Regulation of Growth Cone Initiation and Actin Dynamics by ADF/Cofilin

  • Kevin Flynn
  • Chi Pak
  • James R. Bamburg


Actin Filament Growth Cone Actin Depolymerizing Factor Growth Cone Collapse Neuronal Growth Cone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Agnew, B.J., Minamide, L.S., and Bamburg, J.R., 1995, Reactivation of phosphorylated actin depolymerizing factor and identification of the regulatory site, J. Biol. Chem. 270: 17582–17587.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alberts, B., Bray, D., Lewis, J., Raff, M., Roberts, K., and Watson, J.D., 2002, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 4th ed., Garland Publishing, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Aizawa, H., Wakatsuki, S., Ishii, A., Moriyama, K., Sasaki, Y., Ohashi, K., et al., 2001, Phosphorylation of cofilin by LIM-kinase is necessary for semaphorin 3A-induced growth cone collapse, Nature Neurosci. 4: 367–373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Aoki, K., Nakamura, T., and Matsuda, M., 2004, Spatio-temporal regulation of Rac1 and Cdc42 activity during nerve growth factor-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells, J. Biol. Chem. 279: 713–719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Arber, S., Barbayannis, F.A., Hanser, H., Schneider, C., Stanyon, C.A., Bernard, O., et al., 1998, Regulation of actin dynamics through phosphorylation of cofilin by LIM-kinase, Nature 398: 805–809.Google Scholar
  6. Balcer, H.I., Goodman, A.L., Rodal, A.A., Smith, E., Kugler, J., Heuser, J.E., et al., 2003, Coordinated regulation of actin filament turnover by a high molecular weight Srv2/CAP complex, cofilin, profilin, and Aip1, Curr. Biol. 13: 2159–2169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bamburg, J.R., 1999, Proteins of the ADF/cofilin family: Essential regulators of actin dynamics, Annu Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 15: 185–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bamburg, J.R., and Bray, D., 1987, Distribution and cellular localization of actin depolymerizing factor, J. Cell Biol. 105: 2817–2825.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bamburg, J.R., Harris, H.E., and Weeds, A.G., 1980, Partial purification and characterization of an actin depolymerizing factor from brain, FEBS Lett. 121: 178–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bentley, D., and Toroian-Raymond, A., 1986, Disoriented pathfinding by pioneer neuron growth cones deprived of filopodia by cytochalasin treatment, Nature 323: 712–715.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Blanchoin, L., Pollard, T.D., and Mullins, R.D., 2000, Interactions of ADF/cofilin, Arp2/3 complex, capping protein, and profilin in remodeling of branched actin filament networks, Curr. Biol. 10: 1273–1282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bray, D., and Chapman, K., 1985, Analysis of microspike movements on the neuronal growth cone, J. Neurosci. 5: 3204–3213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bridgman, P.C., and Dailey, M.E., 1989, The organization of myosin and actin in rapid rozen nerve growth cones, J. Cell Biol. 108: 95–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Brown, M.E., and Bridgman, P.C., 2003, Retrograde flow rate is increased in growth cones from myosin IIB knockout mice, J. Cell Sci. 116: 1087–1094.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Buck, K., and Zheng, J.Q., 2002, Growth cone turning induced by local modification of microtubule dynamics, J. Neurosci. 22: 9358–9367.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Carlier, M., Laurent, V., Santolini, J., Melki, R., Didry, D., Xia, G.X., et al., 1997, Actin depolymerizing factor (ADF/Cofilin) enhances the rate of filament turnover: Implication in actin-based motility, J. Cell Biol. 136: 1307–1322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Chan, A.Y., Bailly, M., Zebda, N., Segall, J.E., and Condeelis, J.S., 2000, Role of cofilin in epidermal growth factor stimulted actin polymerization and lamellipod protrusion, J. Cell Biol. 148: 531–542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Chardin, P., Boquet, P., Madaule, P., Popoff, M.R., Rubin, E.J., and Gill, D.M., 1989, The mammalian G protein rhoC is ADP-ribosylated by Clostridium botulinum exoenzyme C3 and affects actin microfilaments in Vero cells, EMBO J. 8: 1087–1092.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Chua, B.T., Volbracht, C., Tan, K.O., Li, R., Yu, V.C., and Li, P., 2003, Mitochondrial translocation of cofilin is an early step in apoptosis induction, Nature Cell Biol. 5: 1083–1089.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Chen, H., Bernstein, B., Sneider, J.D., Boyle, J.A., Minamide, L.S., and Bamburg, J.R., 2004, In vitro activity differences between proteins of the ADF/cofilin family define two distinct subgroups, Biochemistry 43: 7127–7142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Chen, T., Gehler, S., Shaw, A.E., Bamburg, J.R., and Letourneau, P., 2006, Cdc42 participates in the regulation of ADF/cofilin and retinal growth cone filopodia by brain derived neurotrophic factor, J. Neurobiol. 66: 103–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cramer, L.P., Bamburg, J.R., and Mseka, T. (submitted), Microtubules spatially regulate ADF/cofilin activity to control cell polarity and directed migration.Google Scholar
  23. Dailey, M.E., and Bridgman, P.C., 1991, Structure and organization of membrane organelles along distal microtubule segments in growth cones, J. Neurosci. Res. 30: 242–258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Dash, P.K., Orsi, S.A., Moody, M., and Moore, A.N., 2004, A role for hippocampal Rho-ROCK pathway in long-term spatial memory, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 322: 893–898.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. DaSilva, J.S., and Dotti, C., 2002, Breaking the neuronal sphere: Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in neuritogenesis, Nature Rev. Neurosci. 3: 694–704.Google Scholar
  26. DaSilva, J.S, Medina, M., Zuliani, C., Di Nardo, A., Witke, W., and Dotti, C., 2003, RhoA/ROCK regulation of neuritogenesis via profilin IIa-mediated control of actin stability, J. Cell Biol. 162: 1267–1279.Google Scholar
  27. Dawe, H.R., Minamide, L.S., Bamburg, J.R., and Cramer, L.P., 2003, ADF/cofilin controls cell polarity during fibroblast migration, Curr. Biol. 13: 252–257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Dawid, I.B., Breen, J.J., Toyama, R., 1998, LIM domains: Multiple roles as adapters and functional modifiers in protein interactions, Trends Genet. 14: 156–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Dehmelt, L., Smart, F.M., Ozer, R.S., and Halpain, S., 2003, The role of microtubule associated protein 2c in the reorganization of microtubules and lamellipodia during neurite initiation, J. Neurosci. 23: 9479–9490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Edwards, D.C., Sanders, L.C. Bokoch, G.M., and Gill, G.N., 1999, Activation of LIM-kinase by pak1 couples rac/cdc42 GTPase signalling to the cytoskeletal dynamics, Nature Cell Biol. 1: 253–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Endo, M., Ohshi, K., Sasaki, Y., Goshima, Y., Niwa, R., Uemura, T., et al., 2003, Control of growth cone motility and morphology by LIM kinase and slingshot via phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of cofilin, J. Neurosci. 23: 2527–2537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Endo, M., Ohashi, K., and Mizuno, K., 2005, Role of cofilin phosphocycle by LIM-kinase and slingshot in NGF-induced neurite outgrowth, Mol. Biol. Cell 16: 676a.Google Scholar
  33. Fan, J., and Raper, J.A., 1995, Localized collapsing cues can steer growth cones without inducing their full collapse, Neuron 14: 263–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Fass, J., Gehler, S., Sarmiere, P., Letourneau, P., and Bamburg, J.R., 2004, Regulating filopodial dynamics through actin-depolymerizing factor/cofilin, Anat. Sci. Internat. 79: 173–183.Google Scholar
  35. Foletta, V.C., Moussi, N., Sarmiere, P.D., Bamburg, J.R., and Bernard, O., 2004, LIM kinase, a key regulator of actin dynamics, is widely expressed in embryonic and adult tissues, Exp. Cell Res. 294: 392–405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Forscher, P., and Smith, S.J., 1988, Actions of cytochalasins on the organization of actin filaments and microtubules in a neuronal growth cone, J. Cell Biol. 107: 1505–1516.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Gallo, G., Yee, H.F., and Letourneau, P., 2002, Actin turnover is required to prevent axon retraction driven by endogenous actomyosin contractility, J. Cell Biol. 158: 1219–1228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Gebuhr, T.C., Kovaley, G.I. Bultman, S., Godfrey, V., Su, L., and Magnuson, T., 2003, The role of Brg1, a catalytic subunit of mammalian chromatin remodeling complexes, in T cell development, J. Exp. Med. 198: 1937–1949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Gehler, S., Gallo, G., Veien, E., and Letourneau, P.C., 2004a, p75NTR signaling regulates growth cone filopodial dynamics through modulating RhoA activity, J Neurosci. 24: 4363–4372.Google Scholar
  40. Gehler, S., Shaw, A.E., Sarmiere, P.D., Bamburg, J.R., and Letourneau, P.C., 2004b, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulation of retinal growth cone filopodial dynamics is mediated through actin depolymerizing factor/cofilin, J. Neurosci. 24: 10741–10749.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Gherardi, E., Love, C.A., Esnouf, R.M., and Jones, E.Y., 2004, The sema domain, Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 14: 669–678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Ghosh, M., Song, X., Mouneimne, G., Sidani, M., Lawrence, D.S., and Condeelis, J.S., 2005, Cofilin promotes actin polymerization and defines the direction of cell motility, Science 304: 743–746.Google Scholar
  43. Giuliano, K.A., Khatib, F.A., Hayden, S.M., Daoud, E.W., Adams, M.E., Amorese, D.A., et al., 1988, Properties of purified actin depolymerizing factor from chick brain, Biochemistry 27: 8931–8937.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Gohla, A., and Bokoch, G.M., 2002, 14–3-3 regulates actin dynamics by stabilizing phosphorylated cofilin, Curr. Biol. 12: 1704–1710.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Gohla, A., Birkenfeld, J., and Bokoch, G.M., 2005, Chronophin, a novel HAD-type serine protein phosphatase, regulates cofilin-dependent actin dynamics, Nat. Cell Biol. 7: 21–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Goldberg, D.J., and Burmeister, D.W., 1989, Looking into growth cones, Trends Neurosci. 12: 503–506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Govek, E., Newey, S.E., and Van Aelst, L., 2005, The role of the rho GTPases in neuronal development, Genes Dev. 19: 1–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Gurniak, C.B., Perlas, E., and Witke, W., 2005, The actin depolymerizing factor n-cofilin is essential for neural tube morphogenesis and neural crest cell migration, Dev. Biol. 278: 231–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Hendricks, K.B., Shanahan, F., and Lees, E., 2004, Role for BRG1 in cell cycle control and tumor suppression, Mol. Cell Biol. 24: 362–376.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Henley, J., and Poo, M., 2004, Guiding neuronal growth cones using Ca2+ signals, Trends Cell Biol. 14: 320–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Hiraoka, J., Okano, I., Higuchi, O., Yang, N., and Mizuno, K., 1996, Self-association of LIM kinase 1 mediated by the interaction between an N-terminal LIM domain and a C-terminal kinase domain, FEBS Lett. 399: 117–121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Hofmann, W., Reichart, B., Ewald, A., Muller, E., Schmitt, I., Stauber, R.H., et al., 2001, Cofactor requirements for nuclear export of Rev response element (RRE)- and constitutive transport element (CTE)-containing retroviral RNAs. An unexpected role for actin, J.Cell Biol. 152: 895–910.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Hotulainen, P., Paunola, E., Vartianen, M.K., and Lappalainen, P., 2005, Actin-depolymerizing factor and cofilin-1 play overlapping roles in promoting rapid F-actin depolymerization in mammalian nonmuscle cells, Mol. Biol. Cell 16: 649–664.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Hu, H., Marton, T.F., and Goodman, C.S., 2001, Plexin B mediates axon guidance in Drosophila by simultaneously inhibiting active Rac and enhancing RhoA signaling, Neuron 32: 39–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Huber, A.B., Kolodkin, A.L., Ginty, D.D., and Cloutier, J.F., 2003, Signaling at the growth cone: Ligand-receptor complexes and the control of axon growth and guidance, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 26: 509–563.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Kanamuri, T., Suzuki, M., and Titani, K., 1998, Complete amino acid sequences and phosphorylation sites, determined by Edman degradation and mass spectrometry, of rat parotid destrin- and cofilin-like proteins, Arch. Oral. Biol. 43: 955–967.Google Scholar
  57. Kang, H., Cui, K., and Zhao, K., 2004, BRG1 controls the activity of the retinoblastoma protein via the regulation of p21CIP1/WAF1/SDI, Mol. Cell Biol. 24: 1188–1199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Kimura, K., Ito, M., Amano, M., Chihara, K., Fukata, Y., Nakafuku, M., et al., 1996, Regulation of myosin phosphatase by Rho and Rho-associated kinase (Rho-kinase), Science 273: 245–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Kimura, T., Hashimoto, I., Yamamoto, A., Nishikawa, M., and Fujisawa, J.I., 2000, Rev-dependent association of the intron-containing HIV-1 gag mRNA with the nuclear actin bundles and the inhibition of its nucleocytoplasmic transport by latrunculin-B, Genes Cells. 5: 289–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Kuhn, T.B., Brown, M.D., Wilcox, C.L., Raper, J.A., and Bamburg, J.R., 1999, Myelin and collapsin-1 induce motor neuron growth cone collapse through different pathways: Inhibition of collapse by opposing mutants of rac-1, J. Neurosci. 19: 1965–1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Kuhn, T.B., Meberg, P.J., Brown, M.D., Bernstein, B.W., Minamide, L.S., Jensen, J.R., et al., 2000, Regulating actin dynamics in neuronal growth cones by ADF/cofilin and rho family GTPases, J. Neurobiol. 44: 126–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Lappalainen, P., Kessels, M.M., Cope, M.J., and Drubin, D.G., 1998, The ADF homology (ADF-H) domain: A highly exploited actin-binding module, Mol. Biol. Cell 9: 1951–1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Lee, H., Engel, U., Rusch, J., Scherrer, S., Sheard, K., and Van Vactor, D., 2004, The microtubule plus end tracking protein Orbit/MAST/CLASP acts downstream of the tyrosine kinase Abl in mediating axon guidance, Neuron 42: 913–926.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Letourneau, P.C., 1983, Differences in the organization of actin in the growth cones compared with the neurites of cultured neurons from chick embryos, J. Cell Biol. 97: 963–973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Letourneau, P.C., 1996, The cytoskeleton in nerve growth cone motility and axonal pathfinding, Perspect. Dev. Neurobiol. 4: 111–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Leung, T., Manser, E., Tan, L., and Lim, L., 1995, A novel serine/threonine kinase binding the ras-related RhoA GTPase which translocates the kinase to peripheral membranes, J. Biol. Chem. 270: 29051–29054.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Lewis, A.K., and Bridgman, P.C., 1992, Nerve growth cone lamellipodia contain two populations of actin filaments that differ in organization and polarity, J. Cell Biol. 119: 1219–1243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Lin, C.H., and Forscher, P., 1995, Growth cone advance is inversely proportional to retrograde F-actin flow, Neuron 14: 763–771.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Lin, C.H., Thompson, C.A., and Forscher, P., 1994, Cytoskeletal reorganization underlying growth cone motility, Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 4: 640–647.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Lin, C.H., Espreafico, E.M., Mooseker, M.S., and Forscher, P., 1996, Myosin drives retrograde F-actin flow in neuronal growth cones, Neuron 16: 769–782.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Lippincott-Schwartz, J., Roberts, T.H., and Hirschberg, K., 2000, Secretory protein trafficking and organelle dynamics in living cells, Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 16: 557–589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Maciver, S.K., and Weeds, A.G., 1994, Actophorin preferentially binds momomeric ADP-actin over ATP-bound actin: Consequences for cell locomotion, FEBS Lett. 347: 251–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Maciver, S.K., Pope, B.J., Whytock, S., and Weeds, A.G., 1998, The effect of two actin depolymerizing factors (ADF/cofilins) on actin filament turnover: pH sensitivity of F-actin binding by human ADF, but not of Acanthamoeba actophorin, Eur. J. Biochem. 256: 388–397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Maekawa, M., Ishizaki, T., Boku, S., Watanabe, N., Fujita, A., Iwamatsu, A., et al., 1999, Signaling from Rho to the actin cytoskeleton through protein kinases ROCK and LIM kinase, Science 285: 895–898.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Manser, E., Leung, T., Salihuddin, H., and Lim, L., 1994, A brain serine/threonine protein kinase activated by Cdc42 and Rac1, Nature 367: 40–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Marsh, L., and Letourneau, P.C., 1984, Growth of neurites without filopodial or lamellipodial activity in the presence of cytochalasin B, J. Cell Biol. 99: 2041–2047.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Mcgee, A.W., and Bredt, D.S., 1999, Identification of an intramolecular interaction beween the SH3 and guanylate kinase domains of PSD-95, J. Biol. Chem. 274: 17431–17436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Meberg, P.J., 2000, Signal-regulated ADF/cofilin activity and growth cone motility, Mol. Neurobiol. 21: 97–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Meberg, P., and Bamburg, J.R., 2000, Increase in neurite outgrowth mediated by overexpression of actin depolymerizing factor, J. Neurosci. 20: 2459–2469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Meberg, P., Ono, S., Minamide, L., Takahashi, M., and Bamburg, J.R., 1998, Actin depolymerizing factor and cofilin phosphorylation dynamics: Response to signals that regulate neurite extension, Cell Motil. Cytoskel. 39: 172–190.Google Scholar
  81. Meyer, G., and Feldman, E.L., 2002, Signaling mechanisms that regulate actin-based motility processes in the nervous system, J. Neurochem. 83: 490–503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Mizuno, K., Okano, I., Ohashi, K., Nunoue, K., Kuma, K., Miyata, T., et al., 1994, Identification of a human cDNA encoding a novel protein kinase with two repeats of LIM/double zinc finger motif, Oncogene 9: 1605–1612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Morgan, T.E., Lockerbie, R.O., Minamide, L.S., Browning, M.D., and Bamburg, J.R., 1993, Isolation and characterization of a regulated form of actin depolymerizing factor, J. Cell Biol. 122: 623–633.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Moriyama, K., and Yahara, I., 1999, Two activities of cofilin, severing and accelerating directional depolymerization of actin filaments, are affected differentially by mutations around the actin-binding helix, EMBO J. 18: 6752–6761.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Moriyama, K., and Yahara, I., 2002, The actin severing activity of cofilin is exerted by the interplay of three distinct sites on cofilin and essential for cell viability, Biochem. J. 365: 147–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Moriyama, K., Iida, K., and Yahara, I., 1996, Phosphorylation of Ser-3 of cofilin regulates its essential function on actin, Genes Cells 1: 73–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Nagata-Ohashi, K., Ohta, Y., Goto, K., Chiba, S., Mori, R., Nishita, M., et al., 2004, A pathway of neuregulin-induced activation of cofilin phosphatase slingshot and cofilin in lamellipodia, J. Cell Biol. 165: 465–471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Nakamura, F., Kalb, R.G., and Strittmatter, S.M., 2000, Molecular basis of semaphorin-mediated axon guidance, J. Neurobiol. 44: 219–229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Ng, J., and Luo, L., 2004, Rho GTPases regulate axon growth through convergent and divergent signaling pathways, Neuron 44: 779–793.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Nishida, E., Maekawa, S., and Sakai, H., 1984, Cofilin, a protein in porcine brain that binds to actin filaments and inhibits their interactions with myosin and tropomyosin, Biochemistry 23: 5307–5313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Nishita, M., Tomizawa, T., Yamamoto, M., Horita, Y., Ohashi, K., and Mizuno, K., 2005, Spatial and temporal regulation of cofilin activity by LIM kinase and slingshot is critical for directional cell migration, J. Cell Biol. 171: 349–359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Niwa, R., Nagata-Ohashi, K., Takeichi, M., Mizuno, K., and Uemura, T., 2002, Control of actin reorganization by slingshot, a family of phosphatases that dephosphorylate ADF/cofilin, Cell 108: 233–246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. O'Connor, T.P., Duerr, J.S., and Bentley, D., 1990, Pioneer growth cone steering decisions mediated by single filopodial contacts in situ, J. Neurosci. 10: 3935–3946.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Oinuma, I., Katoh, H., Harada, A., and Negishi, M., 2003, Direct interaction of Rnd1 with Plexin-B1 regulates PDZ-mediated Rho activation by plexin-B1 and induces cell contraction in Cos-7 cells, J. Biol. Chem. 278: 25671–25677.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Okabe, S., and Hirokawa, N., 1991, Actin dynamics in growth cones, J. Neurosci. 11: 1918–1929.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Ono, S., and Benian, G.M., 1998, Two Caenorhabditis elegans actin depolymerizing factor/cofilin proteins, encoded by the unc-60 gene, differentially regulate actin filament dynamics, J. Biol. Chem. 273: 3778–3783.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Ono, S., Mohri, K., and Ono, K., 2004, Microscopic evidence that actin-interacting protein 1 actively disassembles actin-depolymerizing factor/cofilin-bound filaments, J. Biol. Chem. 279: 14207–14212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Pendleton, A., Pope, B., Weeds, A., and Koffer, A., 2003, Latruncluin B or ATP depletion induces cofilin-dependent translocation of actin into the nuclei of mast cells, J. Biol. Chem. 278: 14394–14400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Percival, J.M., Hughes, J.A., Brown, D.L., Schevzov, G., Heimann, K., Vrhovski, B., et al., 2004, Targeting of tropomyosin isoform to short microfilaments with the Golgi complex, Mol. Biol. Cell 15: 268–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Pope, B.J., Gonsior, S.M., Yeoh, S., McGough, A., and Weeds, A.G., 2000, Uncoupling actin filament fragmentation by cofilin from increased subunit turnover, J. Mol. Biol. 298: 649–661.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Rodriguez, O.C., Schaefer, A.W., Mandato, C.A., Forscher, P., Bement, W.M., and Waterman-Storer, C.M., 2003, Conserved microtubule-actin interactions in cell movement and morphogenesis, Nature Cell Biol. 5: 599–609.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Rohm, B., Ottemeyer, A., Lohrum, M., and Puschel, A.W., 2000, Plexin/Neuropilin complexes mediate repulsion by the axonal guidance signal semaphorin 3A, Mech. Dev. 93: 95–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Rosenblatt, J., Agnew, B.J., Abe, H., Bamburg, J.R., and Mitchison, T.J., 1997, Xenopus actin depolymerizing factor/cofilin (XAC) is responsible for the turnover of actin filaments in Listeria monocytogenes tails, J. Cell Biol. 136: 1323–1332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Rosso, S., Bollati, F., Bisbal, M., Peretti, D., Sumi, T., Nakamura, T., et al., 2004, LIMK1 regulates Golgi dynamics, traffic of Golgi-derived vesicles, and process extension in primary cultured neurons, Mol. Biol. Cell 15: 3433–3449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Sahin, M., Greer, P.L., Lin, M.Z., Poucher, H., Eberhart, J., Schmidt, S., et al., 2005, Eph-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of ephexin-1 modulates growth cone collapse, Neuron 46: 191–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Samstag, Y., and Nebl, G., 2003, Interaction of cofilin with the serine phosphatases PP1A and PP2A in normal and neoplastic human T-lymphocytes, Adv. Enzyme Regul. 43: 197–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Samstag, Y., Eckerskom, C., Wesselborg, S., Henning, S., Wallich, R., and Meuer, S.C., 1994, Costimulatory signals for human T-cell activation induce nuclear translocation of pp19/cofilin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91: 4494–4498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Sanders, L.C., Matsumura, F., Bokoch, G.M., and de Lanerolle, P., 1999, Inhibition of myosin light chain kinase by p21-activated kinase, Science 283: 2083–2085.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Sanes, D.H, Reh, T.A., and Harris, W.A., 2000, Development of the Nervous System, 1st edn. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 92–100.Google Scholar
  110. Sarmiere, P.D., and Bamburg, J.R., 2004, Regulation of the neuronal cytoskeleton by ADF/cofilin, J. Neurobiol. 58: 103–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Schaefer, A.W., Kabir, N., and Forscher, P., 2002, Filopodia and actin arcs guide the assembly and transport of two populations of microtubules with unique dynamic parameters in neuronal growth cones, J. Cell Biol. 158: 139–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Shi, S.H., Jan, L.Y., and Jan, Y.N., 2003, Hippocampal neuronal polarity specified by spatially localized mpar3/mpar6 and PI 3-kinase activity, Cell 112: 63–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Smith, S.J., 1988, Neuronal cytomechanics: The actin-based motility of growth cones, Science 242: 708–715.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Song, H., and Poo, M., 2001, The cell biology of neuronal migration, Nature Cell Biol. 3: E81–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Soosairajah, J., Maiti, S., Wiggan, O., Sarmeire, P., Moussi, N., Sarcevic, B., et al., 2005, Interplay between components of a novel lim kinase-slingshot phosphatase complex regulates cofilin, EMBO J. 24: 473–486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Svitkina, T.M., Verkhovsky, A.B., McQuade, K.M., and Borisy, G.G., 1997, Analysis of the actin-myosin II system in fish epidermal keratocytes: Mechanism of cell body translocation, J. Cell Biol. 139: 397–415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Svitkina, T.M., Bulanova, E.A., Chaga, O.Y., Vignjevic, D.M., Kojima, S., Vasiliev, J. et al., 2003, Mechanism of filopodia initiation by reorganization of a dendritic network, J. Cell Biol. 160: 409–421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Tanaguchi, M., Yuasa, S., Fujisawa, H., Naruse, I., Saga, S., Mishina, M., et al., 1997, Disruption of semaphorin III/D gene causes severe abnormality in peripheral nerve projection, Neuron 19: 519–530.Google Scholar
  119. Tanaka, E.M., and Kirschner, M.W., 1991, Microtubule behavior in the growth cones of living neurons during axon elongation, J. Cell Biol. 115: 345–363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Tanaka, K., Okubo, Y., and Abe, H., 2005, Involvement of slingshot in the rho-mediated dephosphorylation of ADF/cofilin during Xenopus cleavage, Zool. Sci. 22: 971–984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Thirion, C., Stucka, R., Mendel, B., Gruhler, A., Jaksch, M., Nowak, K.J., et al., 2001, Characterization of human muscle type cofilin (CFL2) in normal and regenerating muscle, Eur. J. Biochem. 268: 3473–3482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Tsui, H.C., Ris, H., and Klein, W.L., 1983, Ultrastructural networks in growth cones and neurites of cultured central nervous system neurons, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80: 5779–5783.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Tursun, B., Schluter, A., Peters, M.A., Viehweger, B., and Ostendorff, H.P., Soosairajah, J., et al., 2005, The ubiquitin ligase Rnf6 regulates local LIM kinase 1 levels in axonal growth cones, Genes Dev. 19: 2307–2319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Vartiainen, M.K., Mustonen, T., Mattila, P.K., Ojala, P.J., Thesleff, I., Partanen, J., et al., 2002, The three mouse actin-depolymerizing factor/cofilins evolved to fulfill cell-type-specific requirements for actin dynamics, Mol. Biol. Cell 13: 183–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Vasiliev, J.M., Gelfand, I.M, Domnina, L.V., Ivanova, O.Y., Komm, S.G., Olshevskaja, L.V., 1970, Effect of colcemid on the locomotory behaviour of fibroblasts, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 24: 625–640.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Vignjevic, D., Yarar, D., Welch, M.D., Peloquin, J., Svitkina, T., and Borisy, G.G., 2003, Formation of filopodia-like bundles in vitro from a dendritic network, J. Cell Biol. 160: 951–962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Vikis, H.G., Li, W., He, Z., and Guan, K.L., 2000, The semaphorin receptor plexin-B1 specifically interacts with active Rac in a ligand-dependent manner, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97: 12457–12462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Visa, N., 2005, Actin in transcription. Actin is required for transcription by all three RNA polymerases in the eukaryotic cell nucleus, EMBO Rep. 6: 218–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Wang, Y., Shibiaski, F., and Mizuno, K., 2005, Calcium signal-induced cofilin dephosphorylation is mediated by slingshot via calcineurin, J. Biol. Chem. 280: 12683–12689.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Worthylake, R.A., and Burridge, K., 2003, RhoA and Rock promote migration by limiting membrane protrusions, J. Biol. Chem. 278: 13578–13584.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Wu, K.Y., Hengst, U., Cox, L.J., Macosko, E.Z., Jeromin, A., Urquhart, E.R., et al., 2005, Local translation of RhoA regulates growth cone collapse, Nature 436: 1020–1024.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Yamaguchi, Y., Katoh, H., Yasui, H., Mori, K., and Negishi, M., 2001, RhoA inhibits the nerve growth factor-induced Rac1 activation through Rho-associated kinase-dependent pathway, J. Biol. Chem. 276: 18977–18983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Yamashiro, S., and Ono, S., 2005, The two Caenorhabditis elegans actin-depolymerizing factor/cofilin proteins differently enhance actin filament severing and depolymerization, Biochemistry 44: 14238–14247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Yamashita, T., and Tohyama, M., 2003, The p75 receptor acts as a displacement factor that releases Rho from Rho-GDI, Nature Neurosci. 6: 461–467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Yang, N., Higuchi, O., Ohashi, K., Nagata, K., Wada, A., Kagawa, K., et al., 1998, Cofilin phosphorylation by LIM-kinase 1 and its role in Rac-mediated actin organization, Nature 393: 809–812.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Yeoh, S., Pope, B., Mannherz, H.G., and Weeds, A.G., 2002, Determining the differences in actin binding by human ADF and cofilin, J. Mol. Biol. 315: 911–925.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Zhang, S., Buder, K., Burkhardt, C., Schlott, B., Gorlach, M., and Grosse, F., 2002, Nuclear DNA helicase II/RNA helicase A binds to filamentous actin, J. Biol. Chem. 277: 843–853.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Zheng, J.Q., Wang, J., and Poo, M., 1996, Essential role of filopodia in chemotropic turning of nerve growth cone induced by a glutamate gradient, J. Neurosci. 16: 1140–1149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Zhou, F.Q., and Cohan, C.S., 2003, How actin filaments and microtubules steer growth cones to their targets, J. Neurobiol. 58: 84–91.Google Scholar
  140. Zhou, F.Q., Waterman-Storer, C.M., and Cohan, C.S., 2002, Focal loss of actin bundles causes microtubule redistribution and growth cone turning, J. Cell Biol. 157: 839–849.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kevin Flynn
    • 1
  • Chi Pak
    • 2
  • James R. Bamburg
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and MolecularColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and MolecularColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA
  3. 3.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA

Personalised recommendations