Surgery pp 911-942 | Cite as

Biliary System

  • Hobart W. Harris


The history of biliary tract disease extends over 3500 years, but the birth of modern-day surgical intervention occurred little more than a century ago. Early Egyptians were aware of the liver and biliary system and assigned these organs significance for divining future events. The oldest recorded case of gallstones was in the mummified remains of the Princess of Amenen from Thebes, circa 1500 bc. At the time of her death, her well-preserved gallbladder contained at least 30 gallstones.


Bile Duct Common Bile Duct Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Bile Salt Acute Cholecystitis 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hobart W. Harris
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of General SurgeryUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA

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