An Exploration of the Critical Success Factors for the Sustainability of Rural ICT Projects – The Dwesa Case Study
Rural development can be enhanced and supported by information and communication technology (ICT), the use of which is highlighted by the emerging importance of information and knowledge as key strategic resources for social and economic development. The use of ICT presents a number of constraints which threaten the sustainability of rural ICT projects. Sustainability is key to the effectiveness of a rural ICT project. The categories of sustainability reveal critical success factors that need to be considered in the implementation and management of rural ICT projects. An exploration of the Dwesa project reveals the extent and effect of the application of these critical success factors of sustainability.
KeywordsRural Development Project Team Critical Success Factor Project Champion Wild Coast
- Batchelor, S. and Norrish, P. (2002) Sustainable Information Communication Technologies (ICT): Sustainability.Sustainable Initiatives.http://www.sustainableicts.org/Sustainable.htm [28/10/2005].
- Batchelor, S. and Sugden, S. (2003) An Analysis of InfoDev Case Studies: Lessons Learnt.The Information for Development Program: Promoting ICT for Social and Economic Development.http://www.sustainableicts.org/infodev/infodevreport.pdf [22/01/2006].
- Bridges (2006a) 12 Habits of Highly Effective ICT-Enabled Development Initiatives.Bridges.Org.http://www.bridges.org/12_habits [04/04/2006].
- Bridges (2006b) Real Access/Real Impact criteria.http://www.bridges.org/Real_Access. Bridges.Org [04/04/2006].
- Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) (2003). CIDA's Strategy on Knowledge for Development through Information and Communication Technologies.http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca/INET/IMAGES.NSF/vLUImages/pdf/$file/ICT.pdf [14/03/2005].
- Dymond, A. and Oestman, S. (2004) A Rural ICT Toolkit for Africa. The World Bank, InfoDev (Washington DC).Google Scholar
- Ferguson, J. and Ballantyne, P. (2002) Sustaining ICT-Enabled Development: Practice Makes Perfect?Report from a workshop, The Hague, 22nd–23rd May 2002, No. 9.http://www.ftpiicd.org/files/research/reports/report9.pdf [28/10/2005].
- Heeks, R. (1999) Information and Communication Technologies, Poverty and Development. Development Informatics, Working Paper Series, Paper No. 5.http://www.sed.manchester.ac.uk/idpm/publications/wp/di/di_wp05.pdf [05/03/2004].
- Heeks, R. (2002) Failure, Success and Improvisation of Information Systems Projects in Developing Countries. Development Informatics, Working Paper Series, Paper No. 11http://www.sed.manchester.ac.uk/idpm/publications/wp/di/di_wp11.pdf [25/05/2005].
- Hietanen, O. (2002) Indicators of Sustainable Development. Futura. 21(2), 6–7.Google Scholar
- International Development Research Centre (IDRC) (2004) Networking Institutions of Learning – SchoolNet:Information and Communication Technologies for Development in Africa, vol. 3, 2003. Jointly published by IDRC (Ottawa) and the Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa (CODESRIA) (Dakar).Google Scholar
- Jacobs, S. J. and Herselman, M. E. (2005) An ICT-Hub Model for Rural Communities. International Journal of Education and Development using ICT. 1(3), 57–93.Google Scholar
- Keniston, K. (2005)Notes on Sustainability. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).http://web.mit.edu/~kken/Public/PAPERS/on_sustainability.html [11/05/2005].
- Keniston, K. and Kumar, D. (2003) The Four Digital Divides. Sage Publishers (Delhi, India).Google Scholar
- NetTel (2005) Macro Environment and Telecommunications.http://cbdd.wsu.edu/kewlcontent/cdoutput/TR501/page59.htm [Accessed: 14/03/2005].
- Pade, C., Mallinson, B. and Sewry, D. (2006a) An Investigation of Sustainable ICT Projects in Rural Development. Second Sangonet Conference on ICTs for Civil Society. Johannesburg, South Africa, March 2006.Google Scholar
- Pade, C., Mallinson, B. and Sewry, D. (2006b) An Exploration of the Categories Associated with ICT Project Sustainability in Rural Areas of Developing Countries: A Case Study of the Dwesa Project. Conference of the South African Institute of Computer Scientists and Information Technologists (SAICSIT). Gordon's Bay, South Africa, October 2006.Google Scholar
- Palmer, R., Timmermans, H. and Fay, D. (2002) From Conflict to Negotiation: Nature-based Development on South Africa's Wild Coast. Human Sciences Research Council (Pretoria).Google Scholar
- Schwalbe, K. (2006) Information Technology Project Management (4e). Thomson Course Technology (Boston, Massachusetts).Google Scholar
- Stoll, K. (2003) Somos@Telecentres: The Story So Far and Lessons Learnt?ICT for Development, Development Gateway.http://topics.developmentgateway.org/ict/sdm/preview-Document.do~activeDocumentId=442785?activeDocumentId=442785 [14/02/2006].
- Talyarkhan, S. (2004) Connecting the First Mile: a Framework for Best Practice in ICT projects for Knowledge Sharing in Development. Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG).http://www.itdg.org/docs/icts/ict_best_practice_framework.pdf [19/05/2005].
- TeleCommons Development Group (TDG) (2000) Rural Access to Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs): The Challenge of Africa.Prepared for African Connection Initiative of the African Connection Secretariat. Department for International Development (DFID) http://www.unbotswana.org.bw/undp/docs/bhdr2002/rural%20access%20to%20ICT%20the%20challenge%20of%20Africa.pdf [18/03/2006].
- The World Bank (2003)ICT for Development Contributing to the Millennium Development Goals: Lessons learnt from Seventeen InfoDev Projects. The World Bank (Washington DC).http://www.infodev.org/files/835_file_Case_Studies.pdf [21/07/2005].
- United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (2001) Essentials: Information Communication Technology for Development.Synthesis of Lessons Learnt, Evaluation Office No. 5, September 2001. United Nations Development Program (New York).http://www.undp.org/eo/documents/essentials_5.PDF [2/08/2005].
- United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Accenture and Markle Foundation (2001)Creating a Development Dynamic: Final Report of the Digital Opportunity Initiative. United Nations Development Program (New York).Google Scholar
- Welman, J. C. and Kruger S. J. (2002) Research Methodology (2e). Oxford University Press (Cape Town).Google Scholar
- Yin, R. K. (2003) Case Study Research: Design and Methods (3e). Sage Publications (Thousand Oaks).Google Scholar