Basic Concepts

Liquids are transported from one location to another using natural or constructed conveyance structures. The cross section of these structures may be open or closed at the top. The structures with closed tops are referred to as closed conduits and those with the top open are called open channels. For example, tunnels and pipes are closed conduits whereas rivers, streams, estuaries etc. are open channels. The flow in an open channel or in a closed conduit having a free surface is referred to as free-surface flow or open-channel flow. The properties and the analyses of these flows are discussed in this book.

In this chapter, commonly used terms are first defined. The classification of flows is then discussed, and the terminology and the properties of a channel section are presented. Expressions are then derived for the energy and momentum coefficients to account for nonuniform velocity distribution at a channel section. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the pressure distribution in a channel section.


Control Volume Pressure Intensity Channel Cross Section Velocity Head Channel Section 
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