Advertisement

Abstract

Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by the presence of noncaseating granulomatous inflammation in affected organs (1). The etiology of sarcoidosis remains undetermined, the clinical manifestations of this disease are protean, and a diagnosis of sarcoidosis is often made by the exclusion of other processes. What helps distinguish sarcoidosis from other systemic disorders is a consideration of clinical presentation and natural history, confirmatory biopsy, and appropriate response to therapy. Although this disease most commonly affects the lungs, virtually any part of the body may be affected, and the presence and behavior of characteristic extrapulmonary manifestations may assist in supporting a diagnosis of sarcoidosis.

Keywords

Optic Neuritis Cardiac Sarcoidosis Pulmonary Sarcoidosis Posterior Uveitis Intermediate Uveitis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Hunninghake GW, Costabel U, Ando M, et al. ATS/ERS/WASOG statement on sarcoidosis. American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society/World Association of Sarcoidosis and other Granulomatous Disorders. Sarcoidosis Vas Diffuse Lung Dis 1999;16:149–173.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kitaichi M. Prevalence of sarcoidosis around the world. Sarcoidosis Vas Diffuse Lung Dis 1998;15:16–18.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Siltzbach LE, James DG, Neville E, et al. Course and prognosis of sarcoidosis around the world. Am J Med 1974;57:847–852.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nelson RS. Sarcoidosis in the armed forces. Am J Med Sci 1953;226:131–138.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pietinalho A, Hiraga Y, Hosoda Y, Lofroos AB, Yamaguchi M, Selroos O. The frequency of sarcoidosis in Finland and Hokkaido, Japan. A comparative epidemiological study. Sarcoidosis 1995;12:61–67.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hagerstrand I, Linell F. The prevalence of sarcoidosis in the autopsy material from a Swedish town. Acta Med Scand 1964;425:171–174.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Reid JD. Sarcoidosis in coroner’s autopsies: a critical evaluation of diagnosis and prevalence from Cuyahoga County, Ohio. Sarcoidosis Vas Diffuse Lung Dis 1998;15:44–51.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rybicki BA, Major M, Popovich J Jr, Maliarik MJ, Iannuzzi MC. Racial differences in sarcoidosis incidence: a 5-year study in a health maintenance organization. Am J Epidemiol 1997;145:234–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Schurmann M, Reichel P, Muller-Myhsok B, Schlaak M, Muller-Quernheim J, Schwinger E. Results from a genome-wide search for predisposing genes in sarcoidosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;164:840–846.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Valentonyte R, Hampe J, Huse K, et al. Sarcoidosis is associated with a truncating splice site mutation in BTNL2. Nat Genet 2005;37:357–364.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rybicki BA, Hirst K, Iyengar SK, et al. A sarcoidosis genetic linkage consortium: the sarcoidosis genetic analysis (SAGA) study. Sarcoidosis Vas Diffuse Lung Dis 2005;22:115–122.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rybicki BA, Walewski JL, Maliarik MJ, Kian H, Iannuzzi MC. The BTNL2 gene and sarcoidosis susceptibility in African Americans and Whites. Am J Hum Genet 2005;77:491–499.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Moller DR. Rare manifestations of sarcoidosis. In: Drent M, Costabel U, eds. Sarcoidosis. Vol 10. Wakefield, UK: European Respiratory Society Journals, Ltd.; 2005:233–250.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gran JT, Bohmer E. Acute sarcoid arthritis: a favourable outcome? A retrospective survey of 49 patients with review of the literature. Scand J Rheumatol 1996;25:70–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kaplan H. Sarcoid arthritis. A review. Arch Intern Med 1963;112:924–935.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wilcox A, Bharadwaj P, Sharma OP. Bone sarcoidosis. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2000;12:321–330.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kennedy PT, Zakaria N, Modawi SB, et al. Natural history of hepatic sarcoidosis and its response to treatment. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006;18:721–726.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lower EE, Smith JT, Martelo OJ, Baughman RP. The anemia of sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis 1988;5:51–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fasano MB, Sullivan KE, Sarpong SB, et al. Sarcoidosis and common variable immunodeficiency. Report of 8 cases and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore) 1996;75:251–261.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ardehali H, Howard DL, Hariri A, et al. A positive endomyocardial biopsy result for sarcoid is associated with poor prognosis in patients with initially unexplained cardiomyopathy. Am Heart J 2005;150:459–463.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Voorter CE, Drent M, Hoitsma E, Faber KG, van den Berg-Loonen EM. Association of HLA DQB1 0602 in sarcoidosis patients with small fiber neuropathy. Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis 2005;22:129–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Johns CJ, Michele TM. The clinical management of sarcoidosis. A 50-year experience at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Medicine 1999;78:65–111.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sharma OP. Vitamin D, calcium, and sarcoidosis. Chest 1996;109:535–539.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chen ES, Moller DR. Cytokines and chemokines in sarcoidosis. In: Baughman R, ed. Sarcoidosis. Vol 210. New York: Taylor & Francis Group; 2006:123–161.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Forman JD, Klein JT, Silver RF, Liu MC, Greenlee BM, Moller DR. Selective activation and accumulation of oligoclonal V beta-specific T cells in active pulmonary sarcoidosis. J Clin Invest 1994;94:1533–1542.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Grunewald J, Janson CH, Eklund A, et al. Restricted V alpha 2.3 gene usage by CD4+ T lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from sarcoidosis patients correlates with HLA-DR3. Eur J Immunol 1992;22:129–135.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Song Z, Marzilli L, Greenlee BM, et al. Mycobacterial catalase-peroxidase is a tissue antigen and target of the adaptive immune response in systemic sarcoidosis. J Exp Med 2005;201:755–767.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ebe Y, Ikushima S, Yamaguchi T, et al. Proliferative response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and levels of antibody to recombinant protein from Propionibacterium acnes DNA expression library in Japanese patients with sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis 2000;17:256–265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Newman LS, Rose CS, Bresnitz EA, et al. A case control etiologic study of sarcoidosis: environmental and occupational risk factors. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2004;170:1324–1330.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Judson MA, Baughman RP, Thompson BW, et al. Two year prognosis of sarcoidosis: the ACCESS experience. Sarcoidosis Vas Diffuse Lung Dis 2003;20:204–211.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Baughman RP, Drent M, Kavuru M, et al. Infliximab therapy in patients with chronic sarcoidosis and pulmonary involvement. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006;174:795–802.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Utz JP, Limper AH, Kalra S, et al. Etanercept for the treatment of stage II and III progressive pulmonary sarcoidosis. Chest 2003;124:177–185.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edward S. Chen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care MedicineJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations