In sharp distinction to organ-specific autoimmune diseases such as thyroiditis, diabetes, or myasthenia gravis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a constellation of signs and symptoms classified as one nosologic entity. Indeed, it is the diversity of presentation, accumulation of manifestations over time, and undulating disease course that challenge the most astute of clinicians. With rare exception, the unifying laboratory abnormality is the presence of circulating antinuclear antibodies (ANA). Acknowledging the complexity of this disease, its broad differential diagnosis, and the need to develop better and more specific therapies, the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) has designated 11 diagnostic criteria (presented in Table 15A-1) (1,2). These criteria reflect the major clinical features of the disease (mucocutaneous, articular, serosal, renal, neurologic) and incorporate the associated laboratory findings (hematologic and immunologic). The presence of four or more criteria is required for diagnosis. They need not necessarily present simultaneously: a single criterion such as arthritis or thrombocytopenia may recur over months or years before the diagnosis can be confirmed by the appearance of additional features. While there is incomplete agreement among rheumatologists as to whether these criteria need to be strictly applied in a practice setting, or reserved only for formal academic studies, they do facilitate a methodologic approach to evaluate a patient.


Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patient Lupus Nephritis Lupus Patient Major Histocompatibility Complex Gene 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Tan EM, Cohen AS, Fries JF, et al. The 1982 revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1982;25:1271–1277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hochberg MC. Updating the American College of Rheumatology revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus [letter]. Arthritis Rheum 1997;40:1725.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gladman DD. Systemic lupus erythematosus: Clinical features. In: Klippel JH, Weyand CM, Wortmann RL, eds. Primer on the rheumatic diseases. 11th ed. Atlanta: Arthritis Foundation; 1997:267–272.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ginzler EM, Schorn K. Outcome and prognosis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 1988;14:67–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Boumpas DR, Fessler BJ, Austin HA, Balow JE, Klippel JH, Lockshin MD. Systemic lupus erythematosus: emerging concepts. Part 2: Dermatologic and joint disease, the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, pregnancy and hormonal therapy, morbidity and mortality, and pathogenesis. Ann Int Med 1995;123:42–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Urowitz MB, Bookman AAM, Koehler BE, et al. The bimodal mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus. Am J Med 1976;60:221–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Urowitz MB, Gladman DD. Accelerated atheroma in lupus—background. Lupus 2000;9:161–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mimouni D, Nousari CH. Systemic lupus erythematosus and the skin. In: Lahita R, ed. Systemic lupus erythematosus. 4th ed. New York: Elsevier/Academic Press; 2004:855–876.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hill GS, Delahousse M, Nochy D, et al. A new morphologic index for the evaluation of renal biopsies in lupus nephritis. Kidney Int 2000;58:1160–1173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Appel GB, Silva FG, Pirani CL. Renal involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): a study of 56 patients emphasizing histologic classification. Medicine 1978;75:371–410.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Weening, JJ, D’Agati VD, Schwartz MM, et al. Classification of glomerulonephritis in systemic lupus erythematosus revisited. J Am Soc Nephrol 2004;15:241–250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Stone JH, Millward CL, Olson JL, Amend WJ, Criswell LA. Frequency of recurrent lupus nephritis among ninety-seven renal transplant patients during the cyclosporine era. Arthritis Rheum 1998;41:678–686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nossent HC, Swaak TJG, Berden JHM. Systemic lupus erythematosus: analysis of disease activity in 55 patients with end-stage renal failure treated with hemodialysis or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Am J Med 1990;89:169–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Krane NK, Burjak K, Archie M, O’Donovan R. Persistent lupus activity in end-stage renal disease. Am J Kidney Dis 1999;33:872–879.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Boumpas DR, Austin HA, Fessler BJ, Balow JE, Klippel JH, Lockshin MD. Systemic lupus erythematosus: emerging concepts. Part 1: renal, neuropsychiatric, cardiovascular, pulmonary and hematologic disease. Ann Int Med 1995;122:940–950.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    ACR Ad Hoc Committee on Neuropsychiatric Lupus Nomenclature. The American College of Rheumatology nomenclature and case definitions for neuropsychiatric lupus syndromes. Arthritis Rheum 2000;42:599–608.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    West SG, Emlen W, Wener M, Kotzin BL. Neuropsychiatric lupus erythematosus: a 10-year prospective study on the value of diagnostic tests. Am J Med 1995;99:153–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Roldan CA, Shively BK, Crawford MH. An echocardiographic study of valvular heart disease associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. N Engl J Med 1996;335:1424–1430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rosner S, Ginzler EM, Diamond HS, et al. A multicenter study of outcome in systemic lupus erythematosus. II. Causes of death. Arthritis Rheum 1982;25:612–617.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Haider YS, Roberts WC. Coronary arterial disease in systemic lupus erythematosus: quantification of degree of narrowing in 22 necropsy patients (21 women) aged 16 to 37 years. Am J Med 1981;70:775–781.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Petri M. Detection of coronary artery disease and the role of traditional risk factors in the Hopkins Lupus Cohort. Lupus 2000;9:170–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Manzi S, Selzer F, Sutton-Tyrrell K, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of carotid plaque in women with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1999;42:51–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Roman MJ, Shanker BA, Davis A, et al. Prevalence and correlates of accelerated atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus. N Engl J Med 2003;349:2399–2406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Asanuma Y, Chung CP, Oeser A, et al. Increased concentration of proatherogenic inflammatory cytokines in systemic lupus erythematosus: relationship to cardiovascular risk factors. J Rheumatol 2006;33:539–545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Winslow TM, Ossipov MA, Fazio GP, Simonson JS, Redberg RF, Schiller NB. Five-year follow-up study of the prevalence and progression of pulmonary hypertension in systemic lupus erythematosus. Am Heart J 1995;129:510–515.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    DeGiorgio LA, Konstantinov KN, Lee SC, Hardin JA, Volpe BT, Diamond B. A subset of lupus anti-DNA antibodies cross-reacts with the NR2 glutamate receptor in systemic lupus erythematosus. Nature Med 2001;7:1189–1193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schur PH, Sandson J. Immunologic factors and clinical activity in systemic lupus erythematosus. N Engl J Med 1968;278:533–538.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bootsma H, Spronk P, Derksen R, et al. Prevention of relapses in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lancet 1995;345:1595–1599.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tseng CE, Buyon JP, Kim M, et al. The effect of moderate-dose corticosteroids in preventing severe flares in patients with serologically active, but clinically stable, systemic lupus erythematosus: findings of a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 2006;54:3623–3632.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Amoura Z, Koutouzov S, Chabre H, et al. Presence of antinucleosome autoantibodies in a restricted set of connective tissue diseases. Antinucleosome antibodies of the IgG3 subclass are marker of renal pathogenicity in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 2000;43:76–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rovin BH, Song H, Hebert LA, et al. Plasma, urine, and renal expression of adiponectin in human systemic lupus erythematosus. Kidney Int 2005;68:1825–1833.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Li Y, Tucci M, Narain S, et al. Urinary biomarkers in lupus nephritis. Autoimmun Rev 2006;5:383–438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sesin CA, Yin X, Esmon CT, Buyon JP, Clancy RM. Shedding of endothelial protein C receptor contributes to vasculopathy and renal injury in lupus: in vivo and in vitro evidence. Kidney Int 2005;68:110–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rivera TL, Izmirly PM, Buyon JP, Clancy RM. Contribution of vasculopathy to lupus nephritis: endothelial protein C receptor levels and genotype [abstract]. Arthritis Rheum 2006;54:S824–S825.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Petri M, Howard D, Repke J. Frequency of lupus flares in pregnancy. The Hopkins Lupus Pregnancy Center experience. Arthritis Rheum 1991;34:1538–1545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Urowitz MB, Gladman DD, Farewell VT, Stewart J, McDonald J. Lupus and pregnancy studies. Arthritis Rheum 1993;36:1392–1397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Clowse ME, Magder LS, Witter F, Petri M. The impact of increased lupus activity on obstetric outcomes. Arthritis Rheum 2005;52:514–521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Buyon J, Kalunian K, Ramsey-Goldman R, et al. Assessing disease activity in SLE patients during pregnancy. Lupus 1999;8:677–684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lockshin MD, Reinitz E, Druzin ML, Murrman M, Estes D. Lupus pregnancy. Case control prospective study demonstrating absence of lupus exacerbation during or after pregnancy. Am J Med 1984;77:893–898.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lockshin MD. Pregnancy does not cause systemic lupus erythematosus to worsen. Arthritis Rheum 1989;32:665–670.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Buyon JP, Tamerius J, Ordorica S, Abramson SB. Activation of the alternative complement pathway accompanies disease flares in systemic lupus erythematosus during pregnancy. Arthritis Rheum 1992;35:55–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Tandon A, Ibanez D, Gladman DD, Urowitz MB. The effect of pregnancy on lupus nephritis. Arthritis Rheum 2004;50:3941–3946.