Advertisement

Phylum XIX. Fusobacteria Garrity and Holt 2001, 140

  • James T. Staley
  • William B. Whitman

Abstract

The phylum Fusobacteria is described in part on the basis of phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of its members. The phylum contains rod-shaped bacteria that stain Gram-negative. Described species are fermentative and produce a variety of organic acids when grown on carbohydrates, amino acids or peptides. Some species are pathogenic to humans.

Keywords

Type Strain Succinic Acid Fusobacterium Nucleatum Fusobacterium Necrophorum Surface Coloni 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Reference

  1. Garrity, G.M. and J.G. Holt. 2001. The Road Map to the Manual. In Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd edn, vol. 1, The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria (edited by Boone, Castenholz and Garrity). Springer, New York, pp. 119–166.Google Scholar
  2. Knorr, M. 1922. Über die fusospirilläre Symbiose, die Gattung Fusobacterium (K.B. Lehmann) und Spirillum sputigenum. Zugleich ein Beiträg zür Bakteriologie der Mundhohle. II. Mitteilung. Die. Gattung Fusobacterium. I Abt. Orig. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Parasitenkd. Infektionskr. Hyg. 89: 4–22.Google Scholar
  3. Dimroth, P., C. von Ballmoos and T. Meier. 2006. Catalytic and mecha­nical cycles in F-ATP synthases. Fourth in the Cycles Review Series. EMBO Rep. 7: 276–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Brune, A. and B. Schink. 1992. Anaerobic degradation of hydroaromatic compounds by newly isolated fermenting bacteria. Arch. Microbiol. 158: 320–327.Google Scholar
  5. Adriaans, B. and H. Shah. 1988. Fusobacterium ulcerans sp. nov. from tropical ulcers. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 38: 447–448.Google Scholar
  6. Bachrach, G., S.K. Haake, A. Glick, R. Hazan, R. Naor, R.N. Andersen and P.E. Kolenbrander. 2004. Characterization of the novel Fusobacterium nucleatum plasmid pKH9 and evidence of an addiction system. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70: 6957–6962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Baird-Parker, A.C. 1960. The classification of Fusobacteria from the human mouth. J. Gen. Microbiol. 22: 458–469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bakken, V., S. Aaro, T. Hofstad and E.N. Vasstrand. 1989a. Outer membrane proteins as major antigens of Fusobacterium nucleatum. FEMS Microbiol. Immunol. 1: 473–483.Google Scholar
  9. Bakken, V., S. Aaro and H.B. Jensen. 1989b. Purification and partial characterization of a major outer-membrane protein of Fusobacterium nucleatum. J. Gen. Microbiol. 135: 3253–3262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Balch, W.E., G.E. Fox, L.J. Magrum, C.R. Woese and R.S. Wolfe. 1979. Methanogens: reevaluation of a unique biological group. Microbiol. Rev. 43: 260–296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Barnes, E.M. and C.S. Impey. 1968. Anaerobic gram negative ­nonsporing bacteria from the caeca of poultry. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 31: 530–541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bolstad, A.I. and H.B. Jensen. 1993. Polymerase chain reaction-­amplified nonradioactive probes for identification of Fusobacterium nucleatum. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 528–532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bolstad, A.I., J. Tommassen and H.B. Jensen. 1994. Sequence variability of the 40-kDa outer membrane proteins of Fusobacterium nucleatum strains and a model for the topology of the proteins. Mol. Gen. Genet. 244: 104–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Both, B., G. Kaim, J. Wolters, K.H. Schleifer, E. Stackebrandt and W. Ludwig. 1991. Propionigenium modestum: a separate line of descent within the eubacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 62: 53–58.Google Scholar
  15. Bouma, C.L., J. Reizer, A. Reizer, S.A. Robrish and J. Thompson. 1997. 6-phospho-α-d-glucosidase from Fusobacterium mortiferum: cloning, expression, and assignment to family 4 of the glycosylhydrolases. J. Bacteriol. 179: 4129–4137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Brazier, J.S., D.M. Citron and E.J. Goldstein. 1991. A selective medium for Fusobacterium spp. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 71: 343–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Brown, R., H.G. Lough and I.R. Poxton. 1997. Phenotypic characteristics and lipopolysaccharides of human and animal isolates of Fusobacterium necrophorum. J. Med. Microbiol. 46: 873–878.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Brune, A., S. Evers, G. Kaim, W. Ludwig and B. Schink. 2002. Ilyobacter insuetus sp. nov., a fermentative bacterium specialized in the degradation of hydroaromatic compounds. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52: 429–432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Carlsson, J., J.T. Larsen and M.B. Edlund. 1994. Utilization of glutathione (l-γ-glutamyl-l-cysteinylglycine) by Fusobacterium nucleatum subspecies nucleatum. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 9: 297–300.Google Scholar
  20. Citron, D.M. 2002. Update on the taxonomy and clinical aspects of the genus Fusobacterium. Clin. Infect. Dis. 35: S22–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Claesson, R., M.B. Edlund, S. Persson and J. Carlsson. 1990. Production of volatile sulfur compounds by various Fusobacterium species. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 5: 137–142.Google Scholar
  22. Claros, M.C., Y. Papke, N. Kleinkauf, D. Adler, D. M. Citron, S. ­Hunt-Gerardo, Th. Montag, E.J.C. Goldstein and A.C. Rodloff. 1999. Characteristics of Fusobacterium ulcerans, a new and unusual species compared with Fusobacterium varium and Fusobacterium ­mortiferum. Anaerobe 5: 137–140.Google Scholar
  23. Conrads, G., M.C. Claros, D.M. Citron, K.L. Tyrrell, V. Merriam and E.J. Goldstein. 2002. 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer sequences for analysis of the phylogenetic relationships among species of the genus Fusobacterium. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52: 493–499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Conrads, G., D.M. Citron, R. Mutters, S. Jang and E.J.C. Goldstein. 2004a. Fusobacterium canifelinum sp. nov., from the oral cavity of cats and dogs. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 27: 407–413.Google Scholar
  25. Conrads, G., D.M. Citron, R. Mutters, S. Jang and E.J.C Goldstein. 2004b. In Validation of publication of new names and new combinations previously effectively published outside the IJSEM. List no. 100. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 54: 1909–1910.Google Scholar
  26. Conrads, G., D.M. Citron and E.J. Goldstein. 2005. Genetic determinant of intrinsic quinolone resistance in Fusobacterium canifelinum. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49: 434–437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Dahlen, G., H. Nygren and H.A. Hannsson. 1978. Immunoelectron microscopic localization of lipopolysaccharides in the cell wall of Bacteroides oralis and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Infect. Immun. 19: 265–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Dahlen, G. and I. Mattsby-Baltzer. 1983. Lipid A in anaerobic bacteria. Infect. Immun. 39: 466–468.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Dorsch, M., D.N. Love and G.D. Bailey. 2001. Fusobacterium equinum sp. nov., from the oral cavity of horses. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51: 1959–1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Downes, J., A. King, J. Hardie and I. Phillips. 1999. Evaluation of the Rapid ID 32A system for identification of anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli, excluding the Bacteroides fragilis group. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 5: 319–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Dzink, J.L., M.T. Sheenan and S.S. Socransky. 1990. Proposal of three subspecies of Fusobacterium nucleatum Knorr 1922: Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. nucleatum subsp. nov., comb. nov., Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum subsp. nov., nom. rev., comb. nov., and Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. vincentii subsp. nov., nom. rev., comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 40: 74–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Eggerth, A.H. and B.H. Gagnon. 1933. The Bacteroides of human feces. J. Bacteriol. 25: 389–413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Falkler, W.A., Jr. and C.E. Hawley. 1977. Hemagglutinating activity of Fusobacterium nucleatum. Infect. Immun. 15: 230–238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Finegold, S.M. 1977. Anaerobic bacteria in human disease. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  35. Finegold, S.M., M.L. Vaisanen, D.R. Molitoris, T.J. Tomzynski, Y. Song, C. Liu, M.D. Collins and P.A. Lawson. 2003a. Cetobacterium somerae sp. nov. from human feces and emended description of the genus Cetobacterium. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 26: 177–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Finegold, S.M., M.L. Vaisanen, D.R. Molitoris, T.J. Tomzynski, Y. Song, C. Liu, M.D. Collins and P.A. Lawson. 2003b. In Valid publication of new names and new contributions previously effectively published outside the IJSEM. List no. 93. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 53: 1219–1220.Google Scholar
  37. Flügge, C. 1886. Die Mikrooganismen. F.C.W. Vogel, Leipzig.Google Scholar
  38. Foster, G., H.M. Ross, R.D. Naylor, M.D. Collins, C.P. Ramos, F. Fernández-Garayzábal and R.J. Reid. 1995. Cetobacterium ceti gen. nov., sp. nov., a new Gram-negative obligate anaerobe from sea mammals. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 21: 202–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Foster, G., H.M. Ross, R.D. Naylor, M.D. Collins, C.R. Pascual, F. Fernández-Garayzábal and R.J. Reid. 1996. In Validation of the publication of new names and new contributions previously effectively published outside the IJSEM. List no. 56. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 46: 362–363.Google Scholar
  40. Garrity, G.M., K.L. Johnson, J.A. Bell and D.B. Searles. 2002. Taxonomic outline of the Prokaryotes. In Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd edn. Springer, New York.Google Scholar
  41. Gemperli, A.C., P. Dimroth and J. Steuber. 2003. Sodium ion cycling mediates energy coupling between complex I and ATP synthase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100: 839–844.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Gharbia, S.E. and H.N. Shah. 1989. The uptake of amino acids from a chemically defined medium by Fusobacterium species. Curr. Microbiol. 18: 189–193.Google Scholar
  43. Gharbia, S.E., H.N. Shah and S.G. Welch. 1989. The influence of peptides on the uptake of amino acids in Fusobacterium species; predicted interactions with Porphyromonas gingivalis Curr. Microbiol. 19: 231–235.Google Scholar
  44. Gharbia, S.E. and H.N. Shah. 1990. Identification of Fusobacterium species by the electrophoretic migration of glutamate dehydrogenase and 2-oxoglutarate reductase in relation to their DNA base composition and peptidoglycan dibasic amino acids. J. Med. Microbiol. 33: 183–188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Gharbia, S.E. and H.N. Shah. 1991a. Comparison of the amino acid uptake profile of reference and clinical isolates of Fusobacterium nucleatum subspecies. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 6: 264–269.Google Scholar
  46. Gharbia, S.E. and H.N. Shah. 1991b. Pathways of glutamate catabolism among Fusobacterium species. J. Gen. Microbiol. 137: 1201–1206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Gharbia, S.E. and H.N. Shah. 1992. Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. fusiforme subsp. nov. and Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. animalis subsp. nov. as additional subspecies within Fusobacterium nucleatum. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 42: 296–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Goldstein, E.J., D.M. Citron and C.V. Merriam. 1999. Linezolid activity compared to those of selected macrolides and other agents against aerobic and anaerobic pathogens isolated from soft tissue bite infections in humans. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43: 1469–1474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Gregory, E.M., W.E. Moore and L.V. Holdeman. 1978. Superoxide dismutase in anaerobes: survey. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 35: 988–991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Haake, S.K. and X. Wang. 1997. Cloning and expression of fomA, the major outer-membrane protein gene from Fusobacterium nucleatum T18. Arch. Oral Biol. 42: 19–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Haake, S.K., S.C. Yoder, G. Attarian and K. Podkaminer. 2000. Native plasmids of Fusobacterium nucleatum: characterization and use in development of genetic systems. J. Bacteriol. 182: 1176–1180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Hall, V., B.I. Duerden, J.T. Magee, H.C. Ryley and J.S. Brazier. 1997. A comparative study of Fusobacterium necrophorum strains from human and animal sources by phenotypic reactions, pyrolysis mass spectrometry and SDS-PAGE. J. Med. Microbiol. 46: 865–871.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Hallé, J. 1898. Recherches sur la bactériologie du canal génital de la femme (état normal et pathologique). Thesis, Paris.Google Scholar
  54. Harris, N.M. 1901. Bacillus mortiferus (nov. spec.). J. Exp. Med. 6: 519–547.Google Scholar
  55. Hauduroy, A., G. Ehringer, A. Urbain, G. Guillot and J. Magrou. 1937. Dictionnaire des bactéries pathogènes. Masson et Cie, Paris.Google Scholar
  56. Hermansson, K., M.B. Perry, E. Altman, J.R. Brisson and M.M. Garcia. 1993. Structural studies of the O-antigenic polysaccharide of Fusobacterium necrophorum. Eur. J. Biochem. 212: 801–809.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Hill, G.B. 1993. Investigating the source of amniotic fluid isolates of fusobacteria. Clin. Infect. Dis. 16 Suppl. 4: S423–424.Google Scholar
  58. Hilpert, W., B. Schink and P. Dimroth. 1984. Life by a new decarboxylation-dependent energy conservation mechanism with Na+ as coupling ion. EMBO J. 3: 1665–1670.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Hofstad, T. 1974. The distribution of heptose and 2-keto-3-deoxy-octonate in Bacteroidaceae. J. Gen. Microbiol. 85: 314–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Hofstad, T. 1979. Serological responses to antigens of Bacteroidaceae. Microbiol. Rev. 43: 103–115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Hofstad, T. and N. Skaug. 1980. Fatty acids and neutral sugars present in lipopolysaccharides isolated from Fusobacterium species. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. B 88: 115–120.Google Scholar
  62. Holbrook, W.P. and C. McMillan. 1977. The hydrolysis of dextran by gram negative non-sporeforming anaerobic bacilli. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 42: 259–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Janssen, P.H. and C.G. Harfoot. 1990. Ilyobacter delafieldii sp. nov., a metabolically restricted anaerobic bacterium fermenting PHB. Arch. Microbiol. 154: 253–259.Google Scholar
  64. Janssen, P.H. and C.G. Harfoot. 1991. In Validation of the publication of new names and new combinations previously effectively published outside the IJSB. List no. 37. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 41: 331.Google Scholar
  65. Janssen, P.H. and W. Liesack. 1995. Succinate decarboxylation by Propionigenium maris sp. nov., a new anaerobic bacterium from an estuarine sediment. Arch. Microbiol. 164: 29–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Janssen, P.H. and W. Liesack. 1996. In Validation of the publication of new names and new combinations previously effectively published outside the IJSB. List no. 56. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 46: 362–363.Google Scholar
  67. Jantzen, E. and T. Hofstad. 1981. Fatty acids of Fusobacterium species: taxonomic implications. J. Gen. Microbiol. 123: 163–171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Jensen, H.B., J. Skeidsvoll, A. Fjellbirkeland, B. Hogh, P. Puntervoll, H. Kleivdal and J. Tommassen. 1996. Cloning of the fomA gene, encoding the major outer membrane porin of Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC10953. Microb. Pathog. 21: 331–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Jin, J., D. Xu, W. Narongwanichgarn, Y. Goto, T. Haga and T. Shinjo. 2002. Characterization of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer regions among strains of the Fusobacterium necrophorum cluster. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 64: 273–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Jousimies-Somer, H. and P. Summanen. 2002. Recent taxonomic changes and terminology update of clinically significant anaerobic gram-negative bacteria (excluding spirochetes). Clin. Infect. Dis. 35: S17–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Jungano, M. 1909. Sur la flore anaérobie du rat. C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris 66: 112–114; 122–124.Google Scholar
  72. Kapatral, V., I. Anderson, N. Ivanova, G. Reznik, T. Los, A. Lykidis, A. Bhattacharyya, A. Bartman, W. Gardner, G. Grechkin, L. Zhu, O. Vasieva, L. Chu, Y. Kogan, O. Chaga, E. Goltsman, A. Bernal, N. Larsen, M. D’Souza, T. Walunas, G. Pusch, R. Haselkorn, M. Fonstein, N. Kyrpides and R. Overbeek. 2002. Genome sequence and analysis of the oral bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 25586. J. Bacteriol. 184: 2005–2018.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Kapatral, V., N. Ivanova, I. Anderson, G. Reznik, A. Bhattacharyya, W.L. Gardner, N. Mikhailova, A. Lapidus, N. Larsen, M. D’Souza, T. Walunas, R. Haselkorn, R. Overbeek and N. Kyrpides. 2003. Genome analysis of F. nucleatum sub spp vincentii and its comparison with the genome of F. nucleatum ATCC 25586. Genome Res. 13: 1180–1189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Kato, K., T. Umemoto, H. Sagawa and S. Kotani. 1979. Lanthionine as an essential constituent of cell wall peptidoglycan of Fusobacterium nucleatum. Curr. Microbiol. 3: 147–151.Google Scholar
  75. Kato, K., T. Umemoto, H. Fukuhara, H. Sagawa and S. Kotani. 1981. Variation of dibasic amino acid in the cell wall peptidoglycan of ­bacteria of genus Fusobacterium. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 10: 81–85.Google Scholar
  76. Kawamura, Y. 1926. A coryne-bacillus as a cause of abscess in the feet of hens. J. Japan. Soc. Vet. Sci. 5: 22.Google Scholar
