Probabilities: Civilization, Technology, and Science

  • Michael A. G. Michaud


Although the term civilization is used freely in the debate about the probability of detecting extraterrestrial intelligence, there is no agreed definition of what it means in this context. Our opinions about being civilized are highly subjective. Yet, we think that we will know the signs of alien civilizations when we see them.


Term Civilization Technological Civilization Advantage Environment Alien Civilization Rapid Technological Development 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

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  • Michael A. G. Michaud

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