Surgery pp 1601-1620 | Cite as

Congenital Heart Disease

  • Carl L. Backer
  • Constantine Mavroudis


The era of surgical correction of congenital heart defects began in 1938 when Robert E. Gross successfully ligated a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in a 7-year-old child at Boston Children’s Hospital.1 This historical milestone was followed by several different “closed-heart” operations for children with congenital heart defects, including the Blalock-Taussig shunt,2 coarctation repair,3 and pulmonary artery banding.4 In 1952, the first “open-heart” operation, closure of an atrial septal defect (ASD), was performed by F. John Lewis at the University of Minnesota using hypothermia and inflow occlusion.5 One year later, John Gibbon performed the first open-heart surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass, also closing an ASD.6 At the University of Minnesota, C. Walton Lillehei performed the first repair of ventricular septal defect (VSD), tetralogy of Fallot, and atrioventricular canal (AVC) using cross circulation: the parent was the “heart-lung” machine.7 At the same time, at the Mayo Clinic, Dr. John Kirklin was also pioneering open-heart surgery using a heart-lung machine.8 The significant historical milestones in congenital heart surgery are summarized in Table 76.1.


Pulmonary Artery Patent Ductus Arteriosus Atrial Septal Defect Ventricular Septal Defect Ventricular Septal Defect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carl L. Backer
    • 1
  • Constantine Mavroudis
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Cardiovascular-Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Children’s Memorial HospitalNorthwestern University Feinberg School of MedicineChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryNorthwestern University Feinberg School of MedicineChicagoUSA
  3. 3.Division of Cardiovascular-Thoracic Surgery, Children’s Memorial HospitalNorthwestern University Feinberg School of MedicineChicagoUSA

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