As with all other classes of materials, one of the primary keys (if not THE key) to engineering a semiconductor is control of defects in its structure. Defects can be divided into classes according to their dimensionality. Thus, zero (point), one (line), two (plane) and three (volume) dimensional defects occur in semiconductors and each is significant is considered in turn, although two and three-dimensional defects will be lumped together as they behave similarly. Furthermore, the behaviors of two and three-dimensional defects can be considered to be extensions of zero and one-dimensional behaviors. Therefore, we will spend more time on the latter two. In this chapter we will consider only defects in crystalline materials. Amorphous semiconductors, the ultimate in defective materials, are considered in the following chapter.


Screw Dislocation Edge Dislocation Dislocation Loop Critical Thickness Misfit Dislocation 


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