflammatory response to inhaled grain dust. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;160:1309–1318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Ordonez CL, Shaughnessy TE, Matthay MA, Fahy JV. Increased neutrophil numbers and IL-8 levels in airway secretions in acute severe asthma: Clinical and biologic significance. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;161:1185–1190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Kurt-Jones EA, Popova L, Kwinn L, et al. Pattern recognition receptors TLR4 and CD 14 mediate response to respiratory syncytial virus. Nat Immunol 2000;1:398–401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Kleeberger SR, Reddy SP, Zhang LY, Cho HY, Jedlicka AE. Toll-like receptor 4 mediates ozone-induced murine lung hyperpermeability via inducible nitric oxide synthase. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2001;280:L326–333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Payne D, Bush A. Phenotype-specific treatment of difficult asthma in children. Paediatr Respir Rev 2004;5:116–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Sur S, Crotty TB, Kephart GM, et al. Sudden-onset fatal asthma. A distinct entity with few eosinophils and relatively more neutrophils in the airway submucosa? Am Rev Respir Dis 1993;148:713–719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Gundel RH, Torcellini CA, Clarke CC, Desai S, Lazer ES, Wegner CD. The effects of a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor on antigen-induced mediator release, late-phase bronchocon-striction and cellular infiltrates in primates. Adv Prostaglandin Thromboxane Leukot Res 1991;21A:457–460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Gibson PG, Dolovich J, Denburg J, Ramsdale EH, Harg-reave FE. Chronic cough: eosinophilic bronchitis without asthma. Lancet 1989;1:1346–1348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Ayik SO, Basoglu OK, Erdinc M, Bor S, Veral A, Bilgen C. Eosinophilic bronchitis as a cause of chronic cough. Respir Med 2003;97:695–701.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Birring SS, Berry M, Brightling CE, Pavord ID. Eosinophilic bronchitis: clinical features, management and pathogenesis. Am J Respir Med 2003;2:169–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Brightling CE, Pavord ID. Eosinophilic bronchitis: an important cause of prolonged cough. Ann Med 2000;32:446–451.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Brightling CE, Pavord ID. Eosinophilic bronchitis—what is it and why is it important? Clin Exp Allergy 2000;30:4–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Brightling CE, Symon FA, Birring SS, Bradding P, Wardlaw AJ, Pavord ID. Comparison of airway immunopathology of eosinophilic bronchitis and asthma. Thorax 2003;58:528–532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Brightling CE, Ward R, Goh KL, Wardlaw AJ, Pavord ID. Eosinophilic bronchitis is an important cause of chronic cough. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;160:406–410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Gibson PG, Fujimura M, Niimi A. Eosinophilic bronchitis: clinical manifestations and implications for treatment. Thorax 2002;57:178–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Brightling CE, Ward R, Woltmann G, et al. Induced sputum inflammatory mediator concentrations in eosinophilic bronchitis and asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;162:878–882.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Hancox RJ, Leigh R, Kelly MM, Hargreave FE. Eosinophilic bronchitis. Lancet 2001;358:1104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Brightling CE, Monteiro W, Ward R, et al. Sputum eosino-philia and short-term response to prednisolone in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2000;356:1480–1485.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Pizzichini E, Pizzichini MM, Gibson P, et al. Sputum eosinophilia predicts benefit from prednisone in smokers with chronic obstructive bronchitis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;158:1511–1517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Löffler W. Differential-Diagnose der Lungeninfiltrierungen. II. Uber flüchtige Succedan-Infiltrate (mit Eosinophilie). Beitr Klin Erforsch Tuberk Lungenkr 1932;79:368.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Johkoh T, Muller NL, Akira M, et al. Eosinophilic lung diseases: diagnostic accuracy of thin-section CT in 111 patients. Radiology 2000;216:773–780.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Liebow AA, Carrington CB. The eosinophilic pneumonias. Medicine (Baltimore) 1969;48:251–285.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Travis WD, Colby TV, Koss MN, Rosado-de-Christenson ML, Müller N, Talmadge EK. Non-neoplastic disorders of the lower respiratory tract. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Registry of Pathology and the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 2002.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Enright T, Chua S, Lim DT. Pulmonary eosinophilic syndromes. Ann Allergy 1989;18511:15381–15360.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Gopinathan VP. Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia. A clinical study. Med J Aust 1983;1:69–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Neva FA, Ottesen EA. Current concepts in parasitology. Tropical (filarial) eosinophilia. N Engl J Med 1978;298:1129–1131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Allen JN, Pacht ER, Gadek JE, Davis WB. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia as a reversible cause of noninfectious respiratory failure. N Engl J Med 1989;321:569–574.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Badesch DB, King TE Jr, Schwarz MI. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia: a hypersensitivity phenomenon? Am Rev Respir Dis 1989;139:249–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Buchheit J, Eid N, Rodgers G Jr, Feger T, Yakoub O. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia with respiratory failure: a new syndrome? Am Rev Respir Dis 1992;145:716–718.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Hayakawa H, Sato A, Toyoshima M, Imokawa S, Taniguchi M. A clinical study of idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia. Chest 1994;105:1462–1466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    King MA, Pope-Harman AL, Allen JN, Christoforidis GA, Christoforidis AJ. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia: radiologic and clinical features. Radiology 1997;203:715–719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Philit F, Etienne-Mastroianni B, Parrot A, Guerin C, Robert D, Cordier JF. Idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia: a study of 22 patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002;166:1235–1239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Pope-Harman AL, Davis WB, Allen ED, Christoforidis AJ, Allen JN. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia. A summary of 15 cases and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore) 1996;75:334–342.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Allen JN, Davis WB. Eosinophilic lung diseases. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994;150:1423–1438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Tazelaar HD, Linz LJ, Colby TV, Myers JL, Limper AH. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia: histopathologic findings in nine patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997;155:296–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Shintani H, Fujimura M, Yasui M, et al. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia caused by cigarette smoking. Intern Med 2000;39:66–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Taki R, Sawada M, Isogai S, et al. A possible role of cigarette smoking in the pathogenesis of acute eosinophilic pneumonia (abstr). Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996;153:A271.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Nakajima M, Manabe T, Niki Y, Matsushima T, Takashi S. A case of cigarette smoking-induced acute eosinophilic pneumonia showing tolerance. Chest 2000;118:1517–1518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Rom WN, Weiden M, Garcia R, et al. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia in a New York City firefighter exposed to World Trade Center dust. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002;166:797–800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Brander PE, Tukiainen P. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia in a heroin smoker. Eur Respir J 1993;6:750–752.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    St. John RC, Allen JN, Pacht ER. Postoperative respiratory failure due to acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Intensive Care Med 1990;16:408–410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Andreu V, Bataller R, Caballeria J, Rodes J. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia associated with ranitidine. J Clin Gastroenterol 1996;23:160–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Martinez BM, Domingo P. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia associated with tenidap. BMJ 1997;314:349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Seebach J, Speich R, Fehr J, Tuchschmid P, Russi E. GM-CSF-induced acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Br J Haematol 1995;90:963–965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Salerno SM, Strong JS, Roth BJ, Sakata V. Eosinophilic pneumonia and respiratory failure associated with a trazodone overdose. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995;152:2170–2172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Bouckaert Y, Robert F, Englert Y, De Backer D, De Vuyst P, Delbaere A. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia associated with intramuscular administration of progesterone as luteal phase support after IVF: case report. Hum Reprod 2004;19:1806–1810.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Barnes MT, Bascunana J, Garcia B, Alvarez-Sala JL. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia associated with antidepressant agents. Pharm World Sci 1999;21:241–242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Dupon M, Malou M, Rogues AM, Lacut JY. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia induced by inhaled pentamidine isethionate. BMJ 1993;306:109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Roig J, Romeu J, Rivera C, Texido A, Domingo C, Morera J. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia due to toxocariasis with bronchoalveolar lavage findings. Chest 1992;102:294–296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Ricker DH, Taylor SR, Gartner JC Jr, Kurland G. Fatal pulmonary aspergillosis presenting as acute eosinophilic pneumonia in a previously healthy child. Chest 1991;100:875–877.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Glazer CS, Cohen LB, Schwarz MI. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia in AIDS. Chest 2001;120:1732–1735.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Mayo J, Collazos J, Martinez E, Diaz F. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia in a patient infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Tuber Lung Dis 1995;76:77–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Allen JN, Liao Z, Wewers MD, Altenberger EA, Moore SA, Allen ED. Detection of IL-5 and IL-1 receptor antagonist in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in acute eosinophilic pneumonia. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996;97:1366–1374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Okubo Y, Horie S, Hachiya T, et al. Predominant implication of IL-5 in acute eosinophilic pneumonia: comparison with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1998;116:76–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Reynolds HY. Bronchoalveolar lavage. Am Rev Respir Dis 1987;135:250–263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Carrington CB, Addington WW, Goff AM, et al. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. N Engl J Med 1969;280:787–798.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Buddharaju VL, Saraceno JL, Rosen JM, et al. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia associated with shock. Crit Care Med 1999;27:2014–2016.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Kawayama T, Fujiki R, Morimitsu Y, Rikimaru T, Aizawa H. Fatal idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia with acute lung injury. Respirology 2002;7:373–375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Crofton JW, Livingstone JL, Oswald NC, Roberts AT. Pulmonary eosinophilia. Thorax 1952;7:1–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Liebow AA, Carrington CB. The eosinophilic pneumonias. Medicine 1969;48:251–285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Jederlinic PJ, Sicilian L, Gaensler EA. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. A report of 19 cases and a review of the literature. Medicine 1988;67:154–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Kim Y, Lee KS, Choi DC, Primack SL, Im JG. The spectrum of eosinophilic lung disease: radiologic findings. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1997;21:920–930.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Pesci A, Bertorelli G, Manganelli P, et al. Bronchoalveolar lavage in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. Analysis of six cases in comparison with other interstitial lung diseases. Respiration 1988;54(suppl):16–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Fujimura M, Yasui M, Shinagawa S, Nomura M, Matsuda T. Bronchoalveolar lavage cell findings in three types of eosinophilic pneumonia: acute, chronic and drug-induced eosinophilic pneumonia. Respir Med 1998;92:743–749.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Dejaegher P, Demedts M. Bronchoalveolar lavage in eosinophilic pneumonia before and during corticosteroid therapy. Am Rev Respir Dis 1984;129:631–632.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Fox B, Seed WA. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. Thorax 1980;35:570–580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Dines DE. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia: a roentgenographic diagnosis. Mayo Clin Proc 1978;53:129–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Flieder DB, Travis WD. Pathologic characteristics of drug-induced lung disease. Clin Chest Med 2004;25:37–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Elsom KA, Ingelfinger FJ. Eosinophilia and pneumonitis in chronic brucellosis: a report of two cases. Ann Intern Med 1942;16:995–1002.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Wright JL, Pare PD, Hammond M, Donevan RE. Eosinophilic pneumonia and atypical mycobacterial infection. Am Rev Respir Dis 1983;127:497–499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Lombard CM, Tazelaar HD, Krasne DL. Pulmonary eosinophilia in coccidioidal infections. Chest 1987;91:734–736.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Toyoshima M, Sato A, Taniguchi M, et al. A case of eosinophilic pneumonia caused by inhalation of nickel dusts. Nihon Kyobu Shikkan Gakkai Zasshi 1994;32:480–484.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Bosken CH, Myers JL, Greenberger PA, Katzenstein AL. Pathologic features of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Am J Surg Pathol 1988;12:216–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Churg A. Recent advances in the diagnosis of Churg-Strauss syndrome. Mod Pathol 2001;14:1284–1293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Churg A. Pulmonary angiitis and granulomatosis revisited. Hum Pathol 1983;14:868–883.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Yousem SA, Lombard CM. The eosinophilic variant of Wegener’s granulomatosis. Hum Pathol 1988;19:682–688.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Travis WD, Borok Z, Roum JH, et al. Pulmonary Langerhans cell granulomatosis (Histiocytosis X). A clinicopathologic study of 48 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 1993;17:971–986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Yousem SA. Eosinophilic pneumonia-like areas in idiopathic usual interstitial pneumonia. Mod Pathol 2000;13:1280–1284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Erasmus JJ, McAdams HP, Rossi SE. Drug-induced lung injury. Semin Roentgenol 2002;37:72–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Parry SD, Barbatzas C, Peel ET, Barton JR. Sulphasalazine and lung toxicity. Eur Respir J 2002;19:756–764.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Trojan A, Meier R, Licht A, Taverna C. Eosinophilic pneumonia after administration of fludarabine for the treatment of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Ann Hematol 2002;81:535–537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Yokoyama T, Miyazawa K, Kurakawa E, et al. Interstitial pneumonia induced by imatinib mesylate: pathologic study demonstrates alveolar destruction and fibrosis with eosinophilic infiltration. Leukemia 2004;18:645–646.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Hakoda Y, Aoshima M, Kinoshita M, Sakurai M, Ohyas-hiki K. A case of eosinophilic pneumonia possibly associated with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi 2004;42:404–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Strumpf IJ, Drucker RD, Anders KH, Cohen S, Fajolu O. Acute eosinophilic pulmonary disease associated with the ingestion of L-tryptophan-containing products. Chest 1991;99:8–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Travis WD, Kalafer ME, Robin HS, Luibel FJ. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis and pulmonary vasculitis with eosinophilia in a patient taking an L-tryptophan preparation. Ann Intern Med 1990;112:301–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Kaufman LD, Seidman RJ, Gruber BL. L-tryptophan-associated eosinophilic perimyositis, neuritis, and fasciitis. A clinicopathologic and laboratory study of 25 patients. Medicine (Baltimore) 1990;69:187–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Philen RM, Hill RH Jr, Flanders WD, et al. Tryptophan contaminants associated with eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome. The Eosinophilia-Myalgia Studies of Oregon, New York and New Mexico. Am J Epidemiol 1993;138:154–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Tazelaar HD, Myers JL, Drage CW, King TE Jr, Aguayo S, Colby TV. Pulmonary disease associated with L-tryptophan-induced eosinophilic myalgia syndrome. Clinical and pathologic features. Chest 1990;97:1032–1036.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Alonso-Ruiz A, Calabozo M, Perez-Ruiz F, Mancebo L. Toxic oil syndrome. A long-term follow-up of a cohort of 332 patients. Medicine (Baltimore) 1993;72:285–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Kilbourne EM, Rigau-Perez JG, Heath CW Jr, et al. Clinical epidemiology of toxic-oil syndrome. Manifestations of a new illness. N Engl J Med 1983;309:1408–1414.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Takamizawa A, Amari T, Kubo K. A case of acute eosinophilic pneumonia induced by inhalation of acetylene. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi 2000;38:947–951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Hommura F, Munakata M, Doi I, Nasuhara Y, Kawakami Y. Pulmonary infiltration with eosinophilia due to rabbit-fur antigen: diagnosis by allergen inhalation test. Nihon Kyobu Shikkan Gakkai Zasshi 1997;35:455–460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Kelly KJ, Ruffing R. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia following intentional inhalation of Scotchguard. Ann Allergy 1993;71:358–361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Vijayan V-K, Reetha A-M, Jawahar MS, Sankaran K, Prabhakar R. Pulmonary eosinophilia in pulmonary tuberculosis. Chest 1992;101:1708–1709.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Keslin MH, McCoy EL, McCusker JJ, Lutch JS. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. A new cause of infectious and eosinophilic pneumonia. Am J Med 1979;67:228–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Kawayama T, Fujiki R, Rikimaru T, Aizawa H. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia associated with Schizophyllum commune. Respirology 2003;8:529–531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Inoue K, Inoue Y, Arai T, et al. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia due to visceral larva migrans. Intern Med 2002;41:478–482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Yousem SA, Weiss LM, Colby TV. Primary pulmonary Hodgkin’s disease. Cancer 1986;57:1217–1224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Cockrill BA, Hales CA. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Annu Rev Med 1999;50:303–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Elliott MW, Newman Taylor AJ. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Clin Exp Allergy 1997;27(suppl 1):55–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Franquet T, Muller NL, Gimenez A, Guembe P, de La Torre J, Bague S. Spectrum of pulmonary aspergillosis: histologic, clinical, and radiologic findings. Radiographics 2001;21:825–837.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Franquet T, Muller NL, Oikonomou A, Flint JD. Aspergillus infection of the airways: computed tomography and pathologic findings. J Comput Assist Tomogr 2004;28:10–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Khan AN, Jones C, Macdonald S. Bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: a review. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol 2003;32:156–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Wark PA, Gibson PG. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: new concepts of pathogenesis and treatment. Respirology 2001;6:1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Wardlaw A, Geddes DM. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: a review. J R Soc Med 1992;85:747–751.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Mroueh S, Spock A. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in patients with cystic fibrosis. Chest 1994;105:32–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Simmonds EJ, Littlewood JM, Evans EG. Cystic fibrosis and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Arch Dis Child 1990;65:507–511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Basich JE, Graves TS, Baz MN, et al. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in corticosteroid-dependent asthmatics. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1981;68:98–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Chetty A. Pathology of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Front Biosci 2003;8:e110–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Levy MB. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and cystic fibrosis. Front Biosci 2003;8:s579–583.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Greenberger PA, Patterson R, Ghory A, et al. Late sequelae of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1980;66:327–335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Radin RC, Greenberger PA, Patterson R, Ghory A. Mould counts and exacerbations of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Clin Allergy 1983;13:271–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Logan PM, Muller NL. High-attenuation mucous plugging in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Can Assoc Radiol J 1996;47:374–377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Gotway MB, Dawn SK, Caoili EM, Reddy GP, Araoz PA, Webb WR. The radiologic spectrum of pulmonary Aspergillus infections. J Comput Assist Tomogr 2002;26:159–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Greenberger PA, Patterson R. Diagnosis and management of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Ann Allergy 1986;56:444–448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Bosken CH, Myers JL, Greenberger PA, Katzenstein ALA. Pathologic features of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Am J Surg Pathol 1988;12:216–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Katzenstein AL, Liebow AA, Friedman PJ. Bronchocen-tric granulomatosis, mucoid impaction, and hypersensitivity reactions to fungi. Am Rev Respir Dis 1975;111:497–537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Liebow AA. Pulmonary angiitis and granulomatosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1973;108:1–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Koss MN, Robinson RG, Hochholzer L. Bronchocentric granulomatosis. Hum Pathol 1981;12:632–638.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Myers JL, Katzenstein A-LA. Granulomatous infection mimicking bronchocentric granulomatosis. Am J Surg Pathol 1986;10:317–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Den Hertog RW, Wagenaar SS, Wastermann CJ. Bronchocentric granulomatosis and pulmonary echinococcosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1982;126:344–347.Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Tron V, Churg A. Chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis mimicking bronchocentric granulomatosis. Pathol Res Pract 1986;181:621–626.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Yousem SA. The histological spectrum of chronic necrotizing forms of pulmonary aspergillosis. Hum Pathol 1997;28:650–656.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Travis WD, Kwon Chung KJ, Kleiner DE, et al. Unusual aspects of allergic bronchopulmonary fungal disease: report of two cases due to Curvularia organisms associated with allergic fungal sinusitis. Hum Pathol 1991;22:1240–1248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Jelihovsky T. The structure of bronchial plugs in mucoid impaction, bronchocentric granulomatosis and asthma. Histopathology 1983;7:153–167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Amitani R, Nishimura K, Niimi A, et al. Bronchial mucoid impaction due to the monokaryotic mycelium of Schizophyllum commune. Clin Infect Dis 1996;22:146–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Felson B. Mucoid impaction (inspissated secretions) in segmental bronchial obstruction. Radiology 1979;133:9–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Irwin RS, Thomas HD. Mucoid impaction of the bronchus. Diagnosis and treatment. Am Rev Respir Dis 1973;108:955–959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Khanijo V, Gupta L, Killam DA. Mucoid impaction of bronchus proximal to bronchogenic carcinoma. N Y State J Med 1983;83:232–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Nishimura T, Morita T, Kubota G, Shimizu T, Kaneko M. Unusual mucoid impaction in a case of bronchogenic carcinoma. A case report on mucoid impaction caused by carcinomatous lymphangitis of the bronchial wall distant from the primary lesion. Radiologe 1991;31:92–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Katzenstein AL, Askin FB. Surgical pathology of nonneoplastic lung disease. n2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1990.Google Scholar
  225. 225.
    Sanchez-Alarcos JM, Martinez-Cruz R, Ortega L, Calle M, Rodriguez-Hermosa JL, Alvarez-Sala JL. ABPA mimicking bronchogenic cancer. Allergy 2001;56:80–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Tamura A, Hebisawa A, Kurashima A, et al. The use of bronchofiberscopy for diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Intern Med 1997;36:865–869.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Aubry MC, Fraser R. The role of bronchial biopsy and washing in the diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Mod Pathol 1998;11:607–611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Kauffman HE. Immunopathogenesis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and airway remodeling. Front Biosci 2003;8:e190–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Walker C, Bauer W, Braun RK, et al. Activated T cells and cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavages from patients with various lung diseases associated with eosinophilia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994;150:1038–1048.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Knutsen AP. Lymphocytes in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Front Biosci 2003;8:d589–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Schuyler M. The Th1/Th2 paradigm in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. J Lab Clin Med 1998;131:194–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Chu HW, Wang JM, Boutet M, Boulet LP, Laviolette M. Immunohistochemical detection of GM-CSF, IL-4 and IL-5 in a murine model of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Clin Exp Allergy 1996;26:461–468.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Kurup VP, Choi H, Murali PS, Resnick A, Fink JN, Coffman RL. Role of particulate antigens of Aspergillus in murine eosinophilia. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1997;112:270–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Kurup VP, Hari V, Guo J, et al. Aspergillus fumigatus peptides differentially express Th1 and Th2 cytokines. Peptides 1996;17:183–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Blease K, Mehrad B, Standiford TJ, et al. Airway remodeling is absent in CCR1-/-mice during chronic fungal allergic airway disease. J Immunol 2000;165:1564–1572.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Grunig G, Kurup VP. Animal models of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Front Biosci 2003;8:e157–171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Chauhan B, Hutcheson PS, Slavin RG, Bellone CJ. MHC restriction in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Front Biosci 2003;8:s140–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Chauhan B, Santiago L, Hutcheson PS, et al. Evidence for the involvement of two different MHC class II regions in susceptibility or protection in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;106:723–729.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Salez F, Brichet A, Desurmont S, Grosbois JM, Wallaert B, Tonnel AB. Effects of itraconazole therapy in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Chest 1999;116:1665–1668.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Stevens DA, Schwartz HJ, Lee JY, et al. A randomized trial of itraconazole in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. N Engl J Med 2000;342:756–762.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Bettmann M. Report of a case of fibrinous bronchitis, with a review of all cases in the literature. Am J Med Sci 1902;123:304–329.Google Scholar
  242. 242.
    Leggat PO. Plastic bronchitis. Dis Chest 1954;26:464–473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Morgan AD, Bogomoletz W. Mucoid impaction of the bronchi in relation to asthma an plastic bronchitis. Thorax 1968;23:356–369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Jett JR, Tazelaar HD, Keim LW, Ingrassia TS, 3rd. Plastic bronchitis: an old disease revisited. Mayo Clin Proc 1991;66:305–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Sanerkin NG, Seal RM, Leopold JG. Plastic bronchitis, mucoid impaction of the bronchi and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, and their relationship to bronchial asthma. Ann Allergy 1966;24:586–594.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Bowen A, Oudjhane K, Odagiri K, Liston SL, Cumming WA, Oh KS. Plastic bronchitis: large, branching, mucoid bronchial casts in children. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1985;144:371–375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Seear M, Hui H, Magee F, Bohn D, Cutz E. Bronchial casts in children: a proposed classification based on nine cases and a review of the literature. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997;155:364–370.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Quasney MW, Orman K, Thompson J, et al. Plastic bronchitis occurring late after the Fontan procedure: treatment with aerosolized urokinase. Crit Care Med 2000;28:2107–2111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Johnson RS, Sita-Lumsden EG. Plastic bronchitis. Thorax 1960;15:325–332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Weller PF, Bubley GJ. The idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome. Blood 1994;83:2759–2779.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Chusid MJ, Dale DC, West BC, Wolff SM. The hypereosinophilic syndrome. Medicine 1975;54:1–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Fauci AS, Harley JB, Roberts WC, Ferrans VJ, Gralnick HR, Bjornson BH. NIH conference. The idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome. Clinical, pathophysiologic, and therapeutic considerations. Ann Intern Med 1982;97:78–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Spry CJ, Davies J, Tai PC, Olsen EG, Oakley CM, Goodwin JF. Clinical features of fifteen patients with the hypereo-sinophilic syndrome. Q J Med 1983;52:1–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Corrin B. Pathology of the Lungs. 1st ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 2000.Google Scholar
  255. 255.
    Hill R, Wang NS, Berry G. Hypereosinophilic syndrome with pulmonary vascular involvement. Angiology 1984;35:238–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Suenaga N, Hayashi F, Miyauhi N, et al. A case of hypereosinophilic syndrome associated with pulmonary infarction and hepatic vein obstruction (Budd-Chiari syndrome). Nihon Kyobu Shikkan Gakkai Zasshi 1991;29:239–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Apperley JF, Gardembas M, Melo JV, et al. Response to imatinib mesylate in patients with chronic myeloproliferative diseases with rearrangements of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta. N Engl J Med 2002;347:481–487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Ault P, Cortes J, Roller C, Kaled ES, Kantarjian H. Response of idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome to treatment with imatinib mesylate. Leuk Res 2002;26:881–884.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Cortes J, Ault P, Koller C, et al. Efficacy of imatinib mesylate in the treatment of idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome. Blood 2003;101:4714–4716.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Gleich GJ, Leiferman KM, Pardanani A, Tefferi A, Butterfield JH. Treatment of hypereosinophilic syndrome with imatinib mesilate. Lancet 2002;359:1577–1578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Pardanani A, Reeder T, Porrata LF, et al. Imatinib therapy for hypereosinophilic syndrome and other eosinophilic disorders. Blood 2003;101:3391–3397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Schaller JL, Burkland GA. Case report: rapid and complete control of idiopathic hypereosinophilia with imatinib mesylate. Med Gen Med 2001;3:9.Google Scholar
  263. 263.
    Cools J, DeAngelo DJ, Gotlib J, et al. A tyrosine kinase created by fusion of the PDGFRA and FIP1L1 genes as a therapeutic target of imatinib in idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome. N Engl J Med 2003;348:1201–1214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Bain BJ. Relationship between idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome, eosinophilic leukemia, and systemic mastocytosis. Am J Hematol 2004;77:82–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Cools J, Stover EH, Wlodarska I, Marynen P, Gilliland DG. The FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha kinase in hypereosinophilic syndrome and chronic eosinophilic leukemia. Curr Opin Hematol 2004;11:51–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Coutre S, Gotlib J. Targeted treatment of hypereosinophilic syndromes and chronic eosinophilic leukemias with imatinib mesylate. Semin Cancer Biol 2004;14:307–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Bank I, Amariglio N, Reshef A, et al. The hypereosinophilic syndrome associated with CD4+CD3− helper type 2 (Th2) lymphocytes. Leuk Lymphoma 2001;42:123–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Garrett JK, Jameson SC, Thomson B, et al. Anti-interleukin-5 (mepolizumab) therapy for hypereosinophilic syndromes. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;113:115–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donald G. GuineeJr.
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PathologyVirginia Mason Medical CenterSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations