Surgery pp 1737-1746 | Cite as


  • J. Richard Thistlethwaite
  • David Bruce


The mammalian immune system is specialized for the discrimination between self and nonself. The appearance of new macromolecules (or antigens) normally signifies a threat, such as an infection or malignant tumor. In these settings, the prompt destruction of antigen-bearing cells is a valuable adaptation. Unfortunately, the same defense mechanisms are also efficiently invoked by the clinical transplantation of potentially lifesaving organs.


Transplant Recipient Human Leukocyte Antigen Acute Rejection Renal Transplant Recipient Renal Allograft 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Richard Thistlethwaite
    • 1
    • 2
  • David Bruce
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryThe University of Chicago Medical CenterChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Medical StaffThe University of Chicago Medical CenterChicagoUSA
  3. 3.Department of Transplant SurgeryLifeLink Healthcare InstituteTampaUSA

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