Surgery pp 1471-1479 | Cite as

History of Cardiac Surgery

  • Larry W. Stephenson


After the development of general anesthetics such as ether and chloroform during the middle of the nineteenth century, investigators began to study techniques to repair heart wounds in the animal laboratory. Soon, simple operations in humans for heart wounds were reported.


Aortic Valve Cardiopulmonary Bypass Aortic Valve Replacement Atrial Septal Defect Ventricular Septal Defect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Larry W. Stephenson
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryWayne State University, School of MedicineDetroitUSA
  2. 2.Cardiothoracic SurgeryWayne State University, School of MedicineDetroitUSA

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