  77. Kleivdal, H., R. Benz and H.B. Jensen. 1995. The Fusobacterium nucleatum major outer-membrane protein (FomA) forms trimeric, water-filled channels in lipid bilayer membranes. Eur. J. Biochem. 233: 310–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Knorr, M. 1922. ber die fusospirilläre Symbiose, die Gattung Fusobacterium (K.B. Lehmann) und Spirillum sputigenum. Zugleich ein Beiträg zr Bakteriologie der Mundhohle. II. Mitteilung. Die. Gattung Fusobacterium. I Abt. Orig. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Parasitenkd. Infektionskr. Hyg. 89: 4–22.Google Scholar
  79. Langworth, B.F. 1977. Fusobacterium necrophorum: its characteristics and role as an animal pathogen. Bacteriol. Rev. 41: 373–390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Lawson, P.A., S.E. Gharbia, H.N. Shah, D.R. Clark and M.D. Collins. 1991. Intrageneric relationships of members of the genus Fusobacterium as determined by reverse transcriptase sequencing of small-subunit rRNA. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 41: 347–354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Lippke, J.A., W.J. Peros, M.W. Keville, E.D. Savitt and C.K. French. 1991. DNA probe detection of Eikenella corrodens, Wolinella recta and Fusobacterium nucleatum in subgingival plaque. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 6: 81–87.Google Scholar
  82. Loesche, W.J. 1969. Oxygen sensitivity of various anaerobic bacteria. Appl. Microbiol. 18: 723–727.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Love, D.N., E.P. Cato, J.L. Johnson, R.F. Jones and M. Bailey. 1987. Deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization among strains of fusobacteria isolated from soft tissue infections of cats: Comparison with human and animal type strains from oral and other sites. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 37: 23–26.Google Scholar
  84. McKay, T.L., J. Ko, Y. Bilalis and J.M. DiRienzo. 1995. Mobile genetic elements of Fusobacterium nucleatum. Plasmid 33: 15–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Meier, T., P. Polzer, K. Diederichs, W. Welte and P. Dimroth. 2005. Structure of the rotor ring of F-Type Na+-ATPase from Ilyobacter tartaricus. Science 308: 659–662.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Miyagawa, E., R. Azuma and T. Suto. 1979. Cellular fatty acid composition in Gram-negative obligately anaerobic rods. J. Gen. Microbiol. 25: 41–51.Google Scholar
  87. Miyasaki, K.T., R. Iofel, A. Oren, T. Huynh and R.I. Lehrer. 1998. Killing of Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia by protegrins. J. Periodontal. Res. 33: 91–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Moore, W.E.C. and L.V. Holdeman. 1969. Anaerobic Gram-negative non-sporeforming rods. In Outline of Clinical Methods in Anaerobic Bacteriology, 1st revn (edited by Cato, Cummins, Holdeman, Johnson, Moore, Smibert and Smith). Virginia Polytechnic Institute Anaerobe Laboratory, Blacksburg, Virginia.Google Scholar
  89. Moore, W.E.C. and L.V. Holdeman. 1970. Fusobacterium. In Outline of Clinical Methods in Anaerobic Bacteriology, 2nd revn (edited by Cato, Cummins, Holdeman, Johnson, Moore, Smibert and Smith). Virginia Polytechnic Institute Anaerobe Laboratory, Blacksburg, Virginia.Google Scholar
  90. Moore, W.E.C. and L.V. Holdeman. 1973. New names and combinations in genera Bacteroides Castellani and Chalmers, Fusobacterium Knorr, Eubacterium Prevot, Propionibacterium Delwich, and Lactobacillus Orla-Jensen. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 23: 69–74.Google Scholar
  91. Narayanan, S.K., T.G. Nagaraja, M.M. Chengappa and G.C. Stewart. 2001. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of the leukotoxin gene from Fusobacterium necrophorum. Infect. Immun. 69: 5447–5455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Neumann, S., U. Matthey, G. Kaim, and P. Dimroth. 1998. Purification and properties of the F1F0 ATPase of Ilyobacter tartaricus, a sodium ion pump. J. Bacteriol. 180: 3312–3316.Google Scholar
  93. Nicholson, L.A., C.J. Morrow, L.A. Corner and A.L. Hodgson. 1994. Phylogenetic relationship of Fusobacterium necrophorum A, AB, and B biotypes based upon 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 44: 315–319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Pfennig, N. 1978. Rhodocyclus purpureus gen. nov. and sp. nov. a ring-shaped, vitamin-B12-requiring member of family Rhodospirillaceae. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 28: 283–288.Google Scholar
  95. Pianotti, R., S. Lachette and S. Dills. 1986. Desulfuration of cysteine and methionine by Fusobacterium nucleatum. J. Dent. Res. 65: 913–917.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Pikis, A., S. Immel, S.A. Robrish and J. Thompson. 2002. Metabolism of sucrose and its five isomers by Fusobacterium mortiferum. Microbiology 148: 843–852.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Porschen, R.K. and S. Sonntag. 1974. Extracellular deoxyribonuclease production by anaerobic bacteria. Appl. Microbiol. 27: 1031–1033.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Porschen, R.K. and E.H. Spaulding. 1974. Phosphatase activity of anaerobic organisms. Appl. Microbiol. 27: 744–747.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Prévot, A.R. 1938. Etudes de systematique bacterienne. III. Invalidite du genre Bacteroides Castellani et Chalmers demembrement et reclassification. Ann. Inst. Pasteur 20: 285–307.Google Scholar
  100. Prévot, A.R., A. Turpin and P. Kaiser. 1967. Les bactéries anaérobies. Dunod, Paris.Google Scholar
  101. Roberts, M.C. and J. Lansciardi. 1990. Transferable TetM in Fusobacterium nucleatum. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34: 1836–1838.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Robrish, S.A., C. Oliver and J. Thompson. 1987. Amino acid-dependent transport of sugars by Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 10953. J. Bacteriol. 169: 3891–3897.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Robrish, S.A., C. Oliver and J. Thompson. 1991. Sugar metabolism by fusobacteria: regulation of transport, phosphorylation, and polymer formation by Fusobacterium mortiferum ATCC 25557. Infect. Immun. 59: 4547–4554.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Rogers, A.H., N.J. Gully, A.L. Pfennig and P.S. Zilm. 1992. The breakdown and utilization of peptides by strains of Fusobacterium nucleatum. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 7: 299–303.Google Scholar
