Advertisement

Medical and Psychosocial Issues in Transplant Survivors

  • Karen L. Syrjala
  • Paul Martin
  • Joachim Deeg
  • Michael Boeckh

Abstract

Survival rates for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) have improved with advances in supportive care that have reduced acute, transplant-related mortality. More than 40,000 transplants were performed worldwide in 2002, mostly for the treatment of leukemia, lymphoma, or multiple myeloma.1 The probability of successful transplantation is generally greater for patients transplanted early in their disease course, for younger patients, and for patients who receive stem cells from donors whose human leukocyte antigens (HLA) match the patient’s. For survivors who receive HCT for acute leukemia or chronic myeloid leukemia and who remain free of disease after 2 years, the probability of living 5 or more years is 89%.2

Keywords

Human Leukocyte Antigen Bone Marrow Transplantation Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Total Body Irradiation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Loberiza F. Report on state of the art in blood and marrow transplantation: part I of the IBMTR/ABMTR summary slides with guide. IBMTR/ABMTR Newsl 2003;10:7–10.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Socie G, Stone JV, Wingard JR, et al. Long-term survival and late deaths after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: late effects working committee of the International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry. N Engl J Med 1999;341:14–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sullivan KM. Graft-versus-host disease. In: Thomas ED, Blume KG, Forman SJ (eds). Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, 2nd ed. Boston: Blackwell Science, 1999:515–536.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Vogelsang GB. How I treat chronic graft-versus-host disease. Blood 2001;97:1196–1201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lee SJ, Vogelsang G, Flowers MED. Chronic graft-versus-host disease. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2003;9:215–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cutler C, Giri S, Jeyapalan S, et al. Acute and chronic graftversus-host disease after allogeneic peripheral-blood stem-cell and bone marrow transplantation: a meta-analysis. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:3685–3691.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Flowers MED, Parker PM, Johnston LJ, et al. Comparison of chronic graft-versus-host disease after transplantation of peripheral blood stem cells versus bone marrow in allogeneic recipients: long-term follow-up of a randomized trial. Blood 2002;100:415–419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Storb R, Doney KC, Thomas ED, et al. Marrow transplantation with or without donor buffy coat cells for 65 transfused aplastic anemia patients. Blood 1982;59:236–246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zaucha JM, Gooley T, Bensinger WI, et al. CD34 cell dose in granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cell grafts affects engraftment kinetics and development of extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease after human leukocyte antigen-identical sibling transplantation. Blood 2001;98:3221–3227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Przepiorka D, Anderlini P, Saliba R, et al. Chronic graft-versushost disease after allogeneic blood stem cell transplantation. Blood 2001;98:1695–1700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mitsuyasu RT, Champlin RE, Gale RP, et al. Treatment of donor bone marrow with monoclonal anti-T-cell antibody and complement for the prevention of graft-versus-host disease. Ann Intern Med 1986;105:20–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Marmont AM, Horowitz MM, Gale RP, et al. T-cell depletion of HLA-identical transplants in leukemia. Blood 1991;78:2120–2130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Champlin RE, Passweg JR, Zhang MJ, et al. T-cell depletion of bone marrow transplants for leukemia from donors other than HLA-identical siblings: advantage of T-cell antibodies with narrow specificities. Blood 2000;95:3996–4003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wagner JE, Thompson JS, Carter S, et al. Impact of graft-versushost disease (GVHD) prophylaxis on 3-year disease-free survival (DFS): results of a multi-center, randomized phase II-III trial comparing T cell depletion/cyclosporine (TCD) and methotrexate/ cyclosporine (M/C) in 410 recipients of unrelated donor bone marrow (BM). Blood 2002;100:75a–76a.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bacigalupo A, Lamparelli T, Bruzzi P, et al. Antithymocyte globulin for graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis in transplants from unrelated donors: 2 randomized studies from Gruppo Italiano Trapianti Midollo Osseo (GITMO). Blood 2001;98:2942–2947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Storb R, Pepe M, Anasetti C, et al. What role for prednisone in prevention of acute graft-versus-host disease in patients undergoing marrow transplants? Blood 1990;76:1037–1045.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Deeg HJ, Lin D, Leisenring W, et al. Cyclosporine or cyclosporine plus methylprednisolone for prophylaxis of graft-versus-host disease: a prospective, randomized trial. Blood 1997;89:3880–3887.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chao NJ, Snyder DS, Jain M, et al. Equivalence of 2 effective graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis regimens: results of a prospective double-blind randomized trial. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2000;6:254–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ruutu T, Volin L, Parkkali T, et al. Cyclosporine, methotrexate, and methylprednisolone compared with cyclosporine and methotrexate for the prevention of graft-versus-host disease in bone marrow transplantation from HLA-identical sibling donor: a prospective randomized study. Blood 2000;96:2391–2398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Storb R, Leisenring W, Anasetti C, et al. Methotrexate and cyclosporine for graft-vs.