Surgery pp 111-138 | Cite as


  • Kenneth A. Kudsk
  • Danny O. Jacobs


Since the earliest recorded evidence of nutrition support using nutrient enemas some 3500 years ago in Egypt,1 progressive malnutrition with its negative impact on strength, resistance to infection, and ability to heal have challenged clinicians. With today’s highly sophisticated, highly technical procedures to deliver nutrients intravenously or enterally, the field of nutrition support still struggles with the identification and reversal of malnutrition-induced vulnerability in patients. The implications of nutritional intervention—or lack of it—are still being defined despite tremendous growth in nutrition research since the late 1960s, when Dudrick and colleagues supported normal growth and development of beagles by intravenous nutrition alone.2


Parenteral Nutrition Enteral Nutrition Enteral Feeding Intravenous Lipid Emulsion Enteral Diet 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenneth A. Kudsk
    • 1
  • Danny O. Jacobs
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Surgery, Vice Chairman of Surgical ResearchUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA

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