Medical Evacuation and Vehicles for Transport

  • Smith L. Johnston
  • Brian A. Arenare
  • Kieran T. Smart

This chapter will examine key aspects of present-dayterrestrial and spaceflight medical transport and evacuation, enumerate current challenges, and suggest possible solutions for future spaceflight activities [3–5]. We will discuss present and future standards of care on the ISS, and current vehicles including the Russian Soyuz and the U.S. Space Shuttle. We will also address programs such as the NASA-JSC X-38, and the Orbital Space Plane (OSP) [6–9]. These concepts are applicable to the development of future platforms such as the CEV (Crew Exploration Vehicle). Topics addressed will include:

  1. 1.

    Likelihood and types of spaceflight medical events requiring evacuation [10]

  2. 2.

    Standards of spaceflight medical care and projected capabilities for LEO space stations, lunar exploration, and inter-planetary missions [11]

  3. 3.

    Physiological de-conditioning of astronauts returning from long duration microgravity exposure

  4. 4.

    Psychological aspects of crew performance in medical emergencies after long duration space flight

  5. 5.

    Inherent risks associated with spaceflight medical evacuation due to the microgravity environment and the dynamics of reentry and landing [12,13]

  6. 6.

    Medical requirements and capabilities of an LEO transport and return vehicle [14,15]

  7. 7.

    Human factors for crew work stations in vehicles such as the crew return vehicle (CRV)

  8. 8.

    Ethical issues and medical standards for evacuation from LEO and other space environments where return to definitive medical care is delayed or impossible (such as a Mars surface station).



Space Flight Medical Evacuation Medical Capability NASA Johnson Space Return Vehicle 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Smith L. Johnston
    • 1
  • Brian A. Arenare
    • 2
  • Kieran T. Smart
    • 3
  1. 1.NASA Johnson Space CenterHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Kelsey-Seybold ClinicNASA Johnson Space CenterHoustonUSA
  3. 3.Wyle LaboratoriesHoustonUSA

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