-host disease prevention: what length of therapy with cyclosporine? Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 1997;3:194–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kansu E, Gooley T, Flowers MED, et al. Administration of cyclosporine for 24 months compared with 6 months for prevention of chronic graft-versus-host disease: a prospective randomized clinical trial [brief report]. Blood 2001;98:3868–3870.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mengarelli A, Iori AP, Romano A, et al. One-year cyclosporine prophylaxis reduces the risk of developing extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Haematologica 2003;88:315–323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chao NJ, Parker PM, Niland JC, et al. Paradoxical effect of thalidomide prophylaxis on chronic graft-vs.-host disease. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 1996;2:86–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sullivan KM, Witherspoon RP, Storb R, et al. Prednisone and azathioprine compared with prednisone and placebo for treatment of chronic graft-versus-host disease: prognostic influence of prolonged thrombocytopenia after allogeneic marrow transplantation. Blood 1988;72:546–554.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sullivan KM, Witherspoon RP, Storb R, et al. Alternating-day cyclosporine and prednisone for treatment of high-risk chronic graft-versus-host disease. Blood 1988;72:555–561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Koc S, Leisenring W, Flowers MED, et al. Therapy for chronic graft-versus-host disease: a randomized trial comparing cyclosporine plus prednisone versus prednisone alone. Blood 2002;100:48–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Arora M, Wagner JE, Davies SM, et al. Randomized clinical trial of thalidomide, cyclosporine, and prednisone versus cyclosporine and prednisone as initial therapy for chronic graftversus-host disease. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2001;7:265–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Koc S, Leisenring W, Flowers MED, et al. Thalidomide for treatment of patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease. Blood 2000;96:3995–3996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Storek J, Dawson MA, Storer B, et al. Immune reconstitution after allogeneic marrow transplantation compared with blood stem cell transplantation. Blood 2001;97:3380–3389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Winston DJ, Schiffman G, Wang DC, et al. Pneumococcal infections after human bone marrow transplantation. Ann Intern Med 1979;91:835–841.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Witherspoon RP, Storb R, Ochs HD, et al. Recovery of antibody production in human allogeneic marrow graft recipients: influence of time posttransplantation, the presence or absence of chronic graft-versus-host disease, and antithymocyte globulin treatment. Blood 1981;58:360–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Storek J, Viganego F, Dawson MA, et al. Factors affecting antibody levels after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Blood 2003;101:3319–3324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Singhal S, Mehta J. Reimmunization after blood or marrow stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 1999;23:637–646.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Infectious Disease Society of America, American Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Guidelines for preventing opportunistic infections among hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. MMWR (Morbid Mort Wkly Rep) 2000;49:1–125.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    D’Antonio D, Di Bartolomeo P, Iacone A, et al. Meningitis due to penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease. Bone Marrow Transplant 1992;9:299–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Locksley RM, Flournoy N, Sullivan KM, et al. Infection with varicella-zoster virus infection after marrow transplantation. J Infect Dis 1985;152:1172–1181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Han CS, Miller W, Haake R, et al. Varicella zoster infection after bone marrow transplantation: incidence, risk factors and complications. Bone Marrow Transplant 1994;13:277–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Koc Y, Miller KB, Schenkein DP, et al. Varicella zoster virus infections following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: frequency, risk factors, and clinical outcome. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2000;6:44–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bilgrami S, Chakraborty NG, Rodriguez-Pinero F, et al. Varicella zoster virus infection associated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem-cell rescue. Bone Marrow Transplant 1999;23:469–474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Schuchter LM, Wingard JR, Piantadosi S, et al. Herpes zoster infection after autologous bone marrow transplantation. Blood 1989;74:1424–1427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bowden RA, Roger KS, Meyers JD. Oral acyclovir for the long-term suppression of varicella zoster virus infection after marrow transplantation. In: 29th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1989, p 62.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ljungman P, Wilczek H, Gahrton G, et al. Long-term acyclovir prophylaxis in bone marrow transplant recipients and lymphocyte proliferation responses to herpes virus antigens in vitro. Bone Marrow Transplant 1986;1:185–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Boeckh M, Gooley TA, Myerson D, et al. Cytomegalovirus pp65 antigenemia-guided early treatment with ganciclovir versus ganciclovir at engraftment after allogeneic marrow transplantation: a randomized double-blind study. Blood 1996;88:4063–4071.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Krause H, Hebart H, Jahn G, et al. Screening for CMV-specific T cell proliferation to identify patients at risk of developing late onset CMV disease. Bone Marrow Transplant 1997;19:1111–1116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Zaia JA, Gallez-Hawkins GM, Tegtmeier BR, et al. Late cytomegalovirus disease in marrow transplantation is predicted by virus load in plasma. J Infect Dis 1997;176:782–785.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Boeckh M, Leisenring W, Riddell SR, et al. Late cytomegalovirus disease and mortality in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants: importance of viral load and T-cell immunity. Blood 2003;101:407–414.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Crippa F, Corey L, Chuang EL, et al. Virological, clinical, and ophthalmologic features of cytomegalovirus retinitis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Clin Infect Dis 2001;32:214–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Peggs KS, Preiser W, Kottaridis PD, et al. Extended routine polymerase chain reaction surveillance and pre-emptive antiviral therapy for cytomegalovirus after allogeneic transplantation. Br J Haematol 2000;111:782–790.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Marr KA, Carter RA, Boeckh M, et al. Invasive aspergillosis in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients: changes in epidemiology and risk factors. Blood 2002;100:4358–4366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Fukuda T, Boeckh M, Carter RA, et al. Risks and outcomes of invasive fungal infections in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants after nonmyeloablative conditioning. Blood 2003;102:827–833.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Marr KA, Seidel K, Slavin M, et al. Prolonged fluconazole prophylaxis is associated with persistent protection against candidiasis-related death in allogeneic marrow transplant recipients: long-term follow-up of a randomized, placebocontrolled trial. Blood 2000;96:2055–2061.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Souza JP, Boeckh M, Gooley TA, et al. High rates of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in allogeneic blood and marrow transplant recipients receiving dapsone prophylaxis. Clin Infect Dis 1999;29:1467–1471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Tuan I-Z, Dennison D, Weisdorf DJ. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis following bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 1992;10:267–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Chen C-S, Boeckh M, Seidel K, et al. Incidence, risk factors and mortality from pneumonia developing late after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 2003;32:515–522.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Vasconcelles MJ, Bernardo MV, King C, et al. Aerosolized pentamidine as pneumocystis prophylaxis after bone marrow transplantation is inferior to other regimens and is associated with decreased survival and an increased risk of other infections. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2000;6:35–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Colby C, McAfee S, Sackstein R, et al. A prospective randomized trial comparing the toxicity and safety of atovaquone with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia prophylaxis following autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 1999;24:897–902.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gagnon S, Boota AM, Fischl MA, et al. Corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy for severe Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. N Engl J Med 1990;323:1444–1450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Smego RA Jr, Nagar S, Maloba B, et al. A meta-analysis of salvage therapy for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Arch Intern Med 2001;161:1529–1533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kantrow SP, Hackman RC, Boeckh M, et al. Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome: changing spectrum of lung injury after marrow transplantation. Transplantation 1997;63:1079–1086.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Crawford SW, Pepe M, Lin D, et al. Abnormalities of pulmonary function tests after marrow transplantation predict nonrelapse mortality. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995;152:690–695.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Crawford SW. Respiratory infections following organ transplantation. Curr Opin Pulmonary Med 1995;1:209–215.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Clark JG, Schwartz DA, Flournoy N, et al. Risk factors for airflow obstruction in recipients of bone marrow transplants. Ann Intern Med 1987;107:648–656.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Chien JW, Martin PJ, Gooley TA, et al. Airflow obstruction after myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003;168:208–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Boas SR, Noyes BE, Kurland G, et al. Pediatric lung transplantation for graft-versus-host disease following bone marrow transplantation. Chest 1994;105:1584–1586.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Spray TL, Mallory GB, Canter CB, Huddleston CB. Pediatric lung transplantation. Indications, techniques, and early results. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1994;107:990–999; discussion 999–1000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Sullivan KM, Mori M, Witherspoon R, et al. Alternating-day cyclosporine and prednisone (CSP/PRED) treatment of chronic graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD): Predictors of survival. Blood 1990;76(suppl 1):568a.