Advertisement

Medical Evacuation and Vehicles for Transport

  • Smith L. Johnston
  • Brian A. Arenare
  • Kieran T. Smart

This chapter will examine key aspects of present-dayterrestrial and spaceflight medical transport and evacuation, enumerate current challenges, and suggest possible solutions for future spaceflight activities [3–5]. We will discuss present and future standards of care on the ISS, and current vehicles including the Russian Soyuz and the U.S. Space Shuttle. We will also address programs such as the NASA-JSC X-38, and the Orbital Space Plane (OSP) [6–9]. These concepts are applicable to the development of future platforms such as the CEV (Crew Exploration Vehicle). Topics addressed will include:

  1. 1.

    Likelihood and types of spaceflight medical events requiring evacuation [10]

     
  2. 2.

    Standards of spaceflight medical care and projected capabilities for LEO space stations, lunar exploration, and inter-planetary missions [11]

     
  3. 3.

    Physiological de-conditioning of astronauts returning from long duration microgravity exposure

     
  4. 4.

    Psychological aspects of crew performance in medical emergencies after long duration space flight

     
  5. 5.

    Inherent risks associated with spaceflight medical evacuation due to the microgravity environment and the dynamics of reentry and landing [12,13]

     
  6. 6.

    Medical requirements and capabilities of an LEO transport and return vehicle [14,15]

     
  7. 7.

    Human factors for crew work stations in vehicles such as the crew return vehicle (CRV)

     
  8. 8.

    Ethical issues and medical standards for evacuation from LEO and other space environments where return to definitive medical care is delayed or impossible (such as a Mars surface station).

     

Keywords

Space Flight Medical Evacuation Medical Capability NASA Johnson Space Return Vehicle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Space safety and rescue 1992; Proceedings of the 25th Interna-tional Symposium, Washington, DC, Aug. 28-Sept. 5, 1992. San Diego, CA, Univelt, Inc. (Science and Technology Series. Vol. 84), 1994.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Carliele B, Shen, B. Polar medicine. In: Auerbach, PS (ed.), Wilderness Medicine. 4th edn. Mosby-Year Book Inc, 2001: 226-239.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Daniher CE, Cureton KL. A lifeboat for space station: The assured crew return vehicle (ACRV). In: Space Safety and Rescue 1992. 43rd Congress of the International Astronautical Federation, Washington, DC, Aug. 28-Sep. 5, 1992. IAA-92-0389.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Halsell J, Widhalm J, Whitsett C. Design of an interim space rescue ferry vehicle. J Spacecr Rockets (ISSN 0022-4650) Mar.-Apr. 1988; 25:180-186.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Buning H. Project EGRESS: The Design of an Assured Crew Return Vehicle for the Space Station. In Proceedings of the 6th Annual Summer Conference: NASA University Advanced Design Program (USRA), University of Michigan, Apr. 1990. NASA-CR-186657.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Peterson, W. ACRV Derived Transportation System; Assured Crew Return Vehicle. AIAA, Space Programs and Technologies Conference, Huntsville, AL, Mar. 24-27, 1992. AIAA PAPER 92-1414.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Petro A. A Simple Space Station Rescue Vehicle. AIAA/SOLE 6th Space Logistics Symposium, Feb. 22-24 1995, AIAA-95-0914-CP.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ray P. Emergency Egress Requirements for Space Station Free-dom. In Alabama Univ., Research Reports: 1991 NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, MSFC (N92-15886). 7. Medical Evacuation and Vehicles for TransportGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wang Xi-Ji. (Chinese Institute of Space Technology) Safety and rescue in a manned space station. Space Medicine & Medical Engineering (ISSN 1002-0837), 1991; 4(2): 85-90.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chandler M. Space Station Freedom Assured Crew Return Vehi-cle Medical Issues. Presented at the 22nd International Confer-ence on Environmental Systems, Seattle, WA, July 13-16, 1992. # SAE 921143.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pennsylvania State Univ. (University Park, PA, United States) Preliminary Subsystem Designs for the Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV). In USRA, Proceedings of the 6th Annual Sum-mer Conference: NASA/USRA University Advanced Design Program p 175-181. Nov. 01, 1990.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kendall RT. Orbital space stations/base/emergency escape systems—Paracone. In: SAFE Association, Annual Symposium, 15th, Las Vegas, NV, Dec. 5-8, 1977, Proceedings. Canoga Park, CA, SAFE Association, p. 180-185, (A79-14401 03-03).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Perchonok E. Lunar Mission Escape and Rescue Concepts. In: 21st Congress of the International Astronautical Federation, 3rd International Space Rescue Symposium, Konstanz, West Germany, Oct. 4-9, 1970, Proceedings. (A72-23151 09-31) Houston, TX.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stepaniak P, Hamelton G, Stizza D, et al. Considerations for Medical Transport from Space Station via Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV), NASA/TM-2001-210198, NASA Grant: NAG 9-207/1, Dec. 1989.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Logan J. Operational medicine and health care delivery in long-duration space flight. Fundamentals of Space Life Sciences. Vol. 1; Malabar, FL, Krieger Publishing Co., 1997: 149-157.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Qian Z, Hao X. Autonomous Rescue System. Space Safety and Rescue 1995; Proceedings of the IAA Symposium, Oslo, Norway, Oct. 2-6, 1995, San Diego, CA, Univelt, Inc. (Science and Technol-ogy Series. Vol. 93), 1997, p. 77-83. (IAA 95-6.1.08).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fabian J. An historical perspective on crew rescue and the role of the association of space explorers, IAA 89-618, 22nd IAA Inter-national Space Safety and Rescue Symposium, Space Safety and Rescue 1988-89 Vol. 77. p 227-238.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Myers H. Assured Crew Return Capability Crew Emergency Return Vehicle (CERV) Avionics. In NASA, Washington, DC, Space Transportation Avionics Technology Symposium. Nov. 7-9 1989, JSC-IA131, Vol. 2: Conference Proceedings p 163-177 (N91-17025).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Contingency Return Vehicle for Space Station: A design Study, Engineering Team Report. NASA JSC, Houston, TX NASA JSC-32025, 1987.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bagian J, Allen R. Aeromedical transport. In: Auerbach, PS (ed.), Wilderness Medicine, Mosby-Year Book Inc, 4th edn. 2001: 640-672.