Physical vapor deposition refers to vacuum deposition methods that produce the source gas by evaporation, sputtering, or a related nonchemical method. Broadly, these methods transfer kinetic energy to atoms in a solid or liquid sufficient to overcome their binding energy. Evaporation refers to heating a material until the source atoms vaporize. Sputtering is a process of physical impacts transferring kinetic energy to atoms in a target. There are many related methods such as laser-ablation, which is similar to conventional evaporation but supplies energy to the surface locally by a laser beam rather than heating the entire material in an oven. Likewise, cathodic arc deposition is a sputtering-based process that uses a more localized, higher intensity glow discharge to bombard the target in a small region, rather than “sputtering” which refers to a more general bombardment of the target. This chapter describes the most common conventional evaporation and sputtering methods. Descriptions of the related techniques may be found in the recommended readings.


Glow Discharge Target Surface Energetic Particle Physical Vapor Deposition Fast Particle 
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