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Philit F, Wiesendanger T, Archimbaud E, et al. Post-transplant obstructive lung disease (“bronchiolitis obliterans”): a clinical comparative study of bone marrow and lung transplant patients. Eur Resp J 1995;8:551–558Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Sullivan KM, Storek J, Kopecky KJ, et al. A controlled trial of long-term administration of intravenous immunoglobulin to prevent late infection and chronic graft-vs.-host disease after marrow transplantation: clinical outcome and effect on subsequent immune recovery. Biol Blood and Marrow Transplant 1996;2:44–53.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Freudenberger TD, Madtes DK, Curtis JR, et al. Association between acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease and bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplants. Blood 2003;102:3822–3828.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Palmas A, Tefferi A, Myers JL, et al. Late-onset noninfectious pulmonary complications after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Br J Haematol 1998;100:680–687.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Stern JM, Sullivan KM, Ott SM, et al. Bone density loss after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a prospective study. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2001;7:257–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Castelo-Branco C, Rovira M, Pons F, et al. The effect of hormone replacement therapy on bone mass in patients with ovarian failure due to bone marrow transplantation. Maturitas 1996;23:307–312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Rossouw JE, Anderson GL, Prentice RL, et al. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women. JAMA 2002;288:321–333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Lindsay R, Gallagher JC, Kleerekoper M, et al. Effect of lower doses of conjugated equine estrogens with and without medroxyprogesterone acetate on bone in early postmenopausal women. JAMA 2002;287:2668–2676.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Fink JC, Leisenring WM, Sullivan KM, et al. Avascular necrosis following bone marrow transplantation: a case-control study. Bone (NY) 1998;22:67–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Socié G, Cahn JY, Carmelo J, et al. Avascular necrosis of bone after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: analysis of risk factors for 4,388 patients by the Societe Francaise de Greffe de Moelle (SFGM). Br J Haematol 1997;97:865–870.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Fletcher BD, Crom DB, Krance RA, et al. Radiation-induced bone abnormalities after bone marrow transplantation for childhood leukemia. Radiology 1994;191:231–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Fink JC, Leisenring WM, Sullivan KM, et al. Avascular necrosis following bone marrow transplantation: a case-control study. Bone (NY) 1998;22:67–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Toubert ME, Socié G, Gluckman E, et al. Short-and long-term follow-up of thyroid dysfunction after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation without the use of preparative total body irradiation. Br J Haematol 1997;98:453–457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Thomas BC, Stanhope R, Plowman PN, et al. Endocrine function following single fraction and fractionated total body irradiation for bone marrow transplantation in childhood. Acta Endocrinol 1993;128:508–512.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Boulad F, Bromley M, Black P, et al. Thyroid dysfunction following bone marrow transplantation using hyperfractionated radiation. Bone Marrow Transplant 1995;15:71–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Neglia JP, Nesbit ME, Jr. Care and treatment of long-term survivors of childhood cancer [review]. Cancer (Phila) 1993;71:3386–3391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Sanders JE. Growth and development after hematopoietic cell transplantation. In: Blume KG, Forman SJ, Appelbaum FR (eds). Thomas’ Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell, 2004:929–943.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Sierra J, Bjerke J, Hansen J, et al. Marrow transplants from unrelated donors as treatment for acute leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma 2000;39:495–507.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kubota C, Shinohara O, Hinohara T, et al. Changes in hypothalamic-pituitary function following bone marrow transplantation in children. Acta Paediatr Jpn 1994;36:37–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Brauner R, Adan L, Souberbielle JC, et al. Contribution of growth hormone deficiency to the growth failure that follows bone marrow transplantation. J Pediatr 1997;130:785–792.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Clement-De Boers A, Oostdijk W, Van Weel-Sipman MH, et al. Final height and hormonal function after bone marrow transplantation in children. J Pediatr 1996;129:544–550.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Cohen A, Rovelli A, Bakker B, et al. Final height of patients who underwent bone marrow transplantation for hematological disorders during childhood: a study by the Working Party for Late Effects-EBMT. Blood 1999;93:4109–4115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Sanders JE, Hawley J, Levy W, et al. Pregnancies following highdose cyclophosphamide with or without high-dose busulfan or total-body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation. Blood 1996;87:3045–3052.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Salooja N, Szydlo RM, Socie G, et al. Pregnancy outcomes after peripheral blood or bone marrow transplantation: a retrospective survey. Lancet 2001;358:271–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Syrjala KL, Roth-Roemer SL, Abrams JR, et al. Prevalence and predictors of sexual dysfunction in long-term survivors of marrow transplantation. J Clin Oncol 1998;16:3148–3157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Spinelli S, Chiodi S, Bacigalupo A, et al. Ovarian recovery after total body irradiation and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: long-term follow up of 79 females. Bone Marrow Transplant 1994;14:373–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Balleari E, Garre S, van Lint MT, et al. Hormone replacement therapy and chronic graft-versus-host disease activity in women treated with bone marrow transplantation for hematologic malignancies. Ann NY Acad Sciences 2002;966:187–192.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Swerdlow AJ, Higgins CD, Adlard P, et al. Risk of cancer in patients treated with human pituitary growth hormone in the UK, 1959-85: a cohort study. Lancet 2002;360:273–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Benyunes MC, Sullivan KM, Deeg HJ, et al. Cataracts after bone marrow transplantation: long-term follow-up of adults treated with fractionated total body irradiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1995;32:661–670.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Socie G, Clift RA, Blaise D, et al. Busulfan plus cyclophosphamide compared with total-body irradiation plus cyclophosphamide before marrow transplantation for myeloid leukemia: long-term follow-up of 4 randomized studies. Blood 2001;98:3569–3574.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Tichelli A, Duell T, Weiss M, et al. Late-onset keratoconjunctivitis sicca syndrome after bone marrow transplantation: incidence and risk factors. European Group on Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) Working Party on Late Effects. Bone Marrow Transplant 1996;17:1105–1111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Strasser SI, Sullivan KM, Myerson D, et al. Cirrhosis of the liver in long-term marrow transplant survivors. Blood 1999;93:3259–3266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Shepherd JD, Gascoyne RD, Barnett MJ, et al. Polyclonal Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorder following autografting for chronic myeloid leukemia. Bone Marrow Transplant 1995;15:639–641.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    O’Reilly RJ, Lacerda JF, Lucas KG, et al. Adoptive cell therapy with donor lymphocytes for EBV-associated lymphomas developing after allogeneic marrow transplants. In: DeVita VT, Jr., Hellman S, Rosenberg SA (eds). Important Advances in Oncology. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1996:149–166.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Curtis RE, Travis LB, Rowlings PA, et al. Risk of lymphoproliferative disorders after bone marrow transplantation: a multiinstitutional study. Blood 1999;94:2208–2216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Hanson MN, Morrison VA, Peterson BA, et al. Posttransplant Tcell lymphoproliferative disorders-an aggressive, late complication of solid-organ transplantation. Blood 1996;88:3626–3633.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Deeg HJ, Socié G. Malignancies after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: many questions, some answers. Blood 1998;91:1833–1844.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Meignin V, Devergie A, Brice P, et al. Hodgkin’s disease of donor origin after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for myelogenous chronic luekiemia [review]. Transplantation 1998;65:595–597.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Schouten HC, Hopman AH, Haesevoets AM, et al. Large-cell anaplastic non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma originating in donor cells after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Br J Haematol 1995;91:162–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Travis LB, Curtis RE, Stovall M, et al. Risk of leukemia following treatment for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 1994;86:1450–1457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Chao NJ, Nademanee AP, Long GD, et al. Importance of bone marrow cytogenetic evaluation before autologous bone marrow transplantation for Hodgkin’s disease. J Clin Oncol 1991;9:1575–1579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Stone RM. Myelodysplastic syndrome after autologous transplantation for lymphoma: the price of progress? Blood 1994;83:3437–3440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Metayer C, Curtis RE, Vose J, et al. Myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia after autotransplantation for lymphoma: a multicenter case-control study. Blood 2003;101:2015–2023.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Curtis RE, Rowlings PA, Deeg HJ, et al. Solid cancers after bone marrow transplantation. N Engl J Med 1997;336:897–904.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Murdych T, Weisdorf DJ. Serious cardiac complications during bone marrow transplantation at the University of Minnesota, 1977-1997. Bone Marrow Transplant 2001;28:283–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Ramrakha PS, Marks DI, O’Brien SG, et al. Orthotopic cardiac transplantation for dilated cardiomyopathy after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Clin Transplant 1994;8:23–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Kakavas PW, Ghalie R, Parrillo JE, et al. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in bone marrow transplant recipients with depressed left ventricular function. Bone Marrow Transplant 1995;15:859–861.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Hochster H, Wasserheit C, Speyer J. Cardiotoxicity and cardioprotection during chemotherapy [review]. Curr Opin Oncol 1995;7:304–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Bush NE, Donaldson GW, Haberman MH, et al. Conditional and unconditional estimation of multidimensional quality of life after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a longitudinal follow-up of 415 patients. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2000;6:576–591.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Wingard JR, Curbow B, Baker F, et al. Health, functional status, and employment of adult survivors of bone marrow transplantation. Ann Intern Med 1991;114:113–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Broers S, Kaptein AA, Cessie SL, et al. Psychological functioning and quality of life following bone marrow transplantation: a 3-year follow-up study. J Psychosom Res 2000;48:11–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Lee SJ, Fairclough D, Parsons SK, et al. Recovery after stem-cell transplantation for hematologic diseases. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:242–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Syrjala KL, Chapko MK, Vitaliano PP, et al. Recovery after allogeneic marrow transplantation: prospective study of predictors of long-term physical and psychosocial functioning. Bone Marrow Transplant 1993:11:319–327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Zittoun R, Suciu S, Watson M, et al. Quality of life in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia in prolonged first complete remission after bone marrow transplantation [allogeneic or autologous] or chemotherapy: a cross-sectional study of the EORTC-GIMEMA AML 8 A trial. Bone Marrow Transplant 1997;20:307–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Andrykowski MA, Bruehl S, Brady MJ, et al. Physical and psychosocial status of adults one year after bone marrow transplantation: a prospective study. Bone Marrow Transplant 1995;15:837–844.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Brezden CB, Phillips KA, Abdolell M, et al. Cognitive function in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:2695–2701.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Chiodi S, Spinelli S, Ravera G, et al. Quality of life in 244 recipients of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Br J Haematol 2000;110:614–619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Duell T, van Lint MT, Ljungman P, et al. Health and functional status of long-term survivors of bone marrow transplantation. Ann Intern Med 1997;126:184–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Heinonen H, Volin L, Uutela A, et al. Quality of life and factors related to perceived satisfaction with quality of life after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Ann Hematol 2001;80:137–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Prieto JM, Saez R, Carreras E, et al. Physical and psychosocial functioning of 117 survivors of bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 1996;17:1133–1142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Syrjala KL, Langer SL, Abrams JR, et al. Recovery and long-term function after hematopoietic cell transplantation for leukemia or lymphoma. JAMA 2004;291(19):2335–2343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Bush NE, Haberman M, Donaldson G, et al. Quality of life of 125 adults surviving 6-18 years after bone marrow transplantation. Soc Sci Med 1995;40:479–490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Kiss TL, Abdolell M, Jamal N, et al. Long-term medical outcomes and quality of life assessment of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia followed at least 10 years after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:2334–2343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Hensel M, Egerer G, Schneeweiss A, et al. Quality of life and rehabilitation in social and professional life after autologous stem cell transplantation. Ann Oncol 2002;13:209–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Sanders JE, Syrjala KL, Hoffmeister PA, et al. Quality of life (QOL) of adult survivors of childhood leukemia treated with chemotherapy (CT) or bone marrow transplant (BMT). Blood 2001;98:741a.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Felder-Puig R, Peters C, Matthes-Martin S, et al. Psychosocial adjustment of pediatric patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 1999;24:75–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Badell I, Igual L, Gomez P, et al. Quality of life in young adults having received a BMT during childhood: a GETMON study. Bone Marrow Transplant 1998;21(suppl 2):S68–S71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Schmidt GM, Niland JC, Forman SJ, et al. Extended follow-up in 212 long-term allogeneic bone marrow transplant survivors. Transplantation 1993;55:551–557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Andrykowski MA, Carpenter JS, Greiner CB, et al. Energy level and sleep quality following bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 1997;20:669–679.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Hann DM, Jacobsen PB, Martin SC, et al. Fatigue in women treated with bone marrow transplantation for breast cancer: a comparison with women with no history of cancer. Support Care Cancer 1997;5:44–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    McQuellon RP, Russell GB, Rambo TD, et al. Quality of life and psychological distress of bone marrow transplant recipients: the “time trajectory” to recovery over the first year. Bone Marrow Transplant 1998;21:477–486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Knobel H, Loge JH, Nordøy T, et al. High level of fatigue in lymphoma patients treated with high dose therapy. J Pain Symptom Manag 2000;19:446–456.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Baron F, Sautois B, Baudoux E, et al. Optimization of recombinant human erythropoietin therapy after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Exp Hematol 2002;30:546–554.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Dimeo FC, Stieglitz RD, Novelli-Fischer U, et al. Effects of physical activity on the fatigue and psychologic status of cancer patients during chemotherapy. Cancer (Phila) 1999;85:2273–2277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Gaston-Johansson F, Fall-Dickson JM, Nanda J, et al. The effectiveness of the comprehensive coping strategy program on clinical outcomes in breast cancer autologous bone marrow transplantation. Cancer Nurs 2000;23:277–285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Jager HR, Williams EJ, Savage DG, et al. Assessment of brain changes with registered MR before and after bone marrow transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia. Am J Neurorad 1996;17:1275–1282.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Provenzale JM, Graham ML. Reversible leukoencephalopathy associated with graft-versus-host disease: MR findings. Am J Neurorad 1996;17:1290–1294.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Openshaw H, Slatkin NE, Smith E. Eye movement disorders in bone marrow transplant patients on cyclosporin and ganciclovir. Bone Marrow Transplant 1997;19:503–505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Shah AK. Cyclosporine A neurotoxicity among bone marrow transplant recipients [review]. Clin Neuropharmacol 1999;22:67–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Padovan CS, Yousry TA, Schleuning M, et al. Neurological and neuroradiological findings in long-term survivors of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Ann Neurol 1998;43:627–633.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Andrykowski MA, Schmitt FA, Gregg ME, et al. Neuropsychologic impairment in adult bone marrow transplant candidates. Cancer (Phila) 1992;70:2288–2297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Meyers CA, Weitzner M, Byrne K, et al. Evaluation of the neurobehavioral functioning of patients before, during, and after bone marrow transplantation. J Clin Oncol 1994;12:820–826.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Syrjala KL, Dikmen S, Roth-Roemer S. Neuropsychological changes from pretransplant to one year in patients receiving myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant. Blood 2004;104:3386–3392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    van Dam FS, Schagen SB, Muller MJ, et al. Impairment of cognitive function in women receiving adjuvant treatment for high-risk breast cancer: high-dose versus standard-dose chemotherapy. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998;90:210–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Harder H, Cornelissen JJ, Van Gool AR, et al. Cognitive functioning and quality of life in long-term adult survivors of bone marrow transplantation. Cancer (Phila) 2002;95:183–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Saykin A, Ahles T, McDonald BC. Mechanisms of chemotherapy-induced cognitive disorders: neuropsychological, pathophysiological, and neuroimaging perspectives. Semin Clin Neuropsychol 2003;8:201–216.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Andrykowski MA, Altmaier EM, Barnett RL, et al. Cognitive dysfunction in adult survivors of allogeneic marrow transplantation: relationship to dose of total body irradiation. Bone Marrow Transplant 1990;6:269–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Peper M, Steinvorth S, Schraube P, et al. Neurobehavioral toxicity of total body irradiation: a follow-up in long-term survivors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2000;46:303–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Wenz F, Steinvorth S, Lohr F, et al. Prospective evaluation of delayed central nervous system [CNS] toxicity of hyperfractionated total body irradiation [TBI]. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2000;48:1497–1501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Fann JR, Roth-Roemer S, Burington BE, et al. Delirium in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Cancer (Phila) 2002;95:1971–1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Phipps S, Dunavant M, Srivastava DK, et al. Cognitive and academic functioning in survivors of pediatric bone marrow transplantation. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:1004–1011.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Arvidson J, Kihlgren M, Hall C, et al. Neuropsychological functioning after treatment for hematological malignancies in childhood, including autologous bone marrow transplantation. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1999;16:9–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Kramer JH, Crittenden MR, DeSantes K, et al. Cognitive and adaptive behavior 1 and 3 years following bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 1997;19:607–613.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Simms S, Kazak AE, Gannon T, et al. Neuropsychological outcome of children undergoing bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 1998;22:181–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Howell SJ, Radford JA, Smets EM, et al. Fatigue, sexual function and mood following treatment for haematological malignancy: the impact of mild Leydig cell dysfunction. Br J Can 2000;82:789–793.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Schimmer AD, Ali V, Stewart AK, et al. Male sexual function after autologous blood or marrow transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2001;7:279–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Wingard JR, Curbow B, Baker F, et al. Sexual satisfaction in survivors of bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 1992;9:185–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Molassiotis A, van den Akker OB, Milligan DW, et al. Gonadal function and psychosexual adjustment in male long-term survivors of bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 1995;16:253–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Watson M, Wheatley K, Harrison GA, et al. Severe adverse impact on sexual functioning and fertility of bone marrow transplantation, either allogeneic or autologous, compared with consolidation chemotherapy alone: analysis of the MRC AML 10 trial. Cancer (Phila) 1999;86:1231–1239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Syrjala KL, Schroeder TC, Abrams JR, et al. Sexual function measurement and outcomes in cancer survivors and matched controls. J Sex Res 2000;37:213–225.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Schubert MA, Sullivan KM, Schubert MM, et al. Gynecological abnormalities following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 1990;5:425–430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Syrjala KL, Powell-Emsbo S, Garrett K, et al. Focus Forward: Recovery Tips and Tools for Transplant Recipients and Caregivers. Seattle: Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 2002.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Chatterjee R, Kottaridis PD, McGarrigle HH, et al. Management of erectile dysfunction by combination therapy with testosterone and sildenafil in recipients of high-dose therapy for haematological malignancies. Bone Marrow Transplant 2002;29:607–610.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Kauppila M, Viikari J, Irjala K, et al. The hypothalamuspituitary-gonad axis and testicular function in male patients after treatment for haematological malignancies. J Intern Med 1998;244:411–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Loberiza FR Jr, Rizzo JD, Bredeson CN, et al. Association of depressive syndrome and early deaths among patients after stem-cell transplantation for malignant disease. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:2118–2126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Molassiotis A, van den Akker OB, Milligan DW, et al. Symptom distress, coping style and biological variables as predictors of survival after bone marrow transplantation. J Psychosom Res 1997;42:275–285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Fife BL, Huster GA, Cornetta KG, et al. Longitudinal study of adaptation to the stress of bone marrow transplantation. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:1539–1549.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Phipps S, Dunavant M, Garvie PA, et al. Acute health-related quality of life in children undergoing stem cell transplant: I. Descriptive outcomes. Bone Marrow Transplant 2002;29:425–434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Mielcarek M, Martin PJ, Leisenring W, et al. Graft-versus-host disease after nonmyeloablative versus conventional hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Blood 2002;100:175a.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Foxall M, Gaston-Johansson F. Burden and health outcomes of family caregivers of hospitalized bone marrow transplant patients. J Adv Nurs 1996;24:915–923.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Zabora JR, Smith ED, Baker F, et al. The family: the other side of bone marrow transplantation. J Psychosoc Oncol 1992;10:35–46.Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Manne S, DuHamel K, Nereo N, et al. Predictors of PTSD in mothers of children undergoing bone marrow transplantation: the role of cognitive and social processes. J Pediatr Psychol 2002;27:607–617.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Langer SL, Abrams JR, Syrjala KL. Caregiver and patient marital satisfaction and affect following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a prospective, longitudinal investigation. Psycho-Oncology 2003;12:239–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Deeg HJ, Lin D, Leisenring W, et al. Cyclosporine or cyclosporine plus methylprednisolone for prophylaxis of graft-versus-host disease: a prospective, randomized trial. Blood 1997;89:3880–3887.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Ruutu T, Volin L, Parkkali T, et al. Cyclosporine, methotrexate, and methylprednisolone compared with cyclosporine and methotrexate for the prevention of graft-versus-host disease in bone marrow transplantation from HLA-identical sibling donor: a prospective randomized study. Blood 2000;96:2391–2398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Leung W, Hudson M, Zhu Y, et al. Late effects in survivors of infant leukemia. Leukemia 2000;14:1185–1190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Thomas BC, Stanhope R, Plowman PN, et al. Growth following single fraction and fractionated total body irradiation for bone marrow transplantation. Eur J Pediatr 1993;152:888–892.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Sanders JE, and the Seattle Marrow Transplant Team. The impact of marrow transplant preparative regimens on subsequent growth and development. Semin Hematol 1991;28:244–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Chatterjee R, Andrews HO, McGarrigle HH, et al. Cavernosal arterial insufficiency is a major component of erectile dysfunction in some recipients of high-dose chemotherapy/chemoradiotherapy for haematological malignancies. Bone Marrow Transplant 2000;25:1185–1189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Mumma GH, Mashberg D, Lesko LM. Long-term psychosexual adjustment of acute leukemia survivors: impact of marrow transplantation versus conventional chemotherapy. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 1992;14(1):43–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karen L. Syrjala
    • 1
    • 2
  • Paul Martin
    • 1
    • 3
  • Joachim Deeg
    • 1
    • 2
  • Michael Boeckh
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Clinical Research DivisionFred Hutchinson Cancer Research CenterUSA
  2. 2.University of Washington School of MedicineSeattleUSA
  3. 3.Department of MedicineUniversity of Washington School of MedicineSeattleUSA
  4. 4.Program in Infectious DiseasesFred Hutchinson Cancer Research CenterUSA

Personalised recommendations