Advertisement

Phylum XXV. Planctomycetes Garrity and Holt 2001, 137 emend. Ward (this volume)

  • Naomi L. Ward

Abstract

The phylum Planctomycetes was circumscribed for this volume on the basis of phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences; the phylum contains the class Planctomycetia.

Keywords

Type Strain Mother Cell Anammox Bacterium Oxygen Minimum Zone Swarmer Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Starr, M.P., R.M. Sayre and J.M. Schmidt. 1983. Assignment of ATCC 27377 to Planctomyces staleyi sp. nov. and conservation of Pasteuria ramosa Metchnikoff 1888 on the basis of type descriptive material. Request for an Opinion. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 33: 666–671.Google Scholar
  2. Ward, N., J.T. Staley, J.A. Fuerst, S.J. Giovannoni, H. Schlesner and E. Stackebrandt. 2004. The order Planctomycetales, including the genera Planctomyces, Pirellula, Gemmata, and Isosphaera, and the Candidatus genera Brocadia, Kuenenia, and Scalindua. In The Prokaryotes: an Evolving Electronic Resource for the Microbiological Community, 3rd edn, release 3.18 (edited by Dworkin, Falkow, Rosenberg, Schleifer and Stackebrandt). Springer, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Fuerst, J.A. 1995. The planctomycetes: emerging models for microbial ecology, evolution and cell biology. Microbiology 141: 1493–1506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Neef, A., R. Amann, H. Schlesner and K.-H. Schleifer. 1998. Monitoring a widespread bacterial group: in situ detection of planctomycetes with 16S rRNA-targeted probes. Microbiology 144: 3257–3266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Sittig, M. and H. Schlesner. 1993. Chemotaxonomic investigation of various prosthecate and/or budding bacteria. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 16: 92–103.Google Scholar
  6. Ward, N., J.T. Staley, J.A. Fuerst, S.J. Giovannoni, H. Schlesner and E. Stackebrandt. 2004. The order Planctomycetales, including the genera Planctomyces, Pirellula, Gemmata, and Isosphaera, and the Candidatus genera Brocadia, Kuenenia, and Scalindua. In The Prokaryotes: an Evolving Electronic Resource for the Microbiological Community, 3rd edn, release 3.18 (edited by Dworkin, Falkow, Rosenberg, Schleifer and Stackebrandt). Springer, New York.Google Scholar
  7. Giovannoni, S.J. and R.W. Castenholz. 1989. Genus “Isosphaera” Giovannoni, Schabtach and Castenholz. In Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 3 (edited by Staley, Bryant, Pfennig and Holt). Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 1959–1961.Google Scholar
  8. Staley, J.T., J.A.F. Fuerst, S. Giovannoni and H. Schlesner. 1992. The order Planctomycetales and the genera Planctomyces, Pirellula, Gemmata and Isosphaera. In The Prokaryotes: a Handbook on the Biology of Bacteria: Ecophysiology, Isolation, Identification, Applications, 2nd edn, vol. 4 (edited by Balows, Trüper, Dworkin, Harder and Schleifer). Springer, New York, pp. 3710–3731.Google Scholar
  9. Fuerst, J.A. 1995. The planctomycetes: emerging models for microbial ecology, evolution and cell biology. Microbiology 141: 1493–1506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Gade, D., J. Thiermann, D. Markowsky and R. Rabus. 2003. Evaluation of two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis for protein profiling. Soluable proteins of the marine bacterium Pirellula sp strain 1. J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotec.5: 240–251.Google Scholar
  11. Neef, A., R. Amann, H. Schlesner and K.-H. Schleifer. 1998. Monitoring a widespread bacterial group: in situ detection of planctomycetes with 16S rRNA-targeted probes. Microbiology 144: 3257–3266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Sittig, M. and H. Schlesner. 1993. Chemotaxonomic investigation of various prosthecate and/or budding bacteria. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 16: 92–103.Google Scholar
  13. Ward, N., J.T. Staley, J.A. Fuerst, S.J. Giovannoni, H. Schlesner and E. Stackebrandt. 2004. The order Planctomycetales, including the genera Planctomyces, Pirellula, Gemmata, and Isosphaera, and the Candidatus genera Brocadia, Kuenenia, and Scalindua. In The Prokaryotes: an Evolving Electronic Resource for the Microbiological Community, 3rd edn, release 3.18 (edited by Dworkin, Falkow, Rosenberg, Schleifer and Stackebrandt). Springer, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Anagnostidis, K. and R. Rathsack-Künzenbach. 1967. Isocystis pallida - Blaualge oder hefeartiger Pilz. 29: 191–198.Google Scholar
  15. Bauer, M., T. Lombardot, H. Teeling, N.L. Ward, R.I. Amann and F.O. Glöckner. 2004. Archaea-like genes for C1-transfer enzymes in Planctomycetes: phylogenetic implications of their unexpected presence in this phylum. J. Mol. Evol. 59: 571–586.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bauld, J. and J.T. Staley. 1976. Planctomyces maris sp. nov., marine isolate of Planctomyces blastocaulis group of budding bacteria. J. Gen. Microbiol. 97: 45–55.Google Scholar
  17. Bauld, J. and J.T. Staley. 1980. Planctomyces maris sp. nov., nom. rev. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 30: 657–657.Google Scholar
  18. Bomar, D., S. Giovannoni and E. Stackebrandt. 1988. A unique type of eubacterial 5S rRNA in members of the order Planctomycetales. J. Mol. Evol. 27: 121–125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Burdett, I.D. and R.G. Murray. 1974. Septum formation in Escherichia coli: characterization of septal structure and the effects of antibiotics on cell division. J. Bacteriol. 119: 303–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Butler, M.K., J. Wang, R.I. Webb and J.A. Fuerst. 2002. Molecular and ultrastructural confirmation of classification of ATCC 35122 as a strain of Pirellula staleyi. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52  : 1663–1667.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Butler, M.K. and J.A. Fuerst. 2004. Comparative analysis of ribonuclease P RNA of the Planctomycetes. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 54  : 1333–1344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Castenholz, R.W. 1988. Culturing methods (cyanobacteria). In Cyanobacteria: Methods in Enzymology, vol. 167 (edited by Packer and Glazer), pp. 68–93.Google Scholar
  23. Chistoserdova, L., C. Jenkins, M.G. Kalyuzhnaya, C.J. Marx, A. Lapidus, J.A. Vorholt, J.T. Staley and M.E. Lidstrom. 2004. The enigmatic planctomycetes may hold a key to the origins of methanogenesis and methylotrophy. Mol. Biol. Evol. 21  : 1234–1241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Chouari, R., D. Le Paslier, P. Daegelen, P. Ginestet, J. Weissenbach and A. Sghir. 2003. Molecular evidence for novel planctomycete diversity in a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69  : 7354–7363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Claus, H., H.H. Martin, C.A. Jantos and H. Konig. 2000. A search for beta-lactamase in chlamydiae, mycoplasmas, planctomycetes, and cyanelles: bacteria and bacterial descendants at different phylogenetic positions and stages of cell wall development. Microbiol. Res. 155  : 1–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Cohen-Bazire, G., W.R. Sistrom and R.Y. Stanier. 1957. Kinetic studies of pigment synthesis by non-sulfur purple bacteria. J. Cell Phys. 49  : 25–68.Google Scholar
  27. Dahlberg, C., M. Bergstrom and M. Hermansson. 1998. In situ detection of high levels of horizontal plasmid transfer in marine bacterial communities. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64  : 2670–2675.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Dedysh, S.N., T.A. Pankratov, S.E. Belova, I.S. Kulichevskaya and W. Liesack. 2006. Phylogenetic analysis and in situ identification of bacteria community composition in an acidic Sphagnum peat bog. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72  : 2110–2117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. DeLong, E.F., D.G. Franks and A.I. Alldredge. 1993. Phylogenetic diversity of aggregate-attached vs. free-living marine bacterial assemblages. Limnol. Oceanogr. 38  : 924–934.Google Scholar
  30. Euzéby, J.P. and T. Kudo. 2001. Corrigenda to the Validation Lists. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51  : 1933–1938.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Famurewa, O., H.G. Sonntag and P. Hirsch. 1983. Avirulence of 27 bacteria that are budding, prosthecate, or both. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 33  : 565–572.Google Scholar
  32. Fott, B. and J. Komarek. 1960. Das Phytoplankton der Teiche im Teschner Schlesien. Preslia 32  : 113–141.Google Scholar
  33. Franzmann, P.D. and V.B.D. Skerman. 1981. Agitococcus lubricus gen. nov. sp. nov., a lipolytic, twitching coccus from fresh water. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 31  : 177–183.Google Scholar
  34. Franzmann, P.D. and V.B. Skerman. 1984. Gemmata obscuriglobus, a new genus and species of the budding bacteria. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 50  : 261–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Franzmann, P.D. and V.B. Skerman. 1985. In Validation of the publication of new names and new combinations previously effectively published outside the IJSB. List no. 18. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 35  : 375–376.Google Scholar
  36. Fuerst, J.A., S.K. Sambhi, J.L. Paynter, J.A. Hawkins and J.G. Atherton. 1991. Isolation of a bacterium resembling Pirellula species from primary tissue culture of the giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57  : 3127–3134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Fuerst, J.A. and R.I. Webb. 1991. Membrane-bounded nucleoid in the eubacterium Gemmata obscuriglobus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 88  : 8184–8188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Fuerst, J.A., H.G. Gwilliam, M. Lindsay, A. Lichanska, C. Belcher, J.E. Vickers and P. Hugenholtz. 1997. Isolation and molecular identification of planctomycete bacteria from postlarvae of the giant tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63  : 254–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Fuerst, J.A. 2005. Intracellular compartmentation in Planctomycetes. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 59  : 299–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Gade, D., H. Schlesner, F.O. Glöckner, R. Amann, S. Pfeiffer and M. Thomm. 2004. Identification of Planctomycetes with order-, genus-, and strain-specific 16S rRNA-targeted probes. Microb. Ecol. 47  : 243–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Gade, D., J. Gobom and R. Rabus. 2005a. Proteomic analysis of carbohydrate catabolism and regulation in the marine bacterium Rhodopirellula baltica. Proteomics 5  : 3672–3683.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Gade, D., T. Stührmann, R. Reinhardt and R. Rabus. 2005b. Growth phase dependent regulation of protein composition in Rhodopirellula baltica. Environ. Microbiol. 7  : 1074–1084.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Gade, D., D. Theiss, D. Lange, E. Mirgorodskaya, T. Lombardot, F.O. Glockner, M. Kube, R. Reinhardt, R. Amann, H. Lehrach, R. Rabus and J. Gobom. 2005c. Towards the proteome of the marine bacterium Rhodopirellula baltica: mapping the soluble proteins. Proteomics 5  : 3654–3671.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Gebers, R., U. Wehmeyer, T. Roggentin, H. Schlesner, J. Kölbel-Boelke and P. Hirsch. 1985. Deoxyribonucleic acid base compositions and nucleotide distributions of 65 strains of budding bacteria. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 35  : 260–269.Google Scholar
  45. Geitler, L. 1963. Die angebliche Cyanophyceae Isosphaera pallida is ein hefeartiger Pilz. Arch. Mikrobiol. 46  : 238–242.Google Scholar
  46. Gimesi, N. 1924. Hydrobiologiai tanulmanyok (Hydrobiologische Studien). I. Planctomyces bekefii Gim. nov. gen. et sp. (in Hungarian, with German transl.). Kiadja a Magyar Ciszterci Rend, Budapest, pp. 1–8.Google Scholar
  47. Giovannoni, S.J., W. Godchaux, 3rd, E. Schabtach and R.W. Castenholz. 1987a. Cell wall and lipid composition of Isosphaera pallida, a budding Eubacterium from hot springs. J. Bacteriol. 169  : 2702–2707.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Giovannoni, S.J., E. Schabtach and R.W. Castenholz. 1987b. Isosphaera pallida, gen. and comb. nov., a gliding, budding Eubacterium from hot springs. Arch. Microbiol. 147  : 276–284.Google Scholar
  49. Giovannoni, S.J., E. Shabtach and R.W. Castenholz. 1995. In Validation of the publication of new names and new combinations previously effectively published outside the IJSB. List no. 54. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 45  : 619–620.Google Scholar
  50. Gliesche, C. 1980. Isolierung und Charakterisierung von Bakteriophagen knospender Bakterien (Isolation and characterization of bacteriophages of budding bacteria). Diploma thesis, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet, Kiel.Google Scholar
  51. Glöckner, F.O., B.M. Fuchs and R. Amann. 1999. Bacterioplankton compositions of lakes and oceans: a first comparison based on fluorescence in situ hybridization. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65  : 3721–3726.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Glöckner, F.O., M. Kube, M. Bauer, H. Teeling, T. Lombardot, W. Ludwig, D. Gade, A. Beck, K. Borzym, K. Heitmann, R. Rabus, H. Schlesner, R. Amann and R. Reinhardt. 2003. Complete genome sequence of the marine planctomycete Pirellula sp. strain 1. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 100  : 8298–8303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Granberg, K. 1969. Kasviplanktonin merkityksesta vesilaitoksen raakvaveden tarkkailussa. Limnol. Foren. I. Finland Limnol. Symp. 1968  : 34–43.Google Scholar
  54. Griepenburg, U., N. Ward-Rainey, S. Mohamed, H. Schlesner, H. Marxsen, F.A. Rainey, E. Stackebrandt and G. Auling. 1999. Phylogenetic diversity, polyamine pattern and DNA base composition of members of the order Planctomycetales. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49  : 689–696.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Henrici, A.T. and D.E. Johnson. 1935. Studies of freshwater bacteria: II. Stalked bacteria, a new order of Schizomycetes. J. Bacteriol. 30  : 61–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Heynig, H. 1961. Zur Kenntnis des Planktons mitteldeutscher Gewaesser. Arch. Protistenkd. 105  : 407–416.Google Scholar
  57. Hindák, F. 2001. Thermal micro-organisms from a hot spring on the coast of Lake Bogoria, Kenya. Nova Hedwigia, Beiheft 123  : 77–93.Google Scholar
  58. Hirsch, P. 1972. Two identical genera of budding and stalked bacteria: Planctomyces Gimesi 1924 and Blastocaulis Henrici and Johnson 1935. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 22  : 107–111.Google Scholar
  59. Hirsch, P., M. Müller and H. Schlesner. 1977. New aquatic budding and prosthecate bacteria and their taxonomic position. In Symposium on Aquatic Microbiology, Lancaster, UK. Academic Press, London, pp. 107–133.Google Scholar
  60. Hirsch, P. and M. Müller. 1985. Planctomyces limnophilus sp. nov., a stalked and budding bacterium from freshwater. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 6  : 276–280.Google Scholar
  61. Hirsch, P. and M. Müller. 1986. In Validation of the publication of new names and new combinations previously effectively published outside the IJSB. List no. 20. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 36  : 354–356.Google Scholar
  62. Hortobágyi, T. 1965. Neue Planctomyces Arten. Tot. Koezlem. 52  : 111–119.Google Scholar
  63. Hortobágyi, T. 1968. Planctomyces from Vietnam. Acta Phytopathol. Acad. Sci. Hung 3  : 271–273.Google Scholar
  64. Hortobágyi, T. 1980. Aquatic bacteria and fungi in Danube River and in the water producing systems of the Budapest Waterworks. Acta Microbiol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 27  : 259–268.Google Scholar
  65. Hortobágyi, T. and L. Hajdú. 1984. A critical survey of Planctomyces research. Acta Bot. Hung. 30  : 3–9.Google Scholar
  66. Jenkins, C. and J.A. Fuerst. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of evolutionary relationships of the planctomycete division of the domain bacteria based on amino acid sequences of elongation factor Tu. J. Mol. Evol. 52  : 405–418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kerger, B.D., C.A. Mancuso, P.D. Nichols, D.C. White, T. Langworthy, M. Sittig, H. Schlesner and P. Hirsch. 1988. The budding bacteria, Pirellula and Planctomyces, with atypical 16S rRNA and absence of peptidoglycan, show eubacterial phospholipids and uniquely high proportions of long chain beta-hydroxy fatty acids in the lipopolysaccharide lipid A. Arch. Microbiol. 149  : 255–260.Google Scholar
  68. Kodaka, H., A.Y. Armfield, G.L. Lombard and V.R. Dowell, Jr. 1982. Practical procedure for demonstrating bacterial flagella. J. Clin. Microbiol. 16  : 948–952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Kölbel-Boelke, J., R. Gebers and P. Hirsch. 1985. Genome size determination for 33 strains of budding bacteria. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 35  : 270–273.Google Scholar
  70. Komárek, J. and K. Anagnostidis. 2005. Cyanoprokaryota 2. In Oscillatoriales. Elsevier/Spektrum, Munich, pp. 336–339.Google Scholar
  71. König, H., H. Schlesner and P. Hirsch. 1984. Cell wall studies on budding bacteria of the Planctomyces - Pasteuria group and on a Prosthecomicrobium sp. Arch. Microbiol. 138  : 200–205.Google Scholar
  72. Krasil’nikov, N.A. 1949. Guide to the bacteria and actinomycetes. In Akad. Nauk. S.S.S.R. Moscow, pp. 1–830.Google Scholar
  73. Kristiansen, J. 1971. On Planctomyces bekefii and its occurrence in Danish lakes and ponds. Bot. Tidsskr. 66  : 293–392.Google Scholar
  74. Kulichevskaya, I.S., T.A. Pankratov and S.N. Dedysh. 2006. Detection of representatives of the Planctomycetes in Sphagnum peat bogs by molecular and cultivation approaches. Microbiology (En. transl. from Mikrobiologiya) 75  : 329–335.Google Scholar
  75. Kulichevskaya, I.S., A.O. Ivanova, S.E. Belova, O.I. Baulina, P.L.E. Bodelier, W.I.C. Rijpstra, J.S. Sinninghe Damsté, G.A. Zavarzin and S.N. Dedysh. 2007. Schlesneria paludicola gen. nov., sp. nov., the first acidophilic member of the order Planctomycetales, from Sphagnum-dominated boreal wetlands. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57  : 2680–2687.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Kulichevskaya, I.S., A.O. Ivanova, O.I. Baulina, P.L.E. Bodelier, J.S. Sinninghe Damsté and S.N. Dedysh. 2008. Singulisphaera acidiphila gen. nov., sp. nov., a non-filamentous, Isosphaera-like planctomycete from acidic northern wetlands. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 58  : 1186–1193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Kustu, S., E. Santero, J. Keener, D. Popham and D. Weiss. 1989. Expression of sigma 54 (ntrA)-dependent genes is probably united by a common mechanism. Microbiol. Rev. 53  : 367–376.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Leary, B.A., N. Ward-Rainey and T.R. Hoover. 1998. Cloning and characterization of Planctomyces limnophilus rpoN  : complementation of a Salmonella typhimurium rpoN mutant strain. Gene 221  : 151–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Liesack, W., H. König, H. Schlesner and P. Hirsch. 1986. Chemical composition of the peptidoglycan-free cell envelopes of budding bacteria of the Pirella/Planctomyces group. Arch. Microbiol. 145  : 361–366.Google Scholar
  80. Liesack, W. and E. Stackebrandt. 1989. Evidence for unlinked rrn operons in the planctomycete Pirellula marina. J. Bacteriol. 171  : 5025–5030.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Lindsay, M., R.I. Webb, H.M. Hosmer and J.A. Fuerst. 1995. Effects of fixative and buffer on morphology and ultrastrcuture of a freshwater planctomycete, Gemmata obscuriglobus. J. Microbiol. Methods 21  : 45–54.Google Scholar
  82. Lindsay, M.R., R.I. Webb and J.A. Fuerst. 1997. Pirellulosomes: a new type of membrane-bounded cell compartment in planctomycete bacteria of the genus Pirellula. Microbiology 143  : 739–748.Google Scholar
  83. Lindsay, M.R., R.I. Webb, M. Strous, M.S. Jetten, M.K. Butler, R.J. Forde and J.A. Fuerst. 2001. Cell compartmentalisation in Planctomycetes: novel types of structural organisation for the bacterial cell. Arch. Microbiol. 175  : 413–429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Llobet-Brossa, E., R. Rossello-Mora and R. Amann. 1998. Microbial community composition of wadden sea sediments as revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64  : 2691–2696.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Lyman, J. and R.H. Fleming. 1940. Composition of sea water. J. Mar. Res. 3  : 134–146.Google Scholar
  86. Majewski, D.M. 1985. Molekularbiologische Charakterisierung von Bakteriophagen knospender Bakterien (Molecular biological characterisation of bacteriophages of budding bacteria). Diploma thesis, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet, Kiel.Google Scholar
  87. Menke, M.A.O.H., W. Liesack and E. Stackebrandt. 1991. Ribotyping of 16S and 23S rRNA genes and organization of rrn operonsin ­members of the bacterial genera Gemmata, Planctomyces, Thermotoga, Thermus and Verrucomicrobium. Arch. Microbiol. 155  : 263–271.Google Scholar
  88. Neef, A., R. Amann, H. Schlesner and K.H. Schleifer. 1998. Monitoring a widespread bacterial group: in situ detection of Planctomycetes with 16S rRNA-targeted probes. Microbiology 144  : 3257–3266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Olah, J. and L. Hajdu. 1973. Electron microscopic morphology of Planctomyces bekefii (sic) Gimesi. Arch. Hydrobiol. 71  : 271–275.Google Scholar
  90. Parra, O. 1972. Presencia del genero Planctomyces (Fungi Imperfecti - Moniliales) en Chile. Bol. Soc. Arg. Bot. 14  : 282–284.Google Scholar
  91. Pearson, A., M. Budin and J.J. Brocks. 2003. Phylogenetic and biochemical evidence for sterol synthesis in the bacterium Gemmata obscuriglobus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 100  : 15352–15357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Rabus, R., D. Gade, R. Hellwig, M. Bauer, F.O. Glöckner, M. Kube, H. Schlesner, R. Reinhardt and R. Amann. 2002. Analysis of N-acetyl­glucosamine metabolism in the marine bacterium Pirellula sp. strain 1 by a proteomic approach. Proteomics 2  : 649–655.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Razumov, A.S. 1949. Gallionella kljasmensis sp. n. a bacterial component of the plankton (in Russian). Mikrobiologiya 18  : 442–446.Google Scholar
  94. Rönner, S., W. Liesack, J. Wolters and E. Stackebrandt. 1991. Cloning and sequencing of a large fragment of the atpD-gene of Pirellula marina  : a contribution to the phylogeny of Planctomycetales. Endocytobios Cell Res. 7: 219–229.Google Scholar
  95. Schlesner, H. and P. Hirsch. 1984. Assignment of ATCC 27377 to Pirella gen. nov. as Pirella staleyi comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 34  : 492–495.Google Scholar
  96. Schlesner, H. 1986. Pirella marina sp. nov., a budding, peptidoglycanless bacterium from brackish water. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 8  : 177–180.Google Scholar
  97. Schlesner, H. and E. Stackebrandt. 1986. Assignment of the genera Planctomyces and Pirella to a new family Planctomycetaceae fam. nov. and description of the order Planctomycetales ord. nov. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 8  : 174–176.Google Scholar
  98. Schlesner, H. and P. Hirsch. 1987. Rejection of the genus name Pirella for pear-shaped budding bacteria and proposal to create the genus Pirellula gen. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 37  : 441–441.Google Scholar
  99. Schlesner, H. and E. Stackebrandt. 1987. In Validation of the publication of new names and new combinations previously effectively published outside the IJSB. List no. 23. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 37  : 179–180.Google Scholar
  100. Schlesner, H. 1989. Planctomyces brasiliensis sp. nov., a halotolerant bacterium from a salt pit. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 12  : 159–161.Google Scholar
  101. Schlesner, H. 1990. In Validation of the publication of new names and new combinations previously effectively published outside the IJSB. List no. 32. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 40  : 105–106.Google Scholar
  102. Schlesner, H. 1994. The development of media suitable for the microorganisms morphologically resembling Planctomyces spp., Pirellula spp., and other Planctomycetales from various aquatic habitats using dilute media. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 17  : 135–145.Google Scholar
  103. Schlesner, H., C. Rensmann, B.J. Tindall, D. Gade, R. Rabus, S. Pfeiffer and P. Hirsch. 2004. Taxonomic heterogeneity within the Planctomycetales as derived by DNA–DNA hybridization, description of Rhodopirellula baltica gen. nov., sp. nov., transfer of Pirellula marina to the genus Blastopirellula gen. nov. as Blastopirellula marina comb. nov. and emended description of the genus Pirellula. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 54  : 1567–1580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Schmidt, J.M. 1978. Isolation and ultrastructure of freshwater strains of Planctomyces. Curr. Microbiol. 1  : 65–70.Google Scholar
  105. Schmidt, J.M. and M.P. Starr. 1978. Morphological diversity of freshwater bacteria belonging to the Blastocaulis–Planctomyces group as observed in natural populations and enrichments. Curr. Microbiol. 1  : 325–330.Google Scholar
  106. Schmidt, J.M. and M.P. Starr. 1979a. Morphotype V of the Blastocaulis–Planctomyces group of budding and appendaged bacteria: Planctomyces guttaeformis Hortobágyi (sensu Hajdu). Curr. Microbiol. 2  : 195–200.Google Scholar
  107. Schmidt, J.M. and M.P. Starr. 1979b. Corniculate cell surface protrusions in morphotype II of the Blastocaulis–Planctomyces group of budding and appendaged bacteria. Curr. Microbiol. 3  : 187–190.Google Scholar
  108. Schmidt, J.M. and M.P. Starr. 1980a. Some ultrastructural features of Planctomyces bekefii, morphotype I of the Blastocaulis–Planctomyces group of budding and appendaged bacteria. Curr. Microbiol. 4  : 189–194.Google Scholar
  109. Schmidt, J.M. and M.P. Starr. 1980b. Current sightings, at the respective type localities and elsewhere, of Planctomyces bekefii Gimesi 1924 and Blastocaulis sphaerica Henrici and Johnson 1935. Curr. Microbiol. 4  : 183–188.Google Scholar
  110. Schmidt, J.M., W.P. Sharp and M.P. Starr. 1981. Manganese and iron encrustations and other features of Planctomyces crassus Hortobágyi 1965, morphotype Ib of the Blastocaulis–Planctomyces group of budding and appendaged bacteria, examined by electron microscopy and X-ray micro-analysis. Curr. Microbiol. 5  : 241–246.Google Scholar
  111. Schmidt, J.M. and M.P. Starr. 1981. The BlastocaulisPlanctomyces group of budding and appendaged bacteria. In The Prokaryotes: a Handbook on Habitats, Isolation, and Identification of Bacteria, vol. 1 (edited by Starr, Stolp, Trüper, Balows and Schlegel). Springer, New York, pp. 496–504.Google Scholar
  112. Schmidt, J.M., W.P. Sharp and M.P. Starr. 1982. Metallic-oxide encrustations of the nonprosthecate stalks of naturally occurring populations of Planctomyces bekefii. Curr. Microbiol. 7  : 389–394.Google Scholar
  113. Schmidt, J.M. and M.P. Starr. 1982. Ultrastructural features of budding cells in a prokaryote belonging to morphotype IV of the Blastocaulis–Planctomyces group. Curr. Microbiol. 7  : 7–11.Google Scholar
  114. Sittig, M. and H. Schlesner. 1993. Chemotaxonomic investigation of various prosthecate and or budding bacteria. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 16  : 92–103.Google Scholar
  115. Skerman, V.B. 1968. A new type of micromanipulator and microforge. J. Gen. Microbiol. 54  : 287–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Skuja, H. 1964. Grundzuege der Algenflora und Algenvegetation der Fjeldgegenden um Abisko in Schwedisch-Lappland. Nova Acta Reg. Soc. Sci. Upsal. Ser. IV 18  : 1–139.Google Scholar
  117. Stackebrandt, E., W. Ludwig, W. Schubert, F. Klink, H. Schlesner, T. Roggentin and P. Hirsch. 1984. Molecular genetic evidence for early evolutionary origin of budding peptidoglycan-less eubacteria. Nature 307  : 735–737.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Stackebrandt, E., U. Wehmeyer and W. Liesack. 1986. 16S Ribosomal RNA and cell wall analysis of Gemmata obscuriglobus, a new member of the order Planctomycetales. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 37  : 289–292.Google Scholar
  119. Staley, J.T. 1968. Prosthecomicrobium and Ancalomicrobium  : new prosthecate freshwater bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 95  : 1921–1942.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Staley, J.T. 1973. Budding bacteria of the PasteuriaBlastobacter group. Can. J. Microbiol. 19  : 609–614.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Staley, J.T., K.C. Marshall and V.B.D. Skerman. 1980. Budding and prosthecate bacteria from freshwater habitats of various trophic states. Microb. Ecol. 5  : 245–251.Google Scholar
  122. Staley, J.T. 1981a. The genera Prosthecomicrobium and Ancalomicrobium. In The Prokaryotes: a Handbook on Habitats, Isolation, and Identification of Bacteria (edited by Starr, Stolp, Trüper, Balows and Schlegel). Springer, New York, pp. 456–460.Google Scholar
  123. Staley, J.T. 1981b. The genus Pasteuria. In The Prokaryotes: a Handbook on Habitats, Isolation, and Identification of Bacteria (edited by Starr, Stolp, Trüper, Balows and Schlegel). Springer, New York, pp. 490–492.Google Scholar
  124. Staley, J.T., J.A. Fuerst, S. Giovannoni and H. Schlesner. 1992. The order Planctomycetales and the genera Planctomyces, Pirellula, Gemmata and Isosphaera. In The Prokaryotes: a Handbook on the Biology of Bacteria  : Ecophysiology, Isolation, Identification, Applications, 2nd edn, vol. 4 (edited by Balows, Trüper, Dworkin, Harder and Schleifer). Springer, New York, pp. 3710–3731.Google Scholar
  125. Starr, M.P., R.M. Sayre and J.M. Schmidt. 1983. Assignment of ATCC 27377 to Planctomyces staleyi sp. nov. and conservation of Pasteuria ramosa Metchnikoff 1888 on the basis of type descriptive material: Request for an Opinion. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 33  : 666–671.Google Scholar
  126. Starr, M.P. and J.M. Schmidt. 1984. Planctomyces stranskae (ex Wawrik 1952) sp. nov., nom. rev. and Planctomyces guttaeformis (ex Hortobágyi 1965) sp. nov., nom. rev. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 34  : 470–477.Google Scholar
  127. Starr, M.P. and J.M. Schmidt. 1989. Genus Planctomyces Gimesi 1924. In Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 3 (edited by Staley, Bryant, Pfennig and Holt). Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 1946–1958.Google Scholar
  128. Teiling, E. 1942. Schwedische Planktonalgen. 3. Neue oder wenig bekannte Formen. Bot. Not. 1942  : 63–68.Google Scholar
  129. Tekniepe, B.L., J.M. Schmidt and M.P. Starr. 1981. Life cycle of a budding and appendaged bacterium belonging to morphotype IV of the Blastocaulis–Planctomyces group. Curr. Microbiol. 5  : 1–6.Google Scholar
  130. Tell, G. 1975. Presencia de Planctomyces bekefii (Fungi Imperfecti, Moniliales) en la Argentina. Physis (B. Aires) 34  : 71.Google Scholar
  131. Van Ert, M. and J.T. Staley. 1971. Gas-vacuolated strains of Microcyclus aquaticus. J. Bacteriol. 108  : 236–240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Wang, J., C. Jenkins, R.I. Webb and J.A. Fuerst. 2002. Isolation of Gemmata-like and Isosphaera-like planctomycete bacteria from soil and freshwater. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68  : 417–422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Ward-Rainey, N. 1996. Genetic diversity in members of the order Planctomycetales. PhD thesis, University of Warwick, Coventry.Google Scholar
  134. Ward-Rainey, N., F.A. Rainey, E.M. Wellington and E. Stackebrandt. 1996. Physical map of the genome of Planctomyces limnophilus, a representative of the phylogenetically distinct planctomycete lineage. J. Bacteriol. 178  : 1908–1913.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Ward-Rainey, N., F.A. Rainey and E. Stackebrandt. 1997. The presence of a dnaK (HSP70) multigene family in members of the orders Planctomycetales and Verrucomicrobiales. J. Bacteriol. 179  : 6360–6366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Ward, N., F.A. Rainey, E. Stackebrandt and H. Schlesner. 1995. Unraveling the extent of diversity within the order Planctomycetales. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61  : 2270–2275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Ward, N.L., F.A. Rainey, B.P. Hedlund, J.T. Staley, W. Ludwig and E. Stackebrandt. 2000. Comparative phylogenetic analyses of members of the order Planctomycetales and the division Verrucomicrobia  : 23S rRNA gene sequence analysis supports the 16S rRNA gene sequence-derived phylogeny. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 50  : 1965–1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Wawrik, F. 1952. Planctomyces-Studien. Sydowia Ann. Mycol. Ser. II 6  : 443–451.Google Scholar
  139. Wawrik, F. 1956. Neue Planktonorganismen aus Waldviertler Fischteichen. Oesterr. Bot. Z. 103  : 291–299.Google Scholar
  140. Weisburg, W.G., T.P. Hatch and C.R. Woese. 1986. Eubacterial origin of Chlamydiae. J. Bacteriol. 167  : 570–574.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Woronichin, N.N. 1927. Materiali k agologitscheskoj flore i rastitjelnosti mineralnich istotchnikov gruppie Kaukaskich mineralnich wod. Trav. Inst. Balneol. aux Eaux Miner du Caucase 5  : 90–91.Google Scholar
  142. Zavarzin, G.A. 1961. Budding bacteria. Mikrobiologiya 30  : 774–791.Google Scholar
  143. Kuenen, J.G. and M.S.M. Jetten. 2001. Extraordinary anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. ASM News 67: 456–463.Google Scholar
  144. Strous, M., J.A. Fuerst, E.H.M. Kramer, S. Logemann, G. Muyzer, K.T. van de Pas-Schoonen, R. Webb, J.G. Kuenen and M.S.M. Jetten. 1999. Missing lithotroph identified as new planctomycete. Nature 400  : 446–449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Kuenen, J.G. 2008. Anammox bacteria: from discovery to application. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 6: 320–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Pilcher, H. 2005. Microbiology: pipe dreams. Nature 437: 1227–1228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Boumann, H.A., E.C. Hopmans, I. van de Leemput, H.J. Op den Camp, J. van de Vossenberg, M. Strous, M.S.M. Jetten, J.S. Sinninghe Damste and S. Schouten. 2006. Ladderane phospholipids in anammox bacteria comprise phosphocholine and phosphoethanolamine headgroups. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 258: 297–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Dalsgaard, T., D.E. Canfield, J. Petersen, B. Thamdrup and J. Acuna-Gonzalez. 2003. N2 production by the anammox reaction in the anoxic water column of Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica. Nature 422: 606–608.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Dalsgaard, T., B. Thamdrup and D.E. Canfield. 2005. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in the marine environment. Res. Microbiol. 156: 457–464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Damste, J.S.S., M. Strous, W.I.C. Rijpstra, E.C. Hopmans, J.A.J. Geenevasen, A.C.T. van Duin, L.A. van Niftrik and M.S.M. Jetten. 2002. Linearly concatenated cyclobutane lipids form a dense bacterial membrane. Nature 419: 708–712.Google Scholar
  151. Damste, J.S.S., W.I.C. Rijpstra, S. Schouten, J.A. Fuerst, M.S.M. Jetten and M. Strous. 2004. The occurrence of hopanoids in planctomycetes: implications for the sedimentary biomarker record. Org. Geochem. 35: 561–566.Google Scholar
  152. Damste, J.S.S., W.I.C. Rijpstra, J.A.J. Geenevasen, M. Strous and M.S.M. Jetten. 2005. Structural identification of ladderane and other membrane lipids of planctomycetes capable of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). FEBS J. 272: 4270–4283.Google Scholar
  153. Dapena-Mora, A., S.W.H. Van Hulle, J.L. Campos, R. Mendez, P.A. Vanrolleghem and M.S.M. Jetten. 2004. Enrichment of anammox biomass from municipal activated sludge: experimental and modelling results. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 79: 1421–1428.Google Scholar
  154. Egli, K., U. Fanger, P.J.J. Alvarez, H. Siegrist, J.R. van der Meer and A.J.B. Zehnder. 2001. Enrichment and characterization of an anammox bacterium from a rotating biological contactor treating ammonium-rich leachate. Arch. Microbiol. 175: 198–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Felsenstein, J. 1985. Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39: 783–791.Google Scholar
  156. Francis, C.A., J.M. Beman and M.M.M. Kuypers. 2007. New processes and players in the nitrogen cycle: the microbial ecology of anaerobic and archaeal ammonia oxidation. ISME J. 1: 19–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Fuerst, J.A. 2005. Intracellular compartmentation in Planctomycetes. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 59: 299–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Fujii, T., H. Sugino, J.D. Rouse and K. Furukawa. 2002. Characterization of the microbial community in an anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing biofilm cultured on a nonwoven biomass carrier. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 94: 412–418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Guven, D., A. Dapena, B. Kartal, M.C. Schmid, B. Maas, K. van de Pas-Schoonen, S. Sozen, R. Mendez, H.J.M. Op den Camp, M.S.M. Jetten, M. Strous and I. Schmidt. 2005. Propionate oxidation by and methanol inhibition of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71: 1066–1071.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Hamersley, M.R., G. Lavik, D. Woebken, J.E. Rattray, P. Lam, E.C. Hopmans, J.S.S. Damste, S. Kruger, M. Graco, D. Gutierrez and M.M.M. Kuypers. 2007. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation in the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone. Limnol. Oceanogr. 52: 923–933.Google Scholar
  161. Jensen, M.M., B. Thamdrup and T. Dalsgaard. 2007. Effects of specific inhibitors on anammox and denitrification in marine sedirnents. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73: 3151–3158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Jetten, M.S.M., I. Cirpus, B. Kartal, L. van Niftrik, K.T. van de Pas-Schoonen, O. Sliekers, S. Haaijer, W. van der Star, M. Schmid, J. van de Vossenberg, I. Schmidt, H. Harhangi, M. van Loosdrecht, J.G. Kuenen, H.O. den Camp and M. Strous. 2005a. 1994–2004: 10 years of research on the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 33: 119–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Jetten, M.S.M., M. Schmid, K. van de Pas-Schoonen, J.S.S. Damste and M. Strous. 2005b. Anammox organisms: enrichment, cultivation, and environmental analysis. Environ. Microbiol. 397: 34–57.Google Scholar
  164. Kartal, B., M. Koleva, R. Arsov, W. van der Star, M.S.M. Jetten and M. Strous. 2006. Adaptation of a freshwater anammox population to high salinity wastewater. J. Biotechnol. 126: 546–553.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Kartal, B., M.M. Kuypers, G. Lavik, J. Schalk, H.J. Op den Camp, M.S.M. Jetten and M. Strous. 2007a. Anammox bacteria disguised as denitrifiers: nitrate reduction to dinitrogen gas via nitrite and ammonium. Environ. Microbiol. 9: 635–642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Kartal, B., J. Rattray, L.A. van Niftrik, J. van de Vossenberg, M.C. Schmid, R.I. Webb, S. Schouten, J.A. Fuerst, J.S.S. Damste, M.S.M. Jetten and M. Strous. 2007b. Candidatus “Anammoxoglobus propionicus” a new propionate oxidizing species of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 30: 39–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Kartal, B., L. van Niftrik, J. Rattray, J. van de Vossenberg, M.C. Schmid, J.S.S. Damste, M.S.M. Jetten and M. Strous. 2008. CandidatusBrocadia fulgida’: an autofluorescent anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacterium. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 63: 46–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Kindaichi, T., I. Tsushima, Y. Ogasawara, M. Shimokawa, N. Ozaki, H. Satoh and S. Okabe. 2007. In situ activity and spatial organization of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria in biofilms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73: 4931–4939.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Kuenen, J.G. and M.S.M. Jetten. 2001. Extraordinary anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. ASM News 67: 456–463.Google Scholar
  170. Kuypers, M.M.M., A.O. Sliekers, G. Lavik, M. Schmid, B.B. Jorgensen, J.G. Kuenen, J.S.S. Damste, M. Strous and M.S.M. Jetten. 2003. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation by anammox bacteria in the Black Sea. Nature 422: 608–611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Kuypers, M.M.M., G. Lavik, D. Woebken, M. Schmid, B.M. Fuchs, R. Amann, B.B. Jorgensen and M.S.M. Jetten. 2005. Massive nitrogen loss from the Benguela upwelling system through anaerobic ammonium oxidation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 102: 6478–6483.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Lam, P., M.M. Jensen, G. Lavik, D.F. McGinnis, B. Muller, C.J. Schubert, R. Amann, B. Thamdrup and M.M.M. Kuypers. 2007. Linking crenarchaeal and bacterial nitrification to anammox in the Black Sea. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 104: 7104–7109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Lindsay, M.R., R.I. Webb, M. Strous, M.S.M. Jetten, M.K. Butler, R.J. Forde and J.A. Fuerst. 2001. Cell compartmentalisation in Planctomycetes: novel types of structural organisation for the bacterial cell. Arch. Microbiol. 175: 413–429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Nakajima, J., M. Sakka, T. Kimura, K. Furukawa and K. Sakka. 2008. Enrichment of anammox bacteria from marine environment for the construction of a bioremediation reactor. Appl. Mycol. Biotechnol. 77: 1159–1166.Google Scholar
  175. Neef, A., R. Amann, H. Schlesner and K.H. Schleifer. 1998. Monitoring a widespread bacterial group: in situ detection of Planctomycetes with 16S rRNA-targeted probes. Microbiology 144: 3257–3266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Nielsen, M., A. Bollmann, O. Sliekers, M.S.M. Jetten, M. Schmid, M. Strous, I. Schmidt, L.H. Larsen, L.P. Nielsen and N.P. Revsbech. 2005. Kinetics, diffusional limitation and microscale distribution of chemistry and organisms in a CANON reactor. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 51: 247–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Op den Camp H.J.M., B. Kartal, D. Guven, L.A.M.P. van Niftrik, S.C.M. Haaijer, W.R.L. van der Star, K.T. van de Pas-Schoonen, A. Cabezas, Z. Ying, M.C. Schmid, M.M.M. Kuypers, J. van de Vossenberg, H.R. Harhangi, C. Picioreanu, M.C.M. van Loosdrecht, J.G. Kuenen, M. Strous and M.S.M. Jetten. 2006. Global impact and application of the anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 34: 174–178.Google Scholar
  178. Penton, C.R., A.H. Devol and J.M. Tiedje. 2006. Molecular evidence for the broad distribution of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in freshwater and marine sediments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72: 6829–6832.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Pynaert, K., B.F. Smets, S. Wyffels, D. Beheydt, S.D. Siciliano and W. Verstraete. 2003. Characterization of an autotrophic nitrogen-removing biofilm from a highly loaded lab-scale rotating biological contactor. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69: 3626–3635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Quan, Z.-X., S.K. Rhee, J.E. Zuo, Y. Yang, J.W. Bae, J.R. Park, S.T. Lee and Y.H. Park. 2008. Diversity of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) reactor. Environ. Microbiol. 10: 3130–3139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Rattray, J.E., J. van de Vossenberg, E.C. Hopmans, B. Kartal, L. van Niftrik, W.I. Rijpstra, M. Strous, M.S.M. Jetten, S. Schouten and J.S. Damste. 2008. Ladderane lipid distribution in four genera of anammox bacteria. Arch. Microbiol. 190: 51–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Rich, J.J., O.R. Dale, B. Song and B.B. Ward. 2008. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) in Chesapeake Bay sediments. Microb. Ecol. 55: 311–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Risgaard-Petersen, N., R.L. Meyer, M. Schmid, M.S.M. Jetten, A. Enrich-Prast, S. Rysgaard and N.P. Revsbech. 2004. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation in an estuarine sediment. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 36: 293–304.Google Scholar
  184. Rysgaard, S. and R.N. Glud. 2004. Anaerobic N2 production in Arctic sea ice. Limnol. Oceanogr. 49: 86–94.Google Scholar
  185. Saitou, N. and M. Nei. 1987. The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol. Biol. Evol. 4: 406–425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Schalk, J., S. de Vries, J.G. Kuenen and M.S.M. Jetten. 2000. Involvement of a novel hydroxylamine oxidoreductase in anaerobic ammonium oxidation. Biochemistry 39: 5405–5412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Schmid, M., U. Twachtmann, M. Klein, M. Strous, S. Juretschko, M.S.M. Jetten, J.W. Metzger, K.H. Schleifer and M. Wagner. 2000. Molecular evidence for genus level diversity of bacteria capable of catalyzing anaerobic ammonium oxidation. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 23: 93–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Schmid, M., S. Schmitz-Esser, M.S.M. Jetten and M. Wagner. 2001. 16S–23S rDNA intergenic spacer and 23S rDNA of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria: implications for phylogeny and in situ detection. Environ. Microbiol. 3: 450–459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Schmid, M., K. Walsh, R. Webb, W.I.C. Rijpstra, K. van de Pas-Schoonen, M.J. Verbruggen, T. Hill, B. Moffett, J. Fuerst, S. Schouten, J.S.S. Damste, J. Harris, P. Shaw, M.S.M. Jetten and M. Strous. 2003. Candidatus “Scalindua brodae”, spec. nov., Candidatus “Scalindua wagneri”, spec. nov., two new species of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 26: 529–538.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Schmid, M.C., B. Maas, A. Dapena, K.V. de Pas-Schoonen, J. van de Vossenberg, B. Kartal, L. van Niftrik, I. Schmidt, I. Cirpus, J.G. Kuenen, M. Wagner, J.S.S. Damste, M. Kuypers, N.P. Revsbech, R. Mendez, M.S.M. Jetten and M. Strous. 2005. Biomarkers for in situ detection of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71: 1677–1684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Schmidt, I., O. Sliekers, M. Schmid, I. Cirpus, M. Strous, E. Bock, J.G. Kuenen and M.S.M. Jetten. 2002. Aerobic and anaerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria competitors or natural partners? FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 39: 175–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Schouten, S., M. Strous, M.M.M. Kuypers, W.I.C. Rijpstra, M. Baas, C.J. Schubert, M.S.M. Jetten and J.S.S. Damste. 2004. Stable carbon isotopic fractionations associated with inorganic carbon fixation by anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70: 3785–3788.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Schubert, C.J., E. Durisch-Kaiser, B. Wehrli, B. Thamdrup, P. Lam and M.M.M. Kuypers. 2006. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation in a tropical freshwater system (Lake Tanganyika). Environ. Microbiol. 8: 1857–1863.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Shimamura, M., T. Nishiyama, H. Shigetomo, T. Toyomoto, Y. Kawahara, K. Furukawa and T. Fujii. 2007. Isolation of a multiheme protein with features of a hydrazine-oxidizing enzyme from an anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing enrichment culture. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73: 1065–1072.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Shimamura, M., T. Nishiyama, K. Shinya, Y. Kawahara, K. Furukawa and T. Fujii. 2008. Another multiheme protein, hydroxylamine oxidoreductase, abundantly produced in an anammox bacterium besides the hydrazine-oxidizing enzyme. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 105: 243–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Strous, M. and M.S.M. Jetten. 2004. Anaerobic oxidation of methane and ammonium. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 58: 99–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Strous, M., E. van Gerven, J.G. Kuenen and M.S.M. Jetten. 1997. Effects of aerobic and microaerobic conditions on anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (Anammox) sludge. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63: 2446–2448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Strous, M., J.J. Heijnen, J.G. Kuenen and M.S.M. Jetten. 1998. The sequencing batch reactor as a powerful tool for the study of slowly growing anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing microorganisms. Appl. Mycol. Biotechnol. 50: 589–596.Google Scholar
  199. Strous, M., J.A. Fuerst, E.H.M. Kramer, S. Logemann, G. Muyzer, K.T. van de Pas-Schoonen, R. Webb, J.G. Kuenen and M.S.M. Jetten. 1999a. Missing lithotroph identified as new planctomycete. Nature 400: 446–449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Strous, M., J.G. Kuenen and M.S.M. Jetten. 1999b. Key physiology of anaerobic ammonium oxidation. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65: 3248–3250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Strous, M., J.G. Kuenen, J.A. Fuerst, M. Wagner and M.S.M. Jetten. 2002. The anammox case – a new experimental manifesto for microbiological eco-physiology. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 81: 693–702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Strous, M., E. Pelletier, S. Mangenot, T. Rattei, A. Lehner, M.W. Taylor, M. Horn, H. Daims, D. Bartol-Mavel, P. Wincker, V. Barbe, N. Fonknechten, D. Vallenet, B. Segurens, C. Schenowitz-Truong, C. Medigue, A. Collingro, B. Snel, B.E. Dutilh, H.J.M. Op den Camp, C. van der Drift, I. Cirpus, K.T. van de Pas-Schoonen, H.R. Harhangi, L. van Niftrik, M. Schmid, J. Keltjens, J. van de Vossenberg, B. Kartal, H. Meier, D. Frishman, M.A. Huynen, H.W. Mewes, J. Weissenbach, M.S.M. Jetten, M. Wagner and D. Le Paslier. 2006. Deciphering the evolution and metabolism of an anammox bacterium from a community genome. Nature 440: 790–794.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Tal, Y., J.E.M. Watts and H.J. Schreier. 2005. Anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and related activity in Baltimore Inner Harbor sediment. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71: 1816–1821.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Tamura, K., M. Nei and S. Kumar. 2004. Prospects for inferring very large phylogenies by using the neighbor-joining method. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 101: 11030–11035.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Tamura, K., J. Dudley, M. Nei and S. Kumar. 2007. MEGA4: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Mol. Biol. Evol. 24: 1596–1599.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Thamdrup, B. and T. Dalsgaard. 2002. Production of N2 through anaerobic ammonium oxidation coupled to nitrate reduction in marine sediments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68: 1312–1318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Thamdrup, B., T. Dalsgaard, M.M. Jensen and J. Petersen. 2004. Anammox and the marine N cycle. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta Microbiol. 68: A325–A325.Google Scholar
  208. Thamdrup, B., T. Dalsgaard, M.M. Jensen, O. Ulloa, L. Farias and R. Escribano. 2006. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation in the oxygen-deficient waters off northern Chile. Limnol. Oceanogr. 51: 2145–2156.Google Scholar
  209. Third, K.A., A.O. Sliekers, J.G. Kuenen and M.S.M. Jetten. 2001. The CANON system (completely autotrophic nitrogen-removal over nitrite) under ammonium limitation: interaction and competition between three groups of bacteria. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 24: 588–596.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Third, K.A., J. Paxman, M. Schmid, M. Strous, M.S.M. Jetten and R. Cord-Ruwisch. 2005. Enrichment of anammox from activated sludge and its application in the CANON process. Microb. Ecol. 49: 236–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Toh, S.K., R.I. Webb and N.J. Ashbolt. 2002. Enrichment of autotrophic anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing consortia from various wastewaters. Microb. Ecol. 43: 154–167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Tsushima, I., Y. Ogasawara, T. Kindaichi, H. Satoh and S. Okabe. 2007. Development of high-rate anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (Anammox) biofilm reactors. Water Res. 41: 1623–1634.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. van de Graaf, A.A., A. Mulder, P. de Bruijn, M.S.M. Jetten, L.A. Robertson and J.G. Kuenen. 1995. Anaerobic oxidation of ammonium is a biologically mediated process. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61: 1246–1251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. van de Graaf, A.A., P. deBruijn, L.A. Robertson, M.S.M. Jetten and J.G. Kuenen. 1996. Autotrophic growth of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing micro-organisms in a fluidized bed reactor. Microbiology 142: 2187–2196.Google Scholar
  215. van de Graaf, A.A., P. de Bruijn, L.A. Robertson, M.S.M. Jetten and J.G. Kuenen. 1997. Metabolic pathway of anaerobic ammonium oxidation on the basis of N-15 studies in a fluidized bed reactor. Microbiology 143: 2415–2421.Google Scholar
  216. van de Vossenberg, J., J.E. Rattray, W. Geerts, B. Kartal, L. van Niftrik, E.G. van Donselaar, J.S. Sinninghe Damste, M. Strous and M.S.M. Jetten. 2008. Enrichment and characterization of marine anammox bacteria associated with global nitrogen gas production. Environ. Microbiol. 10: 3120–3129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. van der Star, W.R.L., W.R. Abma, D. Blommers, J.W. Mulder, T. Tokutomi, M. Strous, C. Picioreanu and M.C.M. van Loosdrecht. 2007. Startup of reactors for anoxic ammonium oxidation: experiences from the first full-scale anammox reactor in Rotterdam. Water Res. 41: 4149–4163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. van der Star, W.R., A.I. Miclea, U.G. van Dongen, G. Muyzer, C. Picioreanu and M.C. van Loosdrecht. 2008a. The membrane bioreactor: a novel tool to grow anammox bacteria as free cells. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 101: 286–294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. van der Star, W.R., M.J. van de Graaf, B. Kartal, C. Picioreanu, M.S.M. Jetten and M.C. van Loosdrecht. 2008b. Response of anammox bacteria to hydroxylamine. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74: 4417–4426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. van Niftrik, L.A., J.A. Fuerst, J.S.S. Damste, J.G. Kuenen, M.S.M. Jetten and M. Strous. 2004. The anammoxosome: an intracytoplasmic compartment in anammox bacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 233: 7–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. van Niftrik, L., W.J.C. Geerts, E.G. van Donselaar, B.M. Humbel, R.I. Webb, J.A. Fuerst, A.J. Verkleij, M.S.M. Jetten and M. Strous. 2008a. Linking ultrastructure and function in four genera of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria: cell plan, glycogen storage, and localization of cytochrome c proteins. J. Bacteriol. 190: 708–717.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. van Niftrik, L., W.J.C. Geerts, E.G. van Donselaar, B.M. Humbel, A. Yakushevska, A.J. Verkleij, M.S.M. Jetten and M. Strous. 2008b. Combined structural and chemical analysis of the anammoxosome: a membrane-bounded intracytoplasmic compartment in anammox bacteria. J. Struct. Biol. 161: 401–410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Windey, K., I. De Bo and W. Verstraete. 2005. Oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification-denitrification (OLAND) in a rotating biological contactor treating high-salinity wastewater. Water Res. 39: 4512–4520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Woebken, D., B.A. Fuchs, M.A.A. Kuypers and R. Amann. 2007. Potential interactions of particle-associated anammox bacteria with bacterial and archaeal partners in the Namibian upwelling system. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73: 4648–4657.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Woebken, D., P. Lam, M.M. Kuypers, S.W. Naqvi, B. Kartal, M. Strous, M.S.M. Jetten, B.M. Fuchs and R. Amann. 2008. A microdiversity study of anammox bacteria reveals a novel Candidatus Scalindua phylotype in marine oxygen minimum zones. Environ. Microbiol. 10: 3106–3119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Zhang, Y., X.H. Ruan, H. den Camp, T.J.M. Smits, M.S.M. Jetten and M.C. Schmid. 2007. Diversity and abundance of aerobic and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in freshwater sediments of the Xinyi River (China). Environ. Microbiol. 9: 2375–2382.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Bergey’s Manual Trust 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Molecular BiologyUniversity of WyomingLaramieUSA

Personalised recommendations