Advertisement

Medical and Psychosocial Issues in Testicular Cancer Survivors

  • Sophie D. Fosså
  • Lois B. Travis
  • Alvin A. Dahl

Abstract

Testicular cancer (TC) is the most frequent malignancy in men between 20 and 40 years of age, and the annual incidence rates are continuously increasing in the Western world.1 Since the introduction of cisplatin-based chemotherapy, at least 90% of the patients are cured,2 and testicular cancer survivors (TCSs) currently have a life expectancy similar to that of age-matched normal men, with posttreatment life spans of 30 to 50 years. Thus, an increasing number of TCSs experience survivorship problems related to the malignancy, its treatment, or both.

Keywords

Germ Cell Clin Oncol Radiat Oncol Biol Phys Germ Cell Tumour Testicular Cancer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Engeland A, Haldorsen T, Tretli S, et al. Prediction of cancer incidence in the Nordic countries up to the years 2000 and 2010. A Collaborative Study of the Five Nordic Cancer Registries. APMIS 1993;101(suppl 38):1–124.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Einhorn LH, Williams SD, Loehrer PJ, et al. Evaluation of optimal duration of chemotherapy in favorable-prognosis disseminated germ cell tumours: a Southeastern Cancer Study Group protocol. J Clin Oncol 1989;7:387–391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG). The International Germ Cell Consensus Classification: a prognostic factor-based staging system for metastatic germ cell cancers. J Clin Oncol 1997;15:594–603.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fosså SD, Horwich A, Russell JM, et al. Optimal planning target volume for stage I testicular seminoma: A Medical Research Council Testicular Tumour Working Group. J Clin Oncol 1999;17:1146–1154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fosså SD, Jones WG, Stenning SP, for the TE18 Collaborators; MRC Clinical Trials Unit, London. Quality of life (QL) after radiotherapy (RT) for stage I seminoma: results from a randomised trial of two RT schedules (MRC TE18). Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 2002;21:188.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Warde P, Specht L, Horwich A, et al. Prognostic factors for relapse in stage I Seminoma managed by surveillance: a pooled analysis. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:4448–4452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Oliver RTD, Edmonds PM, Ong JYH, et al. Pilot studies of 2 and 1 course carboplatin as adjuvant for stage I seminoma: should it be tested in a randomized trial against radiotherapy? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1994;29:3–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Read G, Stenning SP, Cullen MH, et al. Medical Research Council Prospective study of surveillance for stage I testicular teratoma. J Clin Oncol 1992;10:1762–1768.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cullen MH, Stenning SP, Parkinson MC, et al. for the Medical Research Council Testicular Tumour Working Party. Short-course adjuvant chemotherapy in high-risk stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis: a Medical Research Council report. J Clin Oncol 1996;14:1106–1113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Donohue JP, Foster RS, Rowland RG, et al. Nerve-sparing retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy with preservation of ejaculation. J Urol 1990;144:287–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Williams SD, Birch R, Einhorn LH, et al. Treatment of disseminated germ-cell tumours with cisplatin, bleomycin, and either vinblastin or eroposide. N Engl J Med 1987;316:1435–1440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    de Wit R, Roberts JT, Wilkinson PM, et al. Equivalence of three or four cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin chemotherapy and of a 3-or 5-day schedule in good-prognosis germ cell cancer: a randomized study of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Genitourinary Tract Cancer Cooperative Group and the Medical Research Council. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:1629–1640.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nichols CR, Catalano PJ, Crawford ED, et al. Randomized comparison of cisplatin and etoposide and either bleomycin or ifosfamide in treatment of advanced disseminated germ cell tumours: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, Southwest Oncology Group, and Cancer and Leukemia Group B Study. J Clin Oncol 1998;16:1287–1293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Motzer RJ, Sheinfeld J, Mazumdar M, et al. Paclitaxel, ifosfamide and cisplatin second-line therapy for patients with relapsed testicular germ cell cancer. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:2413–2418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Toner G, Panicek D, Heelan R, et al. Adjuvant surgery after chemotherapy for nonseminomatous germ cell tumors: recommendations for patient selection. J Clin Oncol 1990;8:1683–1694.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Travis LB, Andersson M, Gospodarowicz M, et al. Treatment-associated leukemia following testicular cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000;92:1165–1171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bosl GJ, Ilson DH, Rodriguez E, et al. Clinical relevance of the i(12P) marker chromosome in germ cell tumours. J Natl Cancer Inst 1994;86:349–355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Travis LB, Curtis RE, Storm H, et al. Risk of second malignant neoplasms among long-term survivors of testicular cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1997;89:1429–1439.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Van Leeuwen FE, Travis LB. Second cancers. In: Devitz VT, et al. (eds). Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001:2939–2964.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fosså SD, Langmark F, Aass N, et al. Second non-germ cell malignancies after radiotherapy of testicular cancer with or without chemotherapy. Br J Cancer 1990;61:639–643.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Van Leeuwen FE, Stiggelbout AM, van den Belt-Dusebout AW, et al. Second cancer risk following testicular cancer: a follow-up study of 1,909 patients. J Clin Oncol 1993;11:415–424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Report to the General Assembly, with Scientific Annexes. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation, UNSCEAR. New York: United Nations, 2000.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hoff Wanderas E, Fosså SD, Tretli S. Risk of subsequent nongerm cell cancer after treatment of germ cell cancer in 2006 Norwegian male patients. Eur J Cancer 1997;33:253–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Breslow NE, Takashima JR, Whitton JA, et al. Second malignant neoplasms following treatment for Wilm’s tumor: a report from the National Wilms’ Tumor Study Group. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:1851–1859.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Redman JR, Vugrin D, Arlin ZA, et al. Leukemia following treatment of germ cell tumors in men. J Clin Oncol 1984;2:1080–1087.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pedersen-Bjergaard J, Daugaard G, et al. Increased risk of myelodysplasia and leukaemia after etoposide, cisplatin, and bleomycin for germ-cell tumours. Lancet 1991;338:359–363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nichols CR, Breeden ES, Loehrer PJ, et al. Secondary leukemia associated with a conventional dose of etoposide: review of serial germ cell tumor protocols. J Natl Cancer Inst 1993;85:36–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bokemeyer C, Schmoll HJ, Kuczyk MA, et al. Risk of secondary leukemia following high cumulative doses of etoposide during chemotherapy for testicular cancer (letter). J Natl Cancer Inst 1995;87:58–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Boshoff C, Begent RH, Oliver RT, et al. Secondary tumours following etoposide containing therapy for germ cell cancer. Ann Oncol 1995;6:35–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Travis LB, Holowaty E, Hall P, et al. Risk of leukemia following platinum-based chemotherapy for ovarian cancer. N Engl J Med 1999;340:351–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Smith MA, Rubinstein L, Anderson JR, et al. Secondary leukemia or myeloodysplastic syndrome after treatment with epipodophyllotoxins. J Clin Oncol 1999;17:569–577.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kollmannsberger C, Hartmann JT, Kanz L, et al. Therapy-related malignancies following treatment of germ cell cancer. Int J Cancer 1999;83:860–863.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    von der Maase H, Rørth M, Walbom-Jørgensen S, et al. Carcinoma in situ of contralateral testis in patients with testicular germ cell cancer: study of 27 cases in 500 patients. Br Med J 1986;293:1398–1401.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sokal M, Peckham MJ, Hendry WF. Bilateral germ cell tumours of the testis. Br J Urol 1980;52:158–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hoff Wanderas E, Fosså SD, Tretli S. Risk of a second germ cell cancer after treatment of a primary germ cell cancer in 2201 Norwegian male patients. Eur J Cancer 1997;33:244–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hartmann JG, Fosså SD, Nichols CR, et al. Incidence of metachronous testicular cancer in patients with extragonadal germ cell tumors. J Natl Cancer Inst 2001;93:1733–1738.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fosså SD, Aass N, Heilo A, et al. Testicular carcinoma in situ in patients with extragonadal germ cell tumours: the clinical role of pre-treatment biopsy. Ann Oncol 2003;14:1412–1418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Oosterhuis JW, Looijenga LHJ. The biology of human germ cell tumours: retrospective speculations and new prospectives. Eur Urol 1993;23:245–250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fosså SD, Åbyholm T, Aakvaag A. Spermatogenesis and hormonal status after orchiectomy for cancer and before supplementary treatment. Eur Urol 1984;10:173–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hansen PV, Trykker H, Andersen J, et al. Germ cell function and hormonal status in patients with testicular cancer. Cancer (Phila) 1989;64:956–961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Petersen PM, Skakkebaek NE, Vistisen K, et al. Semen quality and reproductive hormones before orchiectomy in men with testicular cancer. J Clin Oncol 1999;17:941–947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Petersen PM, Skakkebæk NE, Rørth M, et al. Semen quality and reproductive hormones before and after orchiectomy in men with testicular cancer. J Urol 1999;161:822–826.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Carroll PR, Whitmore Jr WF, Herr HW, et al. Endocrine and exocrine profiles of men with testicular tumours before orchiectomy, J Urol 1987;137:420–423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Jacobsen KD, Theodorsen L, Fosså SD. Spermatogenesis after unilateral orchiectomy for testicular cancer in patients following surveillance policy. J Urol 2001;165:93–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Nord C, Bjøro T, Ellingsen D, et al. Gonadal hormones in long-term survivors 10 years after treatment for unilateral testicular cancer. Eur Urol 2003;44:322–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Reiter WJ, Kratzik C, Brodowicz T, et al. Sperm analysis and serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels before and after adjuvant single-agent carboplatin therapy for clinical stage I seminoma. Urol 1998;52:117–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lampe H, Horwich A, Norman A, et al. Fertility after chemotherapy for testicular germ cell cancers. J Clin Oncol 1997;15:239–245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Drasga RE, Einhorn LH, Williams SD, et al. Fertility after chemotherapy for testicular cancer. J Clin Oncol 1983;1:179–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Taksey J, Bissada NK, Chaudhary UB. Fertility after chemotherapy for testicular cancer. Arch Androl 2003;49:389–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Petersen PM, Skakkebæk NE, Giwercman A. Gonadal function in men with testicular cancer: biological and clinical aspects. APMIS 1998;106:24–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Palmieri G, Lotrecchiano G, Ricci G, et al. Gonadal function after multimodality treatment in men with testicular germ cell cancer. Eur J Endocrinol 1996;134:431–436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Aass N, Fosså SD, Theodorsen L, et al. Prediction of long-term gonadal toxicity after standard treatment for testicular cancer. Eur J Cancer 1991;27:1087–1091.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bokemeyer C, Berger CC, Kuczyk MA, et al. Evaluation of long-term toxicity after chemotherapy for testicular cancer. J Clin Oncol 1996;14:2923–2932.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Fosså SD, Ous S, Abyholm T, et al. Post-treatment fertility in patients with testicular cancer. II. Influence of cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy and of retroperitoneal surgery on hormone and sperm cell production. Br J Urol 1985;57:210–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Petersen PM, Hansen SW, Giwercman A, et al. Dose-dependent impairment of testicular function in patients treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy for germ cell cancer. Ann Oncol 1994;5:355–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Stephenson WT, Poirier SM, Rubin L, et al. Evaluation of reproductive capacity in germ cell tumor patients following treatment with cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:2278–2280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Strumberg D, Brügge S, Korn MW, et al. Evaluation of long-term toxicity in patients after cisplatin-based chemotherapy for nonseminomatous testicular cancer. Ann Oncol 2002;13:229–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Jacobsen KD, Olsen DR, Fosså K, et al. External beam abdominal radiotherapy in patients with seminoma stage I: field type, testicular dose, and spermatogenesis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1997;38:95–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hansen PV, Trykker H, Svennekjær IL, et al. Long-term recovery of spermatogenesis after radiotherapy in patients with testicular cancer. Radiat Oncol 1990;18:117–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kreuser ED, Klingmüller D, Thiel E. The role of LHRH-Analogues in protecting gonadal function during chemotherapy and irradiation. Eur Urol 1993;23:157–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hallak J, Hendin BN, Thomas AJ, et al. Investigation of fertilizing capacity of cryopreserved spermatozoa from patients with cancer. J Urol 1998;159:1217–1220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Fosså SD, Opjordsmoen S, Haug E. Androgen replacement and quality of life in patients treated for bilateral testicular cancer. Eur J Cancer 1999;35:1220–1225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Whitmore WE Jr. Surgical treatment of adult germinal testis tumours. Semin Oncol 1979;6:55–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Nijman JM, Jager S, Boer PW, et al. The treatment of ejaculation disorders after retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. Cancer (Phila) 1982;50:2967–2971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Jacobsen KD, Ous S, Wæhre H, et al. Ejaculation in testicular cancer patients after post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. Br J Cancer 1999;80:249–255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Jacobsen KD, Fosså SD. Fatherhood in testicular cancer patients with carcinoma in situ in the contralateral testicle. Eur Urol 2000;38:725–727.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Giwercman A, von der Maase H, Berthelsen JG, et al. Localized irradiation of testis with carcinoma in situ: effects on Leydig cell function and eradication of malignant germ cell in 20 patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991;73:596–603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Heidenreich A, Weizbach L, Höltl W, et al. Organ sparing surgery for malignant germ cell tumor of the testis. J Urol 2001;166:2161–2165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Boyer M, Raghavan D. Toxicity of treatment of germ cell tumours. Semin Oncol 1992;19:128–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Aass N, Kaasa S, Lund E, et al. Long-term somatic side-effects and morbidity in testicular cancer patients. Br J Cancer 1990;61:151–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Petersen PM, Hansen SW. The course of long-term toxicity in patients treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy for nonseminomatous germ-cell cancer. Ann Oncol 1999;10:1475–1483.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    von Schlippe M, Fowler CJ, Harland SJ. Cisplatin neurotoxicity in the treatment of metastatic germ-cell tumour: time course and prognosis. Br J Cancer 2001;85:823–826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Fosså SD, de Wit R, Roberts T, et al. Quality of life in good prognosis patients with metastatic germ cell cancer: a prospective study of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Genitourinary Group/Medical Research Council Testicular Cancer Study Group (30941/TE20). J Clin Oncol 2003;21:1107–1118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hansen SW, Helweg-Larsen S, Trojaborg W. Long-term neurotoxicity in patients treated with cisplatin, vinblastine, and bleomycin for metastatic germ cell cancer. J Clin Oncol 1989;7:1457–1461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Osanto S, Bukman A, van Hoek F, et al. Long-term effects of chemotherapy in patients with testicular cancer. J Clin Oncol 1992;10:574–579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Stoter G, Koopman A, Vendrik CPJ, et al. Ten-year survival and late sequelae in testicular cancer patients treated with cisplatin, vinblastine and bleomycin. J Clin Oncol 1989;7:1099–1104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Skard Heier M, Aass N, Ous S, et al. Asymmetrical autonomic dysfunction of the feet after retroperitoneal surgery in patients with testicular cancer: 2 case reports. J Urol 1992;147:470–471.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    van Basten JP, Hoekstra HJ, van Driel MF, et al. Sexual dysfunction in nonseminoma testicular cancer patients is related to chemotherapy-induced angiopathy. J Clin Oncol 1997;15:2442–2448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hansen SW. Autonomic neuropathy after treatment with cisplatin, vinblastin, and bleomycin for germ cell cancer. Br Med J 1990;3000:511–512.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Koukourakis MI. Amifostine in clinical oncology: current use and future applications. Anti-Cancer Drugs 2002;13:181–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Fosså SD, Aass N, Winderen M, et al. Long-term renal function after treatment for malignant germ cell tumours. Ann Oncol 2002;13:222–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Huddart RA, Norman A, Shahidi M, et al. Cardiovascular disease as a long-term complication of treatment for testicular cancer. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:1513–1523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kollmannsberger C, Kuzcyk M, Mayer F, et al. Late toxicity following curative treatment of testicular cancer. Semin Surg Oncol 1999;17:275–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Rudberg L, Carlsson M, Nilsson S, et al. Self-perceived physical, psychologic, and general symptoms in survivors of testicular cancer 3 to 13 years after treatment. Cancer Nurs 2002;25:187–195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Fosså SD, Lehne G, Heimdal K, et al. Clinical and biochemical long-term toxicity after postoperative cisplatin-based chemotherapy in patients with low-stage testicular cancer. Oncology 1995;52:300–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Meinardi MT, Gietema JA, van der Graaf WTA, et al. Cardiovascular morbidity in long-term survivors of metastatic testicular cancer. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:1725–1732.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Raghavan D, Cox K, Childs A, et al. Hypercholesterolemia after chemotherapy for testis cancer. J Clin Oncol 1992;10:1386–1389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Nord C, Fosså SD, Egeland T. Excessive annual BMI increase after chemotherapy among young survivors of testicular cancer. Br J Cancer 2003;88:36–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Zagars GK, Ballo MT, Lee AK, Strom SS. Mortality after cure of testicular seminoma. J Clin Oncol 2004;22:640–647.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Fosså SD, Aass N, Harvei S, et al. Increased mortality rates in young and middle-aged patients with malignant germ cell tumours. Br J Cancer 2004;90:607–612.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Bamberg M, Schmidberger H, Meisner C, et al. Radiotherapy for stages I and IIA/B testicular seminoma. Int J Cancer 1999;83:823–827.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Yeoh E, Horowitz M, Russo A, et al. The effects of abdominal irradiation for seminoma of the testis on gastrointestinal function. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1995;10:125–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Haug TT, Mykletun A, Dahl AA. Are anxiety and depression related to gastrointestinal symptoms in the general population? Scand J Gastroenterol 2002;37:294–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Fosså SD, Aass N, Kaalhus O. Radiotherapy for testicular seminoma stage I: treatment results and long-term post-irradiation morbidity in 365 patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1989;16:383–388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Hamilton CR, Horwich A, Bliss JM, et al. Gastrointestinal morbidity of adjuvant radiotherapy in stage I malignant teratoma of the testis. Radiother Oncol 1987;10:85–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Hoff Wanderås E, Fosså SD, Tretl, S, Klepp O. Toxicity in long-term survivors after adriamycin containing chemotherapy of malignant germ cell tumours. Int J Oncol 1994;4:681–688.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Moul JW. Retroperitoneal fibrosis following radiotherapy for stage I testicular seminoma. J Urol 1992;147:124–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Stensvold E, Aass N, Gladhaug I, et al. Erroneous diagnosis of pancreatic cancer: a possible pitfall after radiotherapy of testicular cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol 2004;30:352–355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Winquist EW, Bauman GS, Balogh J. Nontraumatic osteonecrosis after chemotherapy for testicular cancer systematic review. Am J Clin Oncol 2001;24:603–606.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Fosså SD, Moynihan C, Serbouti S. Patients’ and doctors’ perception of long-term morbidity in patients with testicular cancer clinical stage I. A descriptive pilot study. Support Care Cancer 1996;4:118–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Schover LR, von Eschenbach AC. Sexual and marital relationships after treatment for nonseminomatous testicular cancer. Urology 1985;25:251–255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Rieker PP, Edbril SD, Garnick MB. Curative testis cancer therapy: psychosocial sequelae. J Clin Oncol 1985;3:1117–1126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Gritz ER, Wellisch DK, Wang H-J, et al. Long-term effects of testicular cancer on sexual functioning in married couples. Cancer (Phila) 1989;64:1560–1567.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Moynihan C. Testicular cancer: the psychosocial problems of patients and their relatives. Cancer Surv 1987;6:477–510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    van Basten JP, Jonker-Pool G, van Driel MF, et al. Fantasies and facts of the testes. Br J Urol 1996;78:756–762.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Arai Y, Kawakita M, Hida S, et al. Psychosocial aspects in long-term survivors of testicular cancer. J Urol 1996;155:574–578.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Blackmore C. The impact of orchiectomy upon the sexuality of the man with testicular cancer. Cancer Nurs 1988;11:33–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Caffo O, Amichetti M. Evaluation of sexual life after orchidectomy followed by radiotherapy for early stage seminoma of the testis. BJU Int 1999;83:462–468.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Fosså SD, Aass N, Kaalhus O. Testicular cancer in young Norwegians. J Surg Oncol 1988;39:43–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Fosså SD, Aass N, Ous S, et al. Long-term morbidity and quality of life in testicular cancer patients. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1991;138(suppl):241–246.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Douchez J, Droz JP, Desclaux B, et al. Quality of life in long-term survivors of nonseminomatous germ cell testicular tumors. J Urol 1993;149:498–501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Rudberg L, Nilsson S, Wikblad K. Health-related quality of life in survivors of testicular cancer 3 to 13 years after treatment. J Psychosoc Oncol 2000;18:19–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Joly F, Héron JF, Kalusinski L, et al. Quality of life in long-term survivors of testicular cancer: a population-based case-control study. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:73–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Mykletun A, Dahl AA, Haaland CF, et al. Side-effects and cancer-related stress determine quality of life on long-term survivors of testicular cancer. J Clin Oncol 2005;23(13):3061–3068.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Weissbach L, Bussar-Maatz R, Flechtner H, et al. RPLND or primary chemotherapy in clinical stage IIA/B non-seminomatous germ cell tumours. Eur Urol 2000;37:582–594.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Kaasa S, Aass N, Mastekaasa A, et al. Psychosocial well-being in testicular cancer patients. Eur J Cancer 1991;27:1091–1095.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Fosså SD, Dahl AA, Loge JH. Fatigue, anxiety, and depression in long-term survivors of testicular cancer. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:1249–1254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Jones GY, Payne S. Searching for safety signals: the experience of medical surveillance among men with testicular teratomas. Psycho-Oncology 2000;9:385–394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Ozen H, Sahin A, Toklu C, et al. Psychosocial adjustment after testicular cancer treatment. J Urol 1998;159:1947–1950.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Schagen SB, Muller MJ, Boogerd W, et al. Late effects of adjuvant chemotherapy on cognitive function: a follow-up study in breast cancer patients. Ann Oncol 2002;13:1387–1397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Nazareth I, Lewin J, King M. Sexual dysfunction after treatment for testicular cancer: a systematic review. J Psychosom Res 2001;51:735–743.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Jonker-Pool G, Van de Wiel HBM, Hoekstra HJ, et al. Sexual functioning after treatment for testicular cancer: review and meta-analysis of 36 empirical studies between 1975 and 2000. Arch Sex Behav 2001;30:55–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Aass N, Grünfeld B, Kaalhus O, et al. Pre-and posttreatment sexual life in testicular cancer patients: a descriptive investigation. Br J Cancer 1993;67:1113–1117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Tinkler SD, Howard GCW, Kerr GR. Sexual morbidity following radiotherapy for germ cell tumours of the testis. Radiat Oncol 1992;25:207–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Incrocci L, Hop WCJ, Wijnmaalen A, et al. Treatment outcome, body image, and sexual functioning after orchiectomy and radiotherapy for stage I–II testicular seminoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2002;53:1165–1173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Laumann EO, Paik A, Rosen RC. Sexual dysfunction in the United States. Prevalence and predictors. JAMA 1999;281:537–544.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Jonker-Pool G, van Basten JP, Hoekstra HJ, et al. Sexual functioning after treatment for testicular cancer. Cancer (Phila) 1997;80:454–464.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    van Basten JPA, van Driel HJ, Hoekstra D, et al. Objective and subjective effects of treatment for testicular cancer on sexual function. BJU Int 1999;84:671–678.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Schover LR, von Eschenbach AC. Sexual and marital counselling in men treated for testicular cancer. J Sex Marit Ther 1984;10:29–40.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Rieker PP, Fitzgerald EM, Kalish LA. Adaptive behavioral responses to potential infertility among survivors of testis cancer. J Clin Oncol 1990;8:347–355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Moynihan C, Bliss JM, Davidson J, et al. Evaluation of adjuvant psychosocial therapy in patients with testicular cancer: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 1998;316:429–435.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Gerl A, Schierl R. Urinary excretion of platinum in chemotherapy-treated long-term survivors of testicular cancer. Acta Oncol 2000;39:519–522.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Gelevert T, Messerschmidt J, Meinardi MT, et al. Adsorptive Voltametry to determine platinum levels in plasma from testicular cancer patients treated with cisplatin. Ther Drug Monit 2001;23:169–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sophie D. Fosså
    • 1
  • Lois B. Travis
    • 2
  • Alvin A. Dahl
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Long-Term Studies, National Hospital-Radium HospitalUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  2. 2.National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and GeneticsNational Cancer InstituteBethesdaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Clinical Cancer ResearchNational Hospital-Radium HospitalOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations