Rapidly Varied Flow

The streamlines in the uniform and gradually varied flows we considered in the previous chapters are either parallel or may be assumed as parallel. Therefore, the accelerations in these flows is negligible and the pressure distribution may be assumed as hydrostatic. The analyses in which the pressure distribution is hydrostatic is referred to as the shallow-water theory.However, as we discussed in Chapters 1 and 5, many times the streamlineshave sharp curvatures, thereby making the assumption of hydrostaticpressure distribution invalid. In addition, the flow surface may become discontinuous if the flow depth changes rapidly such that the surface profile breaks, e. g., in a hydraulic jump.

Due to nonhydrostaticpressure distribution, rapidly variedflow can not be analyzed by using the same approach as that for parallel flow. In the past, these flows have been mainly investigated experimentally; and empirical relationships and other information in the form of charts and diagrams have been developed. Each particular phenomenon has been studied more or less in isolation, and a considerable amount of information is available for typical design applications.


Army Corps Head Loss Hydraulic Jump Channel Bottom Design Head 
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