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Amos J, Campbell J, Hudson C, Kenny E, Markward D, Pham C, Wolf C. Texas Univ. (Austin, TX, United States), Lunar base and Mars base design projects. In USRA, NASA/USRA Univer-sity Advanced Design Program Fifth Annual Summer Confer-ence p 157-178, NASA I.D. 19940004532 N (94N71287).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Billica R, Chandler M. Emergency Medical Services. In Sev-enth Annual Workshop on Space Operations Applications and Research (SOAR 1993), Vol. 2 pp. 538-539 (N94-33644).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jessl R. European Space Station health care system concept. 20th SAE, Intersociety Conference on Environmental Systems, # 901387, Williamsburg, VA, July 9-12, 1990.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Harrison AA, Clearwater YA, McKay CP. The Human Experi-ence in Antarctica: Applications to life in space. Behav Sci 1989 159 Oct; 34(4): 253-271. Reprinted in Harrison, AA, Clearwater, YA, McKay, CP, (eds.), From Antarctica to Outer Space: Life in Isolation and Confinement., New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.1991.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Johnston, SL. Medical Care at the South Pole, Presented at the 1st “Pushing the Envelope” Conference, University of Texas Medical Branch, Department of Preventive, Occupational and Envi-ronmental Medicine, Nassau Bay Hilton, Clear Lake, TX 1998.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Safety in Earth Orbit Study, Volume 3—An Analysis of Tum-bling Spacecraft and Escape and Rescue, North American Rock-well July 1972, 209p, NAS 9—12004, NASA-CR-128509.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rodney GA. NASA’s post-Challenger safety program—Themes and thrusts, IAF, 39th International Astronautical Congress, Bangalore, India, Oct. 8-15, 1988. IAF 88-510.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Billica RD, Simmons SC, Mathes KL, et al. Perception of the medical risk of spaceflight. Aviat Space Environ Med. May 1996; 67 (5):467-473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Johnston SL, Marshburn TH, Lindgren K. Predicted Incidence of Evacuation-Level Illness/Injury During Space Station Opera-tion. 71st Annual Scientific Meeting of the Aerospace Medical Association, Houston, TX, May 2000.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Berry CA. Descent and landing of spacecrews and survival in an unpopulated area. In NASA, Washington Found. Of Space Biol. And Med., Vol. 3, pp. 372-394, 1975, NASA I.D. 19760019754 N (76N26842).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Pietrzyk RA, Pak CY, Cintron NM, Whitson PA. Effects of microgravity on renal stone risk assessment. IAF, 43rd International Astronautical Congress, Washington, DC, Aug. 28-Sept. 5, 1992. IAF PAPER 92-0257.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Guiford FR, Soboroff BJ. Air evacuation. J Aviat Med 1947; 18 (6):p 601.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Beattie RM Jr. Modifications of conventional medical-surgi-cal techniques for use in null gravity. In: The Case for Mars; Proceedings of the Conference, Boulder, CO, April 29-May 2, 1981 (A84-39226 18-91). San Diego, CA, Univelt, Inc., 1984: 181-184.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Creager G, Lloyd, C. Determining the IV fluids required for a ten day medical emergency on Space Station Freedom— Comparison of packaged vs. on-orbit produced solutions. 21st SAE, International Conference on Environmental Systems, #911333, San Francisco, CA, July 15-18, 1991.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Droppert P. A review of muscle atrophy in microgravity and during prolonged bed rest. Br Interplanet Soc J March 1993; 4 (3): 83-86.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fritsch-Yelle JM, Leuenberger UA, D’Aunno DS, Rossum AC; et al. An episode of ventricular tachycardia during long-duration spaceflight. Am J Cardiol. 1998; 81(11):1391-1392.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Johnston S L, Campbell M R, Billica R D, et al. Validation of a Parabolic Flight Microgravity CPR Animal Model KRUG Life Sciences and Medical Operations, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX. Presented at the 67th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Aerospace Medical Association, Atlanta, GA, 1996.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Johnston SL, Eichstadt FT, Billica RD. A prototype Crew Medi-cal Restraint System (CMRS) for Space Station Freedom. In Aerospace Medical Association, Aerospace Medical Associa-tion 63rd Annual Scientific Meeting Program., 1992.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Barrows L, Mcbrine J, Hayes J, Stricklin M,Greenisen M. Physi-ological responses to wearing the space shuttle launch and entry suit and the prototype advanced crew escape suit compared to the un-suited condition. Technical Report, TP-3297, NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (Houston, TX, United States) Mar 01, 1993.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rossum AC, Wood ML, Bishop SL, Deblock H. Charles JB. Evaluation of cardiac rhythm disturbances during extravehicular activity, Am J Cardiol. 1997; 79(8):1153-1155.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ray P. Emergency Egress Requirements for Caution and Warn-ing, Logistics, Maintenance, and Assembly Stage MB-6 of Space Station Freedom. In 1992 NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, MSFC (N93-17323).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bossi JA, Langehough MA, Lee KL. Crew Emergency Return Vehicle Autoland Feasibility Study. NASA Technical Report CR-181940, Contract number NASI-18762, Dec 1989.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Garshnek V. Applications of space communications technology to critical human needs—Rescue, disaster relief, and remote medical assistance. Space Communications (ISSN 0924-8625), Vol. 8, July 1991, pp. 311-317. Science Communications Studies and the Space Policy Institute, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, USA.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sepahban SF. Role of Automation in the ACRV Operations. In Fifth Annual Workshop on Space Operations Applications and Research (SOAR 1991), Vol. 1, p 399 (NASA I.D. 93N11977).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Nagy AR, Chu ST. Communication and rescue time constraints for emergency astronaut return. In: 21st International Astronau-tical Federation, Congress, 3rd International Space Rescue Sym-posium, Konstanz, West Germany, Oct. 4-9, 1970, Proceedings. (A72-23151 09-31) Houston, TX, Boeing Co.; Paris, COSPAR Secretariat, 1971:199-217.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Space Biology and Medicine, 1996, Humans in Spaceflight Vol lll, Book I, Book 2 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bioastronautics Data Book. In: Parker, JF, West, VR (eds.), Scientific and Technical Information Office. Washington, DC: NASA HQ; 1973.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Nicogossian A, Sawin C, Huntoon C. Overall physiologic response to space flight. In: Nicogossian PH (eds.), Space Physi-ology and Medicine. 3rd edn. Malvern, PA: Lea & Febiger; 1993:213-227.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bagian J, Greenisen M, Schafer L, Probe J, Krutz, R. Reach performance while wearing the Space Shuttle launch and entry suit during exposure to launch accelerations. In: Its Crew Interface Analysis: Selected Articles on Space Human Factors Research, 1987-1991. pp. 122-125 (N94-24204).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hillman D, Wolfe J. Neuronal Plasticity in relation to long duration spaceflight, AIAA, Space Programs and Technologies Conference, Huntsville, AL, Sept. 25-27, 1990. AIAA-90-3811-CP.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Collins etal. The effects of spaceflight on open-loop and closed-loop postural control mechanisms: human neurovestibular studies on SLS-2, Exp Brain research, 1995; 107:145-150.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kleitman. The sleep-wakefulness cycle in submarine person-nel. In: Human Factors in Undersea Warefare, NRC, Sleep and Wakefulness Study. 1963.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Weybrew. The Mental Health of Nuclear Submariners in the US Navy. Military Medicine, March 1979, pp. 188-191.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Palinkas, Sudfield, Steel. Psychological functioning among members of a small polar expedition. Aviat Space Environ Med 1995:66(10):943-950.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Geuna S, Brunelli F, Perino MA (1996) Stressors, stress, and stress consequences during long duration manned space missions: a descriptive model. Acta Astronautica, 36(6):347-356. S.L. Johnston et al.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Man-Systems Integration Standards, NASA-STD-3000 Vol. I, Sec. 3.0, Rev. B, July 1995.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Smart K. Considerations for crew rescue from the ISS, J Br Interplanet Soc March/April 2001, Vol. 54 no. 3/4.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Smart K. Issues in life support and human factors in crew rescue from the ISS. Life Support Biosph Sci 2001; 7(4):319-325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Johnston SL, Jones JA, Ross CE, Cerimele CJ, Fox JL. NASA International Space Station (ISS) Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) Seat and Cockpit Configuration and Design Challenges, NASA Medical Operations, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX. 70th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Aerospace Medical Association, Detroit, MI, 1998.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Space Biology and Medicine, 1996, Life Support and Habitability Vol ll, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Nicholas JM, Fouchee HC (1990), Organization selection and training of crews for extended spaceflight, findings from analogues and implications, J Spacecr 1990; 27(8).Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kanas N. Psychosocial value of space simulation for extended spaceflight, Adv Space Biol Med 1997; 6:81-91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Palinkas Psychosocial effects of adjustment in Antarctica: Lessons for long duration Spaceflight. J Spacecr Rockets 1990; 27 (5):471-477.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Manzey D, Lorenz B, Poljakov V. Mental performance in extreme environments: Results from a performance monitoring study during a 438-day spaceflight. Ergonomics 1998; 41(4):537-559.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Sanchez M. A Human factors evaluation of a methodology for pressurized crew module acceptability for zero-gravity ingress of spacecraft. PhD Thesis Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Houston, Dec. 1999.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Gonzales et al. An integrated logistics support system for train-ing crew medical officers in advanced cardiac life support man-agement. Comput Methods Progs Biomed 1999:59:115-129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Owen M, Galea ER, Lawrence PJ, Filippidis L. AASK, aircraft accident statistics and knowledge—A database of human experi-ence in evacuation, derived from aviation accident reports. Aero-nautical Journal (0001-9240), 1998; 102(1017):353-363.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kane F. A Thirty Year Perspective on Manned Space Safety and Rescue: Where We’ve Been; Where We Are; Where We Are Going. In: Space Safety and Rescue 1084-5, San Diego, CA 1984, pp. 61-88, IAA 84-270.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kovit B. Space Rescue, Space and Aeronautics, May 1966; 99-103.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Griswold HR, Trusch RB. Emergency and rescue consider-ations for manned space missions. Acta Astronaut 1981; 8(9): 1123-1133.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Housten S et al. (1992), Space Rescue System Definition, IAA 92-338, pp. 123-139.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Armstrong H, Haber H, Strughold H. Aeromedical problems of space travel. Aviation Medicine, 1949:383-417.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Petersen NV. Recovery techniques for manned earth satellites. Proceedings of the VIII International Astronomical Congress 1957, pp. 310-319. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Romick DC, Knight RE, Black S. A preliminary design of a medium sized ferry rocket vehicle of the Meteor concept, Proceedings of the VIII International Astronomical Congress 1957, pp. 349-358, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Krufft E. The considerations required in the use of a “lifeboat,” Second International Symposium on Physics and Medicine of the Upper Atmosphere and Space. 1958 American Institute of Aeronautics and AstronauticsGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    James J. Argument for a universal rendezvous docking/coupling mechanism. AAS 63-153, Advances in the Astronautical sciences, Space Rendezvous, Safety and Recovery 1963:297-307Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kelly B. A systems analysis of emergency escape and recovery systems for the US space station. M.S. Thesis. Air Force Inst. of Tech., School of Engineering. (Wright-Patterson AFB, OH, United States) Dec. 01, 1986.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Smart KT. The Effects of Microgravity on Human Performance in Space Emergencies, and their Implications for the Design Process of Crew Escape Systems, from a Space Station in Low Earth Orbit, MSc Thesis. Cranfield University, UK 1999.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Buning H. Project AENEAS: A feasibility study for crew emer- gency return vehicle. Technische Hogeschool, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering. (Delft, Netherlands).Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ehrlich CF. HL-20 Concept; Design rationale and approach. J Spacecr Rockets. 1993; 30(5): 573-581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Percy RL, Raasch RF. Space Station Crew Safety: Space Sta- tion Crew Safety Alternatives Study, 1985 Volume 1, NASA CR 3854, Contract NASI-17242.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Manley M, Basile L, Sanchez M. Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) and Crew Transfer Vehicle (CTV) accommodations study. 49th Congress of the IAF, International Astronautical Congress, Mel- bourne, Australia, Sept. 28-Oct. 2, 1998. # IAF/IAA-98-G.3.01.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Grimard M, Debas G. Escape Vehicle Concepts for Manned Space Stations. 40th Congress of the International Astronautical Federation, Malaga, Spain, Oct. 7-13, 1989. # IAF 89-245.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Grimard M, Debas G. European ACRV—A Solution for Space Station Crew Assured Return. 44th Congress of the IAF, Interna- tional Astronautical Congress, Graz, Austria, Oct. 16-22, 1993. # IAA 6.1-93-733.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Assured Crew Return Capability-Crew Emergency Return Vehicle Phase; A Report 1988, JSC 23321, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Stone et al. Assured crew Return Vehicle, 42nd Congress of the International Astronautical Federation, Oct. 5-11, 1991 Montreal, Canada. IAF-91-088.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Sepahban SF, Williams RJ. The soyuz assured crew return vehicle operations concept. AIAA, Space Programs and Technologies Conference and Exhibit, Huntsville, AL, Sept. 21-23, 1993, AIAA 93-4091.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Semenov YP et al. Soyuz TM-Based Interim Assured Crew Return Vehicle for the Space Station Fredom, 44th Congress of the International Astronautical Federation, Oct. 16-22, 1993, Graz, Austria. IAF-93-V.4.640.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Viehbock F. Soyuz—The Russian human transportation vehicle, AIAA Space Programs and Technologies Conference, Sept. 27-29, 1994, Huntsville, AL. AIAA 94-4604.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Newkirk D. Almanac of Soviet Manned Space Flight, Gulf Publishing, Houston TX, 1990, pp. 47-74.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Housten SJ. Implementation of the Soyuz ACRV for the Space Station Freedom; Assured Crew Return Vehicle. IAF, International Astronautical Congress, 44th, Graz, Austria, Oct. 16-22, 1993. # IAA.6.1-93-732.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Assured Crew Return Vehicle Man-Systems Integration Standards, Vol. Vl, NASA-STD-3000, Sept. 1992, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Burluka O, Dimitriadi D. JPRS-USP-91-002, Limited Current Capabilities for Cosmonaut Rescue. In: Joint Publications Research Service (Arlington, VA, United States) Report: Science and Technology. USSR: Space, 1991, pp. 50-51 (N91-26179).Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Tedeman LG, Wright K. International spaceflight crew rescue standards. In: Space safety and rescue 1992, Symposium of the International Academy of Astronautics, Washington, DC: World Space Congress, Aug. 28-Sep. 5, 1992. A95-88012, p. 157-164.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Krupa D. Medical Concerns for Assured Crew Return Vehicle from Space Station Freedom. 20th Intersociety Conference on Environmental Systems, Williamsburg, VA, July 9-12, 1990. SAE 901326Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Eichstadt F. Space Station Freedom deployable medical equipment design and development. SAE, 23rd International Conference on Environmental Systems, Colorado Springs, CO, July 12-15, 1993.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Hamelton G et al. Considerations for Medical Transport from Space Station via Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV), NASA Grant: NAG 9-207/1, Dec. 1989.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Brinkley JW. Impact accelerations. In: Foundations of Space Biology and Medicine, 1975. Vol. 2, Book 1, Part 2, Chapter 6, pp. 214-246, NASA Special Publication No. 374. AMRL-TR-73-68 (AD 771612).Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Brinkley JW. Human crashworthiness and crash load limits. In: Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD)—CP443 “Energy absorption of aircraft structures as an aspect of crashworthiness,” AGARD, Nevilly sur Seine, France 1988, NASA ID 19890009068 N (89N18439).Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Brinkley JW, Specker LJ, Mosher ME. Development of acceleration exposure limits for advanced escape systems. In: Implications of Advanced Technologies for Air and Spacecraft Escape, 1990, NATO AGARD Proceedings, AGARD-CP-472.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kumar KV, Norfleet WT. Issues on Human Acceleration Tolerance After Long-Duration Space Flights. NASA Technical Memorandum 104753, Oct. 1992, NASA/Johnson Space Center. Houston, TX.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) Project System Engineering Data Book, JSC 34015, 1992, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Wieland PO. Living Together in Space: The Design and Operation of the Life Support Systems on the ISS, NASA TM-206956, Vol 1, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, 1998.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Phillips, GD. Astronaut recovery following bailout. 21st SAE, International Conference on Environmental Systems, San Francisco, CA, July 15-18, 1991, #911571.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Hosterman K, Anderson L. Postlanding Optimum Designs for the Assured Crew Return Vehicle. In University Advanced Design Program (USRA), Proceedings, 6th Annual Summer Conference: NASA/USRA, University of Central, Florida, pp. 35-39 (N91-18126).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Smith L. Johnston
    • 1
  • Brian A. Arenare
    • 2
  • Kieran T. Smart
    • 3
  1. 1.NASA Johnson Space CenterHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Kelsey-Seybold ClinicNASA Johnson Space CenterHoustonUSA
  3. 3.Wyle LaboratoriesHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations