Mixing – Determining Mixing Parameters

  • Mustafa Bayram
  • Fahrettin Göğüş
Part of the Integrating Safety and Environmental Knowledge Into Food Studies towards European Sustainable Development book series (ISEKI-Food, volume 5)

Objective and Learning Outcomes

  1. (1)

    Examine mixing mechanisms and operations.

  2. (2)

    Review the principles of mixing.

  3. (3)

    calculate the mixing index.

  4. (4)

    To calculate the optimum mixing time.

  5. (5)

    To compare mixers based on their mixing indexes and times.

  6. (6)

    To calculate energy consumptions of the mixers.



The mixing of solids is a critical unit important operation in many industries in which a relatively uniform mixture is obtained from two or more components. Mixing is the dispersing of components, one throughout the other. It occurs in innumerable instances in the food industry and is probably the most common of all process operations.

A mixing process begins with the components, grouped together in some container, but still separated as pure components. Thus, if small samples are taken throughout the container, almost all samples will consist of one pure component. The frequency of occurrence of the components is proportional to the fractions of these...


Sample Composition Fractional Composition Magnesium Carbonate Uniform Mixture Screw Conveyor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Berntsson, O., Danielsson, L.G., Langerholm, B. and Folestad, S. (2002). Quantitative in-line monitoring of powder blending by near-infrared reflection spectroscopy, Powder Tech. 185: 185-193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brennan, J.G., Butters, J.R., Cowell, N.D., and Lilley, A.E.V. (1990) Food Engineering Operations Elsevier Appled Science, London & New York.Google Scholar
  3. Earle, R.L. (1983) Unit Operations in Food Processing, Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  4. Holdich, R. (2002). Fundamentals of Particle Technology, Midland Information Technology and Publishing, U.K., pp: 5-6.Google Scholar

Some Web Site of Interest

  1. The Experimental Nonlinear Physics Group at the Univ. of Toronto describes experiments of unmixing sand and provides illustrations at
  2. Julio Ottino (Dept. of Chem. Engg., Northwestern Univ.) provides links to many of his papers on granular mixing. See
  3. The Hayes & Stolz Industrial Mfg. Co., Inc. uses a ribbon blenders in its Continuous Blender (see and in its Counterpoise Mixer (see
  4. Continuous mixers – for example Littleford Day Inc., see
  5. Dispersing solids in gas to aid drying, extraction, etc. – Littleford Day Inc., see
  6. Cooling and mixing – Littleford Day Inc., see
  7. High shear equipment for granular and fibrous materials, etc. – Littleford Day Inc., see
  8. Littleford Day –
  9. Eastern-Cleveland Mixers –
  10. The Hayes & Stolz Industrial Mfg. Co. –
  11. Food Processing Equipment Company –
  12. Matterson,M.J., Orr, C,: 1987. Filtration principles and Practices (Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York & BaselGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mustafa Bayram
    • 1
  • Fahrettin Göğüş
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Food EngineeringFaculty of Engineering, University of Gaziantep

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