  105. Russ, V.R. 1905. ber ein Inflenzabacillenahnliches anaerobes. Stabchen. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Parasitenkd. Infektionskr. Hyg., I Abt. Orig. 39: 357.Google Scholar
  106. Schink, B. and N. Pfennig. 1982. Propionigenium modestum gen.nov. sp. nov. a new strictly anaerobic, non-sporing bacterium growing on succinate. Arch. Microbiol. 133: 209–216.Google Scholar
  107. Schink, B. and N. Pfennig. 1983. In Validation of the publication of new names and new combinations previously effectively published outside the IJSB. List no. 12. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 33: 896–897.Google Scholar
  108. Schink, B. 1984. Fermentation of tartrate enantiomers by anaerobic bacteria, and description of two new species of strict anaerobes, Ruminococcus pasteurii and Ilyobacter tartaricus. Arch. Microbiol. 139: 409–414.Google Scholar
  109. Schink, B. 1985. In Validation of the publication of new names and new combinations previously effectively published outside the IJSB. List no. 18. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 35: 375–376.Google Scholar
  110. Schink, B., P.H. Janssen and J. Frings. 1992. Microbial degradation of natural and of new synthetic polymers. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 9: 311–316.Google Scholar
  111. Sebald, M. 1962. Étude sur les bactéries anaérobies gram-négatives asporulées. Thèses de l’Université Paris, Imprimerie Barnéoud S.A., Laval, France.Google Scholar
  112. Shinjo, T., T. Fujisawa and T. Mitsuoka. 1991. Proposal of two subspecies of Fusobacterium necrophorum (Flugge) Moore and Holdeman: Fusobacteriumnecrophorum subsp. necrophorum subsp. nov., nom. rev (ex Flugge 1886), and Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. funduliforme subsp. nov., nom. rev. (ex Halle 1898). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 41: 395–397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Simon, P.C. 1975. A simple method for rapid identification of Sphaerophorus necrophorus isolates. Can. J. Comp. Med. 39: 349–353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Slots, J. and T.V. Potts. 1982. Fusobacterium simiae, a new species from monkey dental plaque. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 32: 191–194.Google Scholar
  115. Slots, J., T.V. Potts and P.A. Mashimo. 1983. Fusobacterium periodonticum, a new species from the human oral cavity. J. Dent. Res. 62: 960–963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Slots, J., T.V. Potts and P.A. Mashimo. 1984. In Validation of the publication of new names and new combinations previously effectively published outside the IJSB. List no. 14. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 34: 349–353.Google Scholar
  117. Socransky, S.S., A.D. Haffajee, M.A. Cugini, C. Smith and R.L. Kent, Jr. 1998. Microbial complexes in subgingival plaque. J. Clin. Periodontol. 25: 134–144.Google Scholar
  118. Spaulding, E.H. and L.F. Rettger. 1937. Fusobacterium genus I. Biochemical and serological classification. J. Bacteriol. 34: 535–548.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Stieb, M. and B. Schink. 1984. A new 3-hydroxybutyrate fermenting anaerobe, Ilyobacter polytropus, gen. nov., sp. nov., possessing various fermentation pathways. Arch. Microbiol. 140: 139–146.Google Scholar
  120. Stieb, M. and B. Schink. 1985. In Validation of the publication of new names and new combinations previously effectively published outside the IJSB. List no. 18. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 35: 375–376.Google Scholar
  121. Sunde, P.T., L. Tronstad, E.R. Eribe, P.O. Lind and I. Olsen. 2000. Assessment of periradicular microbiota by DNA–DNA hybridization. Endod. Dent. Traumatol. 16: 191–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Sutter, V.L., P.T. Sugihara and S.M. Finegold. 1971. Rifampin-blood-agar as a selective medium for the isolation of certain anaerobic bacteria. Appl. Microbiol. 22: 777–780.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Tadepalli, S., G.C. Stewart, T.G. Nagaraja and S.K. Narayanan. 2008. Leukotoxin operon and differential expressions of the leukotoxin gene in bovine Fusobacterium necrophorum subspecies. Anaerobe 14: 13–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Takahashi, N. and T. Sato. 2002. Dipeptide utilization by the periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 17: 50–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Tanner, A., M.F. Maiden, B.J. Paster and F.E. Dewhirst. 1994. The impact of 16S ribosomal RNA-based phylogeny on the taxonomy of oral bacteria. Periodontol. 2000 5: 26–51.Google Scholar
  126. Terada, A., K. Uchida and T. Mitsuoka. 1976. Die Bacteroidaceenflora in den faeces von schweinen. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Parasitenkd. Infektionskr. Hyg. Abt. Orig. 234: 362–370.Google Scholar
  127. Thompson, J., S.A. Robrish, C.L. Bouma, D.I. Freedberg and J.E. Folk. 1997. Phospho-β-glucosidase from Fusobacterium mortiferum: purification, cloning, and inactivation by 6-phosphoglucono-delta-lactone. J. Bacteriol. 179: 1636–1645.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Tissier, H. 1905. Répartition des microbes dans l’intestin du nourrisson. Ann. Inst. Pasteur (Paris) 19: 109–123.Google Scholar
  129. Topley, W.W.C. and G.S. Wilson. 1929. The Principles of Bacteriology and Immunity, vol. 1. Edward Arnold, London.Google Scholar
  130. Tunnicliff, R. and L. Jackson. 1925. Bacillus gonidiaformans (n. sp.) - an hitherto undescribed organism. J. Infect. Dis. 36: 430–438.Google Scholar
  131. Turner, K., L. Lindqvist and C.E. Nord. 1985. Purification and properties of a novel b-lactamase from Fusobacterium nucleatum. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 27: 943–947.Google Scholar
  132. Van Assche, P.F. and A.T. Wilssens. 1977. Fusobacterium perfoetens (Tissier) Moore and Holdeman 1973: description and proposed neotype strain. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 27: 1–5.Google Scholar
  133. Vasstrand, E.N. 1981. Lysozyme digestion and chemical characterization of the peptidoglycan of Fusobacterium nucleatum Fev 1. Infect. Immun. 33: 75–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Vasstrand, E.N., H.B. Jensen, T. Miron and T. Hofstad. 1982. Composition of peptidoglycans in Bacteroidaceae: determination and distribution of lanthionine. Infect. Immun. 36: 114–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Veillon, A. and A. Zuber. 1898. Recherches sur quelques microbes strictement anaérobies et leur rôle en pathologie. Arch. Med. Exp. 10: 517–545.Google Scholar
  136. Watson, J., G.Y. Matsui, A. Leaphart, J. Wiegel, F.A. Rainey and C.R. Lovell. 2000. Reductively debrominating strains of Propionigenium maris from burrows of bromophenol-producing marine infauna. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 50: 1035–1042.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Weinberg, M., R. Nativelle and A.R. Prévot. 1937. Les microbes anaérobies. Masson et Cie, Paris.Google Scholar
  138. Werner, H. 1974. Demonstration of lysine decarboxylase activity in the obligately anaerobic bacterium Sphaerophorus varius. Zentrabl. Bakteriol. Parasitendk. Infektionskr. Hyg. I. Abt. Orig. A 226: 364–368.Google Scholar
  139. Widdel, F. and N. Pfennig. 1981. Studies on dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria that decompose fatty acids. 1. Isolation of new sulfate-reducing bacteria enriched with acetate from saline environments: description of Desulfobacter postgatei gen. nov., sp. nov. Arch. Microbiol. 129: 395–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Bell, D.P. and P.C. Elmes. 1969. Effects of certain organisms associated with chronic respiratory disease on SPF and conventional rats. J. Med. Microbiol. 2: 511–519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Böe, J. and T. Thjotta. 1944. The position of Fusobacterium and Leptotrichia in the bacteriological system. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 21: 441–450.Google Scholar
  142. Brown, T.M. and J.C. Nunemaker. 1942. Rat-bite fever. a review of the American cases with reevaluation of etiology; report of cases. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 70: 201–236.Google Scholar
  143. Carbeck, R.B., J.F. Murphy and E.M. Britt. 1967. Streptobacillary ­rat-bite fever with massive pericardial effusion. J.A.M.A. 201: 133–134.Google Scholar
  144. Clausen, C. 1987. Septic arthritis due to Streptobacillus moniliformis. Clin. Microbiol. Newsl. 9: 123–124.Google Scholar
  145. Collins, M.D. and D. Jones. 1981. Distribution of isoprenoid quinone structural types in bacteria and their taxonomic implication. Microbiol. Rev. 45: 316–354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Collins, M.D. and H.N. Shah. 1986. Reclassification of Bacteroides ­termitidis Sebald (Holdeman and Moore) in a new genus Sebaldella termitidis, as Sebaldella termitidis comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 36: 349–350.Google Scholar
  147. Collins, M.D., L. Hoyles, E. Törnqvist, R. von Essen and E. Falsen. 2001. Characterization of some strains from human clinical sources which resemble “Leptotrichia sanguinegens”: description of Sneathia sanguinegens sp. nov., gen. nov. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 24: 358–361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Collins, M.D., L. Hoyles, E. Törnqvist, R. von Essen and E. Falsen. 2002. In Validation of publication of new names and new combinations previously effectively published outside the IJSEM. Validation List no. 85. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52: 685–690.Google Scholar
  149. Costas, M. and R.J. Owen. 1987. Numerical analysis of electrophoretic protein patterns of Streptobacillus moniliformis strains from human, murine and avian infections. J. Med. Microbiol. 23: 303–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. de Mello, F. and A.S.A. Pais. 1918. Um caso de nocardiose pulmonar simulando a tísica. Arq. Hig. Pat. Exot. Lisboa 6: 133–206.Google Scholar
  151. Delannoy, D., P. Savinel, M.H. Balquet, J.P. Canonne, J. Amourette and P.Y. Bugnon. 1991. Manifestations digestives et pulmonaires rélévant une septicémie à Streptobacillus moniliformis: présentation atypique d’ une pathologie rare et méconnue. La Revue de Médicine Interne. 3: 5158.Google Scholar
  152. Dellamonica, P., E. Delbeke, D. Giraud and G. Illy. 1979. Septicémies à Streptobacillus moniliformis: à propos d’ un cas-revue de la littérature. Méd. Mal. Infect. 9: 226–229.Google Scholar
  153. Edwards, R. and R.G. Finch. 1986. Characterisation and antibiotic susceptibilities of Streptobacillus moniliformis. J. Med. Microbiol. 21: 39–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Eribe, E.R., B.J. Paster, D.A. Caugant, F.E. Dewhirst, V.K. Stromberg, G.H. Lacy and I. Olsen. 2004. Genetic diversity of Leptotrichia and description of Leptotrichia goodfellowii sp. nov., Leptotrichia hofstadii sp. nov., Leptotrichia shahii sp. nov. and Leptotrichia wadei sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 54: 583–592.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Eribe, E.R.K., T. Hofstad and I. Olsen. 2002. Enzymatic/biochemical and cellular fatty acid analyses of Leptotrichia isolates. Microb. Ecol. Health Dis. 14: 137–148.Google Scholar
  156. Eribe, E.R.K. and I. Olsen. 2002. SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses of Leptotrichia isolates. Microb. Ecol. Health Dis. 14: 193–202.Google Scholar
  157. Evaldson, G., G. Carlstrom, A. Lagrelius, A.S. Malmborg and C.E. Nord. 1980. Microbiological findings in pregnant women with ­premature rupture of the membranes. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 168: 283–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Faro, S., C. Walker and R.L. Pierson. 1980. Amnionitis with intact ­amniotic membranes involving Streptobacillus moniliformis. Obstet. Gynecol. 55: 9S-11S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Freundt, E.A. 1956. Experimental investigations into the pathogenicity of the l-phase variant of Streptobacillus moniliformis. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 38: 248–256.Google Scholar
  160. Gay, F.W., M.E. Maguire and A. Baskerville. 1972. Etiology of chronic pneumonia in rats and a study of the experimental disease in mice. Infect. Immun. 6: 83–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Gilmour, M.N., J.A.H. Howell and B.G. Bibby. 1961. The classification of organisms termed Leptotrichia (Leptrotrix) buccalis. I. Review of the literature and proposed separation into Leptotrichia buccalis Trevisan 1879 and Bacterionema gen. nov. B. matruchotii (Mendel 1919) comb. nov. Bacteriol. Rev. 25: 131–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Hamilton, R.D. and S.A. Zahler. 1957. A study of Leptotrichia buccalis. J. Bacteriol. 73: 386–393.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Hanff, P.A., J.A. Rosol-Donoghue, C.A. Spiegel, K.A. Wilson and L.A. Moore 1995a, posting date. Sneathia sanguinegens. NCBI Taxonomy Browser. [Online.]Google Scholar
  164. Hanff, P.A., J.A. Rosol-Donoghue, C.A. Spiegel, K.H. Wilson and L.H. Moore. 1995b. Leptotrichia sanguinegens sp. nov., a new agent of postpartum and neonatal bacteremia. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20 Suppl.2: S237–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Hammann, R., A. Iwand, J. Brachmann, K. Keller and A. Werner. 1993. Endocarditis caused by a Leptotrichia buccalis-like bacterium in a patient with a prosthetic aortic valve. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.12: 280–282.Google Scholar
  166. Heilman, F.R. 1941. A study of Asterococcus muris (Streptobacillus ­moniliformis). II. Cultivation and biochemical activities. J. Infect. Dis. 69: 45–51.Google Scholar
  167. Hofstad, T. and K.A. Selvig. 1969. Ultrastructure of Leptotrichia buccalis. J. Gen. Microbiol. 56: 23–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Hofstad, T. and E. Jantzen. 1982. Fatty acids of Leptotrichia buccalis: ­taxonomic implications. J. Gen. Microbiol. 128: 151–153.Google Scholar
  169. Hofstad, T. 1984. Genus III. Leptotrichia. In Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 1 (edited by Krieg). Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 637–641.Google Scholar
  170. Holdeman, L.V. and W.E.C. Moore (editors). 1970. Bacteroides, Outline of Clinical Methods in Anaerobic Bacteriology, 2nd revn. Virginia Polytechnic Institute Anaerobe Laboratory, Blacksburg, VA.Google Scholar
  171. Jackins, H.C. and H.A. Barker. 1951. Fermentative processes of the ­fusiform bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 61: 101–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Kasai, G.J. 1961. A study of Leptotrichia buccalis. I. Morphology and ­preliminary observations. J. Dent. Res. 40: 800–811.Google Scholar
  173. Kasai, G.J. 1965. A study of Leptotrichia buccalis. II. Biochemical and physiological observations. J. Dent. Res. 44: 1015–1022.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Koopman, J.P., M.E. van den Brink, P.P.C.A. Vennix, W. Kuypers, R. Boot and R.H. Bakker. 1991. Isolation of Streptobacillus moniliformis from the middle ear of rats. Lab. Anim. 25: 35–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Krasil’nikov. 1941. Proactinomyces. In Guide to the Actinomycetes. Izd. Akad. Nauk., U.S.S.R, Moskau, p. 76.Google Scholar
  176. Krywolap, G.N. and L.R. Page. 1977. Oral Fusobacterium, Leptotrichia and Bacterionema: II. Pathogenicity: a review of the literature. J. Baltimore Coll. Dent. Surg. 32: 26–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Lapage, S.P. 1974. Genus Cardiobacterium Slotnick and Daugherty. In Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 8th edn (edited by Buchanan and Gibbons). Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 377–378.Google Scholar
  178. Levaditi, C., S. Nicolau and P. Poincloux. 1925. Sur le role étiologique de Streptobacillus moniliformis (nov. spec.) dans l’erythème polymorph aigu septicémique. C. R. Hebd. Séances Acad. Sci. (Paris) 180: 1188–1190.Google Scholar
  179. Lieske, R. 1921. Morphologie und Biologie der Strahlenpilze ­(Actinomyceten). Borntraeger Bros., Leipzig.Google Scholar
  180. McCarthy, C., M.L. Snyder and R.B. Parker. 1965. The indigenous oral flora of man. I. The newborn to the 1-year-old infant. Arch. Oral Biol. 10: 61–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. McEvoy, M.B., N.D. Noah and R. Pilsworth. 1987. Outbreak of fever caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis. Lancet. 2: 1361–1363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Messiaen, T., C. Lefebvre and A. Geubel. 1996. Hepatic abscess likely related to Leptotrichia buccalis in an immunocompetent patient. Liver 16: 342–343.Google Scholar
  183. Midgley, J., S.P. LaPage, B.A. Jenkins, G.I. Barrow, M.E. Roberts and A.G. Buck. 1970. Cardiobacterium hominis endocarditis. J. Med. Microbiol. 3: 91–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Miyagawa, E., R. Azuma and T. Suto. 1979. Cellular fatty acid composition in Gram-negative obligately anaerobic rods. J. Gen. Microbiol. 25: 41–51.Google Scholar
  185. Moore, W.E.C., J.L. Johnson and L.V. Holdeman. 1976. Emendation of Bacteroidaceae and Butyrivibrio and descriptions of Desulfomonas gen. nov. and ten new species in genera Desulfomonas, Butyrivibrio, Eubacterium, Clostridium, and Ruminococcus. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 26: 238–252.Google Scholar
  186. Neumann, S., U. Matthey, G. Kaim, and P. Dimroth. 1998. Purification and properties of the F1F0 ATPase of Ilyobacter tartaricus, a sodium ion pump. J. Bacteriol. 180: 3312–3316.Google Scholar
  187. Oeding, P. and H. Pedersen. 1950. Streptothrix muris ratti (Streptobacillus moniliformis) isolated from a brain abscess. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 27: 436–442.Google Scholar
  188. Olson, L.D. and E.L. McCune. 1968. Histopathology of chronic otitis media in the rat. Lab. Anim. Care 18: 478–485.Google Scholar
  189. Parker, J.F. and N.P. Hudson. 1926. The etiology of Haverhill fever ­(erythema arthriticum epidemicum). Am. J. Pathol. 2: 375–379.Google Scholar
  190. Paster, B.J., W. Ludwig, W.G. Weisburg, E. Stackebrant, R.B. Hespel, C.M. Hahn, H. Reichenback, K.O. Stetter and C.R. Woese. 1985. A phylogenic grouping of the bacteroides, cytophagas, and certain flavobacteria. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 6: 34–42.Google Scholar
  191. Patel, J.B., J. Clarridge, M.S. Schuster, M. Waddington, J. Osborne and I. Nachamkin. 1999. Bacteremia caused by a novel isolate resembling Leptotrichia species in a neutropenic patient. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 2064–2067.Google Scholar
  192. Peagle, R.D., R. P. Tewari, W.N. Berhard and E. Peters. 1976. ­Microbial flora of the larynx, trachea and large intestine of the rat after ­long-term inhalation of 100 per cent oxygen. Anesthesiology 44: 287–290.Google Scholar
  193. Place, E.H. and L.E. Sutton. 1934. Erythema arthriticum epidemicum (Haverhill fever). Arch. Intern. Med. 54: 659–684.Google Scholar
  194. Prévot, A.R. 1948. Manuel de classification et de determination des ­bactéries anaérobies, 2nd edn. Masson et Cie, Paris.Google Scholar
  195. Reig, M., F. Baquero, M. Garcia-Campello and E. Loza. 1985. Leptotrichia buccalis bacteremia in neutropenic children. J. Clin. Microbiol. 22: 320–321.Google Scholar
  196. Renaut, J.J., C. Pecquet, C. Verlingue, H. Barriere, M. Deriennic and A.L. Courticu. 1982. Septicémie à Streptobacillus moniliformis. Nouv. Presse. Med. 11: 1143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Rey, J.L., G. Laurans, A. Pleskof, M. Guerlin, J. Orfila, C. Tribouillov, P. Bernasconi and J.P. Lesbre. 1987. Les endocardites à Streptobacillus moniliformis. A propos de deux cas. Ann. Cardiol. Angéiol. 36: 297–300.Google Scholar
  198. Robin, C. 1853. Histoire naturelle des végétaux parasites qui crossent sur l’homme et sur les animaux vivants. J.-B. Baillière, Paris.Google Scholar
  199. Roughgarden, J.W. 1965. Antimicrobial Therapy of ratbite fever. A review. Arch. Intern. Med. 116: 39–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Rupp, M.E. 1992. Streptobacillus moniliformis endocarditis: case report and review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 14: 769–772.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Rygg, M. and C.F. Bruun. 1992. Rat bite fever (Streptobacillus moniliformis) with septicemia in a child. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 24: 535–540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Savage, N.L. 1984. Genus Streptobacillus Levaditi, Nicolau and Poincloux 1925. In Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 1 (edited by Krieg). Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  203. Schottmüller, H. 1914. Zur Atiologie und Klinik der Bisskrankheit ­(Ratten-, Katzen-, Eichhornchen-Bisskrankheit). Dermatol. ­Wochenschr. Erganzungsh. 58: 77.Google Scholar
  204. Schwartz, D.N., B. Schable, F.C. Tenover and R.A. Miller. 1995. Leptotrichia buccalis bacteremia in patients treated in a single bone marrow transplant unit. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20: 762–767.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Sebald, M. 1962. Étude sur les bactéries anaérobies gram-négatives asporulées. Thèses de l’Université Paris, Imprimerie Barnéoud S.A., Laval, France.Google Scholar
  206. Shah, H.N. and M.D. Collins. 1980. Fatty acid and isoprenoid quinone composition in the classification of Bacteroides melaninogenicus and related taxa. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 48: 75–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Shah, H.N. and M.D. Collins. 1983. Genus Bacteroides. A chemotaxonomical perspective. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 55: 403–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Shukla, S.K., P.R. Meier, P.D. Mitchell, D.N. Frank and K.D. Reed. 2002. Leptotrichia amnionii sp. nov., a novel bacterium isolated from the amniotic fluid of a woman after intrauterine fetal demise. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40: 3346–3349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Simon, M.W. and H.D. Wilson. 1986. Streptobacillus moniliformis ­endocarditis. A case report. Clin. Pediatr. (Phila) 25: 110–111.Google Scholar
  210. Söderberg, G., A.A. Lindberg and C.E. Nord. 1979. Bacteroides fragilis in acute salpingitis. Infection 7: 226–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Strangeways, W.I. 1933. Rats as carriers of Streptobacillus moniliformis. J. Pathol. Bacteriol. 37: 45–51.Google Scholar
  212. Tee, W., P. Midolo, P.H. Janssen, T. Kerr and M.L. Dyall-Smith. 2001. Bacteremia due to Leptotrichia trevisanii sp. nov. Eur. J. Clin. ­Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 20: 765–769.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Tee, W., P. Midolo, P.H. Janssen, T. Kerr and M.L. Dyall-Smith. 2002. In Validation of publication of new names and new combinations previously effectively published outside the IJSEM. List no. 85. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52: 685–690.Google Scholar
  214. Thjötta, T., O. Hartmann and J. Böe. 1939. A study of the Leptotrichia ­Trevisan. History, morphology, biological and serological character­isitics. Skr. Nor. Vidensk.-Akad. Oslo I. Mat.-Naturvidensk. K1. 5: 1–199.Google Scholar
  215. Topley, W.W.C. and G.S. Wilson. 1936. The Principles of Bacteriology and Immunity, 2nd edn. Edward Arnold, London, p. 274.Google Scholar
  216. Trevisan, V. 1879. Prime linee d’introduzione allo studio dei Batterj italiani. Rendiconti dell’Istituto Lombardo di Scienze Series 2 12: 133–151.Google Scholar
  217. Vernelen, K., I. Mertens, J. Thomas, J. Vandeven, J. Verhaegen and L. Verbist. 1996. Bacteremia with Leptotrichia buccalis: report of a case and review of the literature. Acta Clin. Belg. 51: 265–270.Google Scholar
  218. Weinberger, M., T. Wu, M. Rubin, V.J. Gill and P.A. Pizzo. 1991. ­Leptotrichia buccalis bacteremia in patients with cancer: report of four cases and review. Rev. Infect. Dis. 13: 201–206.Google Scholar
  219. Weisbroth, S.H. 1979. Bacterial and mycotic diseases. In The ­Laboratory Rat, vol. 1, Biology and Diseases (edited by Baker, Lindsey and ­Weisbroth). Academic Press, New York, pp. 193–241.Google Scholar
  220. Wilson, G.S. and A.A. Miles. 1955. Topley and Wilson’s Principles of Bacteriology and Immunology, 3rd edn, vol. 1. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  221. Wittler, R.G. and S.G. Cary. 1974. Genus Streptobacillus Levaditi, ­Nicolau and Poincloux. 1925,1188. In Bergey’s Manual of Determinative ­Bacteriology, 8th ed. (edited by Buchanan and Gibbons). Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 378–381.Google Scholar
  222. Wullenweber, M., C. Jonas and I. Kunstyr. 1992. Streptobacillus moniliformis isolated from otitis media of conventionally kept laboratory rats. J. Exp. Anim. Sci. 35: 49–57.Google Scholar
  223. Young, C. and A. Hill. 1974. Conjunctivitis in a colony of rats. Lab. Anim. 8: 301–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Bergey’s Manual Trust 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations