Surgery pp 139-148 | Cite as

Perioperative Fluids and Electrolytes

  • Avery B. Nathens
  • Ronald V. Maier


Surgical patients undergo acute alterations in the volume and composition of fluids in the intracellular and extracellular spaces. To a great extent, these changes occur as a result of the patient’s underlying disease. For example, hemorrhage or bowel obstruction may acutely change the volume of fluid in the intravascular or extracellular compartments. However, these alterations are not limited to patients requiring urgent operative intervention as even elective surgery may result in dramatic fluid shifts in the absence of significant blood loss. In addition to changes in fluid volume, surgical patients may develop potentially dangerous fluctuations in concentrations and total body content of important electrolytes. Precise perioperative management of fluids and electrolytes is thus required to minimize perioperative morbidity and mortality.


Metabolic Acidosis Plasma Osmolarity Renal Tubular Acidosis Metabolic Alkalosis Ionize Calcium Level 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Avery B. Nathens
    • 1
  • Ronald V. Maier
    • 2
  1. 1.Surgical Critical Care, Department of SurgeryUniversity of Washington/Harborview Medical CenterSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryHarborview Medical CenterSeattleUSA

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