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Buyon JP, Hiebert R, Copel J, et al. Autoimmune-associated congenital heart block: Mortality, morbidity, and recurrence rates obtained from a national neonatal lupus registry. J Am Coll Cardiol 1998;31:1658–1666.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Buyon JP, Winchester RJ, Slade SG, et al. Identification of mothers at risk for congenital heart block and other neonatal lupus syndromes in their children: comparison of ELISA and immunoblot to measure anti-SSA/Ro and anti-SSB/La antibodies. Arthritis Rheum 1993;36:1263–1273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Buyon JP, Clancy RM. Neonatal lupus. In: Wallace DJ, Hahn, BH, eds. Dubois’ lupus erythematosus. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006:1058–1080.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Derksen RH, Khamashta MA, Branch DW. Management of the obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome. Arthritis Rheum 2004;50:1028–1039.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Miyakis S, Lockshin MD, Atsumi T, et al. International consensus statement on an update of the classification criteria for definite antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). J Thromb Haemost 2006;4:295–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    McNeil HP, Simpson RJ, Chesterman CN, Krilis SA. Antiphospholipid antibodies are directed against a complex antigen that includes a lipid-binding inhibitor of coagulation: beta2-glycoprotein I (apolipoprotein H). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1990;87:4120–4124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Mongey A-B, Hess EV. Drug and environmental systemic lupus erythematosus: clinical manifestations and differences. In: Lahita R, ed. Systemic lupus erythematosus. 4th ed. New York: Elsevier/Academic Press; 2004:1211–1240.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lahita R, ed. Systemic lupus erythematosus. 4th ed. New York: Elsevier/Academic Press; 2004.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wallace DJ, Hahn BH, eds. Dubois’ lupus erythematosus. 7th ed. Philsdelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006.Google Scholar
  52. 1.
    Ward MM, Pyun E. Studenski S. Long-term survival in systemic lupus erythematosus. Patient characteristics associated with poorer outcomes. Arthritis Rheum 1995;38:274–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 2.
    Weening JJ, D’Agati VD, Schwartz MM, et al. The classification of glomerulonephritis in systemic lupus erythematosus revisited. Kidney Int 2004;65:521–530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 3.
    Austin HA III, Boumpas DT, Vaughan EM, Balow JE. Predicting renal outcomes in severe lupus nephritis: contributions of clinical and histologic data. Kidney Int 1994;45:544–550.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 4.
    Roubey RA. Immunology of the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. Arthritis Rheum 1996;39:1444–1454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 5.
    Tan EM. Antinuclear antibodies: diagnostic markers for autoimmune diseases and probes for cell biology. Adv Immunol 1989;44:93–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 6.
    Iwasaki A, Medzhitov R. Toll-like receptor control of the adaptive immune responses. Nat Immunol 2004;5:987–995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 7.
    Pisetsky DS. Antibody responses to DNA in normal immunity and aberrant immunity. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 1998;5:1–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 8.
    Rönnblom L, Eloranta M-L, Alm GV. The type I interferon system in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 2006;54:408–420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 9.
    Clancy RM, Kapur RP, Molad Y, et al. Immunohistologic evidence support apoptosis, IgG deposition, and novel macrophage/fibroblast crosstalk in the pathologic cascade leading to congenital heart block. Arthritis Rheum 2004;150:173–182.Google Scholar
  61. 10.
    Huerta PT, Kowal C, DeGiorgio LA, et al. Immunity and behavior: antibodies alter emotion Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2006;103:678–683.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 11.
    Lauwerys BR, Wakeland EK. Genetics of lupus nephritis. Lupus 2005;14:2–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 12.
    Manderson AP, Botto M, Walport MJ. The role of complement in the development of systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Rev Immunol 2004;22:431–456.Google Scholar
  64. 13.
    Botto M, Dell’Agnola C, Bygrave AE, et al. Homozygous C1q deficiency causes glomerulonephritis associated with multiple apoptotic bodies. Nat Genet 1998;19:56–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 14.
    Aringer M, Graninger WB, Stein G, Smolen JS. Safety and efficacy of tumor necrosis factor α blockade in systemic lupus erythematosus: an open-label study. Arthritis Rheum 2004;50:3161–3169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 15.
    Yurasov S, Wardemann H, Hammersen J, et al. Defective B cell tolerance checkpoints in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Exp Med 2005;202:341–344.Google Scholar
  67. 16.
    Baechler E, Batliwalla FM, Karypis G, et al. Interferon-induction gene expression signature in peripheral blood cells of patients with severe lupus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003;100:2610–2615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 17.
    Kirou KA, Lee C, George S, Louca K, et al. Activation of interferon-α pathway identifies a subgroup of systemic lupus erythematosus patients with distinct serologic features and active disease. Arthritis Rheum 2005;52:1491–1503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 18.
    Gilkeson GS, Pippen AMM, Pisetsky DS. Induction of cross-reactive anti-dsDNA antibodies in preautoimmune NZB/NZW mice by immunization with bacterial DNA. J Clin Invest 1995;95:1398–1402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 19.
    James JA, Kaufman KM, Farris AD, Taylor-Albert E, Lehman TJA, Harley JB. An increased prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus infection in young patients suggests a possible etiology for systemic lupus erythematosus. J Clin Invest 1997;100:3019–3026.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 20.
    Arbuckle MR, McClain MT, Rubertone MV, et al. Development of autoantibodies before the clinical onset of systemic lupus erythematosus. N Engl J Med 2003;349:1499–1500.Google Scholar
  72. 1.
    Keyser R, Rus V, Cade W, et al. Evidence for aerobic insufficiency in women with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 2003;49:16–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 2.
    Bernatsky S, Boivin J, Joseph L, et al. An international cohort study of cancer in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 2005;52:1481–1490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 3.
    The Canadian Hydroxychloroquine Study Group. A randomized study of the effect of withdrawing hydroxychloroquine sulfate in systemic lupus erythematosus. N Engl J Med 1991;324:150–154.Google Scholar
  75. 4.
    Tsakonas E, Joseph L, Esdaile J, et al. A long-term study of hydroxychloroquine withdrawal on exacerbations in systemic lupus erythematosus. The Canadian Hydroxychloroquine Study Group. Lupus 1998;7:80–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 5.
    Kasitanon N, Fine D, Haas M, et al. Hydroxychloroquine use predicts complete renal remission within 12 months among patients treated with mycophenolate mofetil therapy for membranous lupus nephritis. Lupus 2006;15:366–370.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 6.
    Rahman P, Gladmann D, Urowitz M. Efficacy of antimalarial therapy in cutaneous lupus in smokers versus non-smokers. J Rheumatol 1998;25:1716–1719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 7.
    Jewell M, McCauliffe D. Patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus who somke are less responsive to antimalarial treatment. J Am Acad Dermatol 2000;42:983–987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 8.
    Mavrikakis I, Sfikakis P, Mavrikakis E, et al. The incidence of irreversible retinal toxicity in patients treated with hydroxychloroquine: a reappraisal. Ophthalmology 2003;110:1321–1326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 9.
    Nord J, Shah P, Rinaldi R, et al. Hydroxychloroquine cardiotoxicity in systemic lupus erythematosus: a report of 2 cases and review of the literature. Semin Arthritis Rheum 2004;33:336–351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 10.
    Keating R, Bhatia S, Amin S, et al. Hydroxychloroquine-induced cardiotoxicity in a 39-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus and systolic dysfunction. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2005;18:981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 11.
    Reuss-Borst M, Berner B, Wulf G, et al. Complete heart block as a rare complication of treatment with chloroquine. J Rheumatol 1999;26:1394–1395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 12.
    Costedoat-Chalumeau N HJ, Amoura Z, Delcourt A, et al. Cardiomyopathy related to antimalarial therapy with illustrative case report. Cardiology 2006;107:73–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 13.
    Ardehali H, Qasim A, Cappola T, et al. Endomyocardial biopsy plays a role in diagnosing patients with unexplained cardiomyopathy Am Heart J 2004;147:919–923.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 14.
    Gerstein H, Thorpe K, Taylor D, et al. The effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who are refractory to sulfonylureas—a randomized trial. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2002;55:209–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 15.
    Costedoat-Chalumeau N, Amoura Z, Duhaut P, et al. Safety of hydroxychloroquine in pregnant patients with connective tissue diseases: a study of one hundred thirty-three cases compared with a control group. Arthritis Rheum 2003;48:3207–3211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 16.
    Brabin B, Eggelte T, Parise M, et al. Dapsone therapy for malaria during pregnancy: maternal and fetal outcomes. Drug Safety 2004;27:633–648.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 17.
    Thornton Y, Bowe E. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia after treatment of maternal leprosy. South Med J 1989;82:668.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 18.
    Wofsy D, Seaman W. Successful treatment of autoimmunity in NZB/NZW F1 mice with monoclonal to L3T4. J Exp Med 1985;161(Suppl 2):378–391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 19.
    Mihara M, Ohsugi Y, Saito K, et al. Immunologic abnormality in NZB/NZW F1 mice: thymus independent occurrence of B cell abnormality and requirement for T cells in the development of autoimmune disease, as evidenced by an analysis of the athymic nude individuals. J Immunol 1998;141:85–90.Google Scholar
  91. 20.
    Griffiths B, Emery P. The treatment of lupus with cyclosporin A. Lupus 2001;10:165–170.Google Scholar
  92. 21.
    Austin H, Klippel J, Balow J, et al. Therapy of lupus nephritis: controlled trial of prednisone and cytotoxic drugs. N Engl J Med 1986;314:614–619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 22.
    Bateman H, Yazici Y, Leff L, et al. Increased cervical dysplasia in intravenous cyclophosphamide-treated patients iwth SLE: a preliminary study. Lupus 2000;9:542–544.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 23.
    Lima F, Guerra D, Sella E, et al. Systemic lupus erythematosus and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Arthritis Rheum 1998;41(Suppl):S66.Google Scholar
  95. 24.
    Ginzler E, Dooley M, Aranow C, et al. Mycophenolate mofetil or intravenous cyclophosphamide for lupus nephritis. N Engl J Med 2005;353:2219–2228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 25.
    Tam L-S, Li EK, Wong C-K, et al. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study of leflunomide in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus 2004;13:601–604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 26.
    Tam L, Li E, Wong C, et al. Safety and efficacy of leflunomide in the treatment of lupus nephritis refractory or intolerant to traditional immunosuppressive therapy: an open label trial. Ann Rheum Dis 2006;65:417–418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 27.
    Chan S, Hazleman B, Burrows N. Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus precipitated by leflunomide. Clin Exp Dermatol 2005;30:724–725.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 28.
    Mease P, Ginzler E, Gluck O, et al. Effects of prasterone on bone mineral density in women with systemic lupus erythematosus receiving chronic glucocorticoid therapy. J Rheumatol 2005;32:616–621.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 29.
    Walker S. Bromocriptine treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus 2001;10:762–768.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 30.
    Avina-Zubieta J, Galindo-Rodriguez G, Robledo I, et al. Long-term effectiveness of danazol corticosteroids and cytotoxic drugs in the treatment of hematologic manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus 2003;12:52–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 31.
    Pelle M, Werth V. Thalidomide in cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Am J Clin Dermatol 2003;4:379–387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 32.
    Clemmensen O, Olsen P, Andersen K. Thalidomide neurotoxicity. Arch Dermatol 1984;120:338–341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 33.
    Rodeghiero F, Elice F. Thalidomide and thrombosis. Pahthophysiol Haemost Thromb 2003;33(Suppl 1):15–18.Google Scholar
  105. 34.
    Flageul B, Wallach D, Cavelier-Balloy B, Bachelez H, Carsuzaa F, Dubertret L. Thalidomide and thrombosis. Ann Dermatol Venereol 2000;127:171–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 35.
    Jayne D, Passweg J, Marmont A, et al. Autologous stem cell transplantation for systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus 2004;13:168–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 36.
    Burt R, Traynor A, Statkute L, et al. Nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for systemic lupus erythematosus. JAMA 2006;295:559–560.Google Scholar
  108. 37.
    Petri M, Jones R, Brodsky R. High-dose cyclophosphamide without stem cell transplantation in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 2003;48:166–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 38.
    Moroni G, Tantardini F, Gallelli B, et al. The long-term prognosis of renal transplantation in patients with lupus nephritis. Am J Kidney Dis 2005;45:903–911.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 39.
    Ponticelli C, Moroni G. Renal transplantation in lupus nephritis. Lupus 2005;14:95–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 40.
    Aringer M, Graninger W, Steiner G, et al. Safety and efficacy of tumor necrosis factor alpha blockade in systemic lupus erythematosus: an open-label study. Arthritis Rheum 2004;50:3161–3169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 41.
    Llorente L, Richaud-Patin Y, García-Padilla C, et al. Clinical and biologic effects of anti-interleukin-10 monoclonal antibody administration in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 2000;43:1790–1800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 42.
    Aringer M, Smolen J. Cytokine expression in lupus kidneys. Lupus 2005;14:189–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 43.
    Ryffel B, Car B, Gunn H, et al. Interleukin-6 exacerbates glomerulonephritis in (NZB×NZW)F1 mice. Am J Pathol 1994;144:927–937.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 44.
    Kirou K, Lee C, George S, et al. Coordinate overexpression of interferon-alpha-induced genes in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 2004;50:3958–3967.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jill P. Buyon
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Medicine, Division of RheumatologyNew York University School of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Lupus Clinic, New York University Hospital for Joint DiseasesNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations