Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are autoantibodies directed against negatively charged phospholipid/plasma proteins. The most common plasma protein target is beta 2 glycoprotein I. The three most im-portant antiphospholipid antibodies are the lupus anti-coagulant, anticardiolipin, and anti–beta 2 glycoprotein I.
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is one of the most common acquired causes of hypercoagulability. Fifty percent of APS patients have systemic lupus erythe-matosus (SLE). APS presents in two major ways: thrombosis (venous or arterial) and pregnancy loss. Thrombocytopenia, present in about 20% of cases, can be an important clue.
KeywordsSystemic Lupus Erythematosus International Normalize Ratio Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patient Pregnancy Loss Arterial Thrombosis
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
Petri M. Epidemiology of the antiphospholipid syndrome. In: Asherson RA, Cervera R, Piette J-C, Shoenfeld Y, eds. The antiphospholipid syndrome. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1996:13–28.Google Scholar
Bates SM, Ginsberg JS. Clinical practice. Treatment of deep-vein thrombosis. N Engl J Med 2004;351:268–277.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Gomez-Puerta JA, Martin H, Amigo MC, et al. Long-term follow-up in 128 patients with primary antiphospholipid syndrome: do they develop lupus? Medicine (Baltimore) 2005;84:225–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frances C, Niang S, Laffitte E, Pelletier F, Costedoat N, Piette JC. Dermatologic manifestations of the anti-phospholipid syndrome: two hundred consecutive cases. Arthritis Rheum 2005;52:1785–1793.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Asherson RA, Cervera R, de Groot PG, et al. Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome: international consensus statement on classification criteria and treatment guidelines. Lupus 2003;12:530–534.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Nachman RL, Silverstein R. Hypercoagulable states. Ann Intern Med 1993;119:819–827.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Miyakis S, Lockshin MD, Atsumi T, et al. International consensus statement on an update of the classification criteria for definite antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). J Thromb Haemost 2006;4:295–306.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Holers VM, Girardi G, Mo L, et al. Complement C3 activation is required for antiphospholipid antibody-induced fetal loss. J Exp Med 2002;195:211–220.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Cowchock FS, Reece EA, Balaban D, Branch DW, Plouffe L. Repeated fetal losses associated with antiphospholipid antibodies: a collaborative randomized trial comparing prednisone with low-dose heparin treatment. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1992;166:1318–1323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Schulman S, Svenungsson E, Granqvist S, the Duration of Anticoagulation Study Group. Anticardiolipin antibodies predict early recurrence of thromboembolism and death among patients with venous thromboembolism following anticoagulant therapy. Am J Med 1998;104:332–338.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Crowther MA, Ginsberg JS, Julian J, et al. A comparison of two intensities of warfarin for the prevention of recurrent thrombosis in patients with the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. N Engl J Med 2003;349:1133–1138.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Finazzi G, Marchioli R, Brancaccio V, et al. A randomized clinical trial of high-intensity warfarin vs. conventional antithrombotic therapy for the prevention of recurrent thrombosis in patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome (WAPS). J Thromb Haemost 2005;3:848–853.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008