Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) refers to a class of methods in which a solid is grown by reaction of gaseous source materials and yielding a product effluent gas. There are a number of variants on the process based on the pressure range at which it is conducted, the type of reactants, and whether some method to activate the reaction is used. CVD can also be conducted in an atomic layer deposition (ALD) mode in which single layers of atoms are produced one at a time. CVD has a number of advantages over physical vapor deposition. For example, the reaction can often be arranged to be selective more easily, depositing material only in certain regions of the substrate rather than covering it with a blanket layer. CVD is generally more conformal than physical vapor deposition, meaning that it covers a rough surface relatively uniformly, tracking the morphology rather than resulting in thin, lowquality coatings on vertical walls of the substrate, as is the case for physical vapor deposition methods. Other advantages include that CVD uses source materials that flow into the process chamber from external reservoirs that can be refilled without contamination of the growth environment, it does not require very high vacuum levels, it can generally process substrates in larger batches than evaporation, and is more forgiving in terms of its tolerance for precision in the process conditions. Counterbalancing these advantages, CVD source materials are generally highly toxic or flammable, requiring great care in the design and operation of a CVD process system. CVD also frequently requires high temperatures. For microelectronics manufacturing the benefits generally outweigh the problems. Thus, most device makers use CVD when possible rather than, for example, MBE.


Chemical Vapor Deposition Atomic Layer Deposition Physical Vapor Deposition Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition Chemical Vapor Deposition Process 
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