Surgery pp 1229-1248 | Cite as


  • Robert Udelsman


The adrenal glands were first described and illustrated by the Roman anatomist Bartholomaeus Eustachius in 1552.1 These glands are paired retroperitoneal organs located in close contact to the superior surface of either kidney. They are surrounded by a loose layer of areolar connective tissue and have multiple fibrous bands and vascular attachments through which they are associated with the superior poles of the kidneys. They are recognizable by their firm texture and chromate yellow color, which is distinctly darker than the pale retroperitoneal fat. The normal adrenal gland is slightly nodular and generally weighs between 4 and 5 g in the adult.2 The presence of adrenal nodules is not uncommon, and their frequency increases with age.3


Adrenal Gland Primary Aldosteronism Adrenal Tumor Adrenal Mass Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Udelsman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

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