The control of crop pests is as old as human civilization itself. Since the prehistoric era, human beings have used several primitive means in an effort to protect their crop yields. The Chaldeans were the first to use jackstraws. In addition, it is widely known that the ancient Greeks and Romans used sulfur, the effectiveness of the use of which, however, seems to have been known even earlier, by the Sumerians around 2500 B.C. The burning of plants was usual in ancient times for the disinfection of closed rooms (Koutselinis, 1997)

In spite of substantial human effort, the evolution of the several means of plant protection has been considerably retarded, and only from the middle of the sixteenth century did man witness the appearance of chemicals for the purpose of controlling certain crop pests. Arsenic was first used in 1669 and tobacco extract (whose active ingredient is nicotine) was first used as an insecticide in 1690. In 1845, the government of Prussia introduced phosphorus as a rodenticide; derris appeared around 1848 as an insecticide and in 1868 Paris green started being applied for the control of potato Coleopterans. From then and until the outbreak of World War II, various means of plant protection were used, with inorganic substances prevailing among them. The first organic pesticide was DDT; it had been known since 1874 when it was invented by a German chemist, but only in 1939 did the Swiss Paul Müller ascertain its insecticidal qualities. Since that time many new chemical substances have been produced and nowadays the number of pesticides exceeds 10,000, of which only 600–800 are used, whereas there are about 12,000 commercial combinations. In the Greek market, for example, about 1,350 commercial products exist (Polyrakis, 2004)


Pesticide Residue Crop Pest Maleic Hydrazide Dimethyl Fumarate Organophosphorus Insecticide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Akesson NB (1973) Application equipment for pesticide spraying. Workshop on Pesticide Spray Technology, Oakland, CA.Google Scholar
  2. Akesson NB and Yates WE (1964) Problems relating to application of agricultural chemicals and resulting drift residues. Ann. Rev. Entomol. (9): 285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alexandrakis V (1979) Contribution a l' étude d' Aspidiotus neriiBOUCHE (Homoptera, Diaspididae) en Crète. Thèse Univ., Bordeaux.Google Scholar
  4. Alexandrakis V (1989) Effect of Dacus oleaecontrol sprays by air or ground on the ecology of Aspidiotus neriiBouché ( Horn. Diaspididae). International Symposium of Olive Growing, Cordoba, Spain, Sept 1989.Google Scholar
  5. Alexandrakis V and Paraskakis M (1989) The side effects of insecticides on useful organisms. Proceedings of Symposium: “Agrochemical and Environment,” Chania, Dec 1989 (in Greek).Google Scholar
  6. Antoniou V, Zantopoulos N, and Tsoukali E (2001) seis.html-12k
  7. Atkins EL, Kellum D, and Atkins KW (1978) Encapsulated methyl parathion formulation is highly hazardous to honeybees. Am. Bee J. (118): 483–485.Google Scholar
  8. Balayannis PG (1988) The presence of pesticides into superficial and underground waters. Proceedings of the International Symposium: “Pesticides: Problems and Alternative Solutions,” Athens, Sept 1988 (in Greek).Google Scholar
  9. Barthélémy P, Bouvier JL, and Jouy L (1994) Technique de pulvérisation: Comment limiter la dérive? Perspect. Agric. (194): 79–87.Google Scholar
  10. Bartlet BR (1964) Integration chemical and biological control. In: Bach De (Ed.) Biological Control of Insect Pest. Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
  11. Bedos C, Cellier P, Calvet R, Barriuso E, and Gabrielle B (2002) Mass transfer of pesticides into the atmosphere by volatilization from soils and plants: overview. Agronomie (22): 21–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bicki TJ (1989) Pesticides and groundwater. Pesticides as potential pollutants. Land and Water No 12.Google Scholar
  13. Bor G, Van den Berg F, Smelt JH, Smidt RA, Van de Peppel-Groen AE, and Leistra M (1995) Volatilization of Triallate, Ethoprophos and Parathion Measured with Four Methods After Spraying on a Sandy Soil. SC-DLO, Agricultural Research Department, Winand Staring Centre for Integrated Land, Soil and Water Research.Google Scholar
  14. Boutin C, Freemark KE, and Kirk DA (1999) Farmland birds in Southern Ontario: field use, activity patterns and vulnerability to pesticide use. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. (72): 239–254.Google Scholar
  15. Breeze VG, Simmons JC, and Roberts MO (1992) Evaporation and uptake of the herbicide 2,4-D-butyl applied to barley leaves. Pestic. Sci. (36): 101–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Buchanan M and Horwitz C (1997)
  17. Buttler T, Martinkovic W and Nesheim ON (1998)
  18. Cessna AJ, Kerr LA, Pattey E, Zhu T, and Desjardins RI (1995) Field comparison of polyurethane foam plugs and mini-tubes containing Tenax-Ta resin as trapping media for the aerodynamic gradient measurement of trifluralin vapour fluxes. J. Chromatogr. A (710): 251–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chrysoyelos N (1988) Pesticides: their invasion and dominion in the Greek area. Proceedings of the International Symposium: “Pesticides: Problems and Alternative Solutions.” Athens, Sept1988 (in Greek).Google Scholar
  20. Coats JR (Ed.) (1982) Insecticide Mode of Action. Academic, New York.Google Scholar
  21. Corbett JR, Wright K and Baillie AC (1984) The Biochemical Mode of Action of Pesticides(2nd edn). Academic, New York.Google Scholar
  22. Cunningha RT, Brann JL Jr. and Fleming GR (1962) Factors affecting the evaporation of water from droplets in airblast sprayings. J. Econ. Entomol. (55):192Google Scholar
  23. Decker GC, Weinham CJ and Bann JM (1950) A preliminary report on the rate of insecticide loss from treated plants. J. Econ. Entomol. (43): 919.Google Scholar
  24. Doxtader KG and Croissant RL (1992) Pesticides/Fate_of_Pesticides.pdf
  25. Durham WF (1979) Human health hazards of respiratory exposure to pesticides. In: Air Pollution from Pesticides and Agricultural Processes, CRC, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  26. Edwards CA (1965) Some side-effects resulting from the use of persistent insecticides. Ann. Appl. Biol. (55): 329–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Edwards CA (1973) Pesticide residues in soil and water. In: Environmental Pollution by Pesticides, Edwards CA ed., Plenum, London and New York.Google Scholar
  28. Edwards PJ, Fletcher MR, and Berny P (2000) Review of the factors affecting the decline of the European brown hare, Lepus europaeusand the use of wildlife incident data to evaluate the significance of paraquat. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. (79): 95–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Furmidge GGL (1963) The application of flying-spot scanning to particle size analysis in the formulation of pesticides. Analyst (88): 686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Grass B, Wenclawiak BW and Rüdel H, Influence of air veloCity, air temperature, and air humidity on the volatilization of trifluralin from soil. Chemosphere28 (1994), pp. 491–499.Google Scholar
  31. Gnesda D (1997) Dioxin exposure and cancer risk: a 15-year mortality study after the “Seveso accident.” Epidemiology (6): 8.Google Scholar
  32. Hassall KA (1982) The Chemistry of Pesticides. Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  33. Haughton A, Bell JR, Boatman ND and Wilcox A (1999) The effects of different rates of the herbicide glyphosate on spiders in arable field margins. J. Arachol. (27): 249–254.Google Scholar
  34. Heggestad HE (1974) Air pollutants from and effects on agriculture. Presented at the APCA Conference on Control Technology for Agricultural Air Pollutants, Memphis, Tennessee, March 1974.Google Scholar
  35. Hill DA (1985) The feeding ecology and survival of pheasant chicks on arable farmland. J. Appl. Ecol. (22): 645–654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hurtig H (1973) Chemicals in the environment. Some aspects of agricultural chemicals. In: Environmental Quality and Safety, vol. 2, Coulston F and Korte Feds., Academic, New York.Google Scholar
  37. Iyaniwura TT (1991) Non-target and environmental hazards of pesticides. Rev. Environ. Health 9 (3): 161–176.Google Scholar
  38. James JA and Vaughan LM (1970) Measuring particle drifts to four miles. J. Appl. Meteorol. (9): 79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Johansen CA (1977) Pesticides and pollinators. Ann. Rev. Entomol. (1): 51–54.Google Scholar
  40. Jurry WA, Spencer WF, Farmer WJ (1983) Behavior assessment model for trace organics in soil. I. Model description. J. Environ. Qual. (12): 558–564.Google Scholar
  41. Kalopissis ITh (1981) Air Sprays Against Olive Fly and Nature's Protection(in Greek).Google Scholar
  42. Kearns CA and Inouye DW (1997) Pollinators, flowering plants, and conservation biology: much remains to be learned about pollinators and plants. BioScience (47): 297–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kegley S, Neumeister L and Martin T (1999) ingSum.dv.html
  44. Kennedy MV, Stojanovic BJ and Shuman FL Jr (1972) Analysis of decomposition products of pesticides. J. Agric. Food. Chem. (20): 341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kiigemagi U and Terriere LC (1971) Losses of organophosphorus insecticides during application to the soil. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (6): 336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kotsovinos NE (1985) Pollution and Protective of the Environment, “Plaisio” (ed.), Athens (in Greek).Google Scholar
  47. Koutselinis A (1997) Toxicology, vol. I, Parissianos, Athens.Google Scholar
  48. Lancet (1989) “Round The World: India – Long Term Effects of MIC.” Issue 644.Google Scholar
  49. Lee RE Jr (1979) Air Pollution from Pesticides and Agricultural Processes, CRC, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  50. Lewis RG and Lee RE Jr (1979) Air pollution from pesticides: sources, occurrence and dispersion. In: Air Pollution from Pesticides and Agricultural Processes, CRC Press Inc. ed., USA.Google Scholar
  51. Mackay D and Leinonen PJ (1975) Rate of evaporation of low-solubility contaminants from water bodies to atmosphere. Environ. Sci. Technol. (9): 1178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Majewski MS and Capel PD (1995) Pesticides in the Atmosphere: Distribution, Trends, and Covering Factors, Ann Arbor, Chelsea, MI.Google Scholar
  53. Majewski M, Desjardins R, Rochette P, Pattey E, Selber J, and Glotfelty D (1993) Field comparison of an eddy accumulation and an aerodynamic-gradient system for measuring pesticide volatilization fluxes. Environ. Sci. Technol. (27): 121–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Morehouse W and Subramaniam MA (1986) The Bhopal Tragedy: What Really Happened and What It Means for American Workers and Communities. At Risk. Council on International and Public Affairs.Google Scholar
  55. OECD (2000) Environmental Performance Reviews– Greece.Google Scholar
  56. Orphanidis PS (1968) Agricultural Pharmacology. Part I, Spyrou (ed.), Athens (in Greek).Google Scholar
  57. Orphanidis G (1993) Integrated pest management in Cyprus: implementation and perspectives. Proceedings of 5th Pan-Hellenic Entomological Conference, Athens, Nov 8–10, 1993 (in Greek).Google Scholar
  58. Paraskakis M (1985) Evaluation of parasites of the olive black scale in Crete. 1st Scientific Meeting for Tree Crops. Chania, Nov 1985 (in Greek)Google Scholar
  59. Pattey E, Cessna AJ, Desjardins RL, Kerr LA, Rochette P, St-Amour G, Zhu T, and Headrick K (1995) Herbicides volatilization measured by the relaxed eddy-accumulation technique using two trapping media. Agric. For. Meteorol. (76): 201–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Polyrakis I (2004) The Pollution of the Environment from Agrochemicals(under edition, in Greek).Google Scholar
  61. Rao PSC, Mansell RS, Baldwin LB and Laurent MF (1998) slides-self/facts/gen-pubre-soil-water.html
  62. Risebrough RW, Hugget RJ, Griffin JJ and Goldsberg ED (1968) Pesticides: transatlantic movements in the northeast trades. Science (159): 1233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Roumpos ICh, Yannopolitis KN and Broumas Th (2001) The side effects of pesticides on flora, fauna and on useful arthropods. In: Observations on Environmental Side Effects from the Use of Pesticides in Agriculture. Current state in Greece. Athens, 2001 (in Greek).Google Scholar
  64. Smith WM Jr. and Ledbetter JO (1971) Hazards from fires involving organophosphorus insecticides. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. (32): 468.Google Scholar
  65. Sotherton NW, Dover JW and Rands MRW (1988) The effects of pesticide exclusion strips on faunal populations in Great Britain. Ecol. Bull. (39): 197–199.Google Scholar
  66. Spencer WF and Cliath MM (1990) Movement of pesticides from soil to the atmosphere, In: Long Range Transport of Pesticides, Lewis Publ. pp. 1–16.Google Scholar
  67. Tabor EC (1965) Pesticides in urban atmospheres. APCA J. (15): 415Google Scholar
  68. Tzanakakis ME (1961) Methods to Control Insects. General Part. Athens (in Greek).Google Scholar
  69. Van den Berg F, Bor G, Smidt RA, Van den Peppel-Groen AE, Smelt JH, Muller T, and Maurer T (1995) Volatilization of parathion and chlorothalonil after spraying onto a potato crop. SC-DLO, Agricultural Research Department, Winand Staring Centre for Integrated Land, Soil and Water Research, Report 102.Google Scholar
  70. Valavanidis A (2000) Fundamental Principles of Environnemental Chemistry, Ecotoxicology, and Ecologic Risk Assessment(in Greek).Google Scholar
  71. Ware GW, Cahill WP, Gerhardt PD and Witt JM (1970) Pesticide drift I V. On-target deposits from aerial application of insecticides. J. Econ. Entomol. (63): 1982.Google Scholar
  72. Waymann B and Rüdel H (1995) Influence of air veloCity, application dose, and test area size on the volatilization of lindane. Int. J. Environ. Anal. Chem. (58): 371–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wienhold BJ and Gish TJ (1994) Effect of formulation and tillage practice on volatilization of atrazine and alachlor. J. Environ. Qual. (23): 292–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wolfe HR (1979) Field exposure to airborne pesticides. In: Air Pollution from Pesticides and Agricultural Processes. CRC, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  75. Woodwell GM, Craig PP and Johnson HA (1971) DDT in the biosphere: where does it go? Science (174): 1101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Yeo D (1959) The problem of distribution; The physics of falling droplets and particles. The drift hazard. 1st Int. Agric. Aviation Conf. 112.Google Scholar
  77. Zouridakis A, Alexandrakis V, and Yamvrias Ch (1995) Study of the factors effecting the action of predators of Aspidiotus neriiBouché (Hom. Diaspididae). Proceedings of the 6th Pan-Hellenic Entomological Conference, Hania, Oct 31–Nov 3, 1995 (in Greek).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ioannis T. Polyrakis
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental EngineeringTechnical University of Crete , PolytechnioupolisChaniaGreece

Personalised recommendations