Surgery pp 875-909 | Cite as


  • Robert E. Glasgow
  • Sean J. Mulvihill


The pancreas is derived as an outpouching of the primitive foregut endoderm in the region of the duodenum. It has two main embryologic components: (1) a dorsal bud, first identifiable at 4 weeks gestation, that goes on to become the body and tail of the gland and (2) a ventral bud that produces the head of the gland and the extrahepatic biliary system (Fig. 46.1). As these outpouchings grow, the ventral aspect rotates to fuse with the dorsal aspect by about the seventh week of gestation. The ductal system of the pancreas is derived from these two anlages. The embryonic ventral duct arises from the bile duct, drains with it into the duodenum at the major papilla, and fuses with the dorsal duct to drain the body of the gland as the main pancreatic duct of Wirsung. The embryonic dorsal duct persists as a separate structure in its proximal portion (duct of Santorini), draining into the duodenum at the minor papilla on the medial duodenal wall about 1–2 cm cephalad to the major papilla. In 5%–10% of people, the ventral and dorsal ducts fail to fuse, resulting in a condition known as pancreas divisum.1 In this anatomical arrangement, the majority of pancreatic secretions are carried to the duodenum through the duct of Santorini and the minor papilla (Fig. 46.2).


Pancreatic Cancer Acute Pancreatitis Chronic Pancreatitis Pancreatic Duct Severe Acute Pancreatitis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Cotton PB. Pancreas divisum—curiosity or culprit? Gastroenterology 1985;89:1431–1435.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pearse AG, Polak JM, Bloom SR. The newer gut hormones. Cellular sources, physiology, pathology, and clinical aspects. Gastroenterology 1977;72(4 pt 1):746–761.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pearse AG. The cytochemistry and infrastructure of polypeptide hormone-producing cells of the APUD series and the embryologic, physiologic and pathologic implications of the concept. J Histochem Cytochem 1969;17:303–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gittes GK, Rutter WJ. Onset of cell-specific gene expression in the developing mouse pancreas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1992;89:1128–1132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gittes GK, Galante PE, Hanahan D, et al. Lineage-specific morphogenesis in the developing pancreas: role of mesenchymal factors. Development (Camb) 1996;122:439–447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kozarek RA, Ball TJ, Patterson DJ, et al. Endoscopic approach to pancreas divisum. Dig Dis Sci 1995;40:1974–1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bernard JP, Sahel J, Giovannini M, et al. Pancreas divisum is a probable cause of acute pancreatitis: a report of 137 cases [see comments]. Pancreas 1990;5:248–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Delhaye M, Engelholm L, Cremer M. Pancreas divisum: congenital anatomic variant or anomaly? Contribution of endoscopic retrograde dorsal pancreatography. Gastroenterology 1985;89:951–958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Richter JM, Schapiro RH, Mulley AG, et al. Association of pancreas divisum and pancreatitis, and its treatment by sphincteroplasty of the accessory ampulla. Gastroenterology 1981;81:1104–1110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Palade G. Intracellular aspects of the process of protein synthesis. Science 1975;189:347–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bayliss WM, Starling EH. The mechanism of pancreatic secretion. J Physiol (Camb) 1902;28:325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mayerle J, Hlouschek V, Lerch MM. Current management of acute pancreatitis. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005;2:473–483.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bradley ELD. A clinically based classification system for acute pancreatitis. Summary of the International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, GA, September 11–13, 1992. Arch Surg 1993;128:584–590.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Acosta JM, Ledesma CL. Gallstone migration as a cause of acute pancreatitis. N Engl J Med 1974;290:484–487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kelly TR. Gallstone pancreatitis: pathophysiology. Surgery (St. Louis) 1976;80:488–492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hanck C, Whitcomb DC. Alcoholic pancreatitis. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2004;33:751–765.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Poon RT, Yeung C, Liu CL, et al. Intravenous bolus somatostatin after diagnostic cholangiopancreatography reduces the incidence of pancreatitis associated with therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedures: a randomised controlled trial. Gut 2003;52:1768–1773.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shimizu S, Kutsumi H, Fujimoto S, et al. Diagnostic endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography. Endoscopy 1999;31:74–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Neuhaus H. Therapeutic pancreatic endoscopy. Endoscopy 2004;36:8–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Steer ML, Meldolesi J. The cell biology of experimental pancreatitis. N Engl J Med 1987;316:144–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tenner S, Dubner H, Steinberg W. Predicting gallstone pancreatitis with laboratory parameters: a meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol 1994;89:1863–1866.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Scheiman JM, Carlos RC, Barnett JL, et al. Can endoscopic ultrasound or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography replace ERCP in patients with suspected biliary disease? A prospective trial and cost analysis. Am J Gastroenterol 2001;96:2900–2904.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Liu CL, Fan ST, Lo CM, et al. Comparison of early endoscopic ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in the management of acute biliary pancreatitis: a prospective randomized study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005;3:1238–1244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ranson JH, Rifkind KM, Turner JW. Prognostic signs and non-operative peritoneal lavage in acute pancreatitis. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1976;143:209–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ranson JH, Rifkind KM, Roses DF, et al. Prognostic signs and the role of operative management in acute pancreatitis. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1974;139:69–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    McKay CJ, Imrie CW. Staging of acute pancreatitis. Is it important? Surg Clin North Am 1999;79:733–743.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    De Sanctis JT, Lee MJ, Gazelle GS, et al. Prognostic indicators in acute pancreatitis: CT versus APACHE II. Clin Radiol 1997;52:842–848.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dominquez-Munoz JE, Carballo F, Garcia MJ, et al. Evaluation of the clinical usefulness of APACHE II and SAPS systems in the initial prognostic classification of acute pancreatitis: a mul-ticenter study. Pancreas 1993;8:682–686.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Larvin M, McMahon MJ. APACHE-II score for assessment and monitoring of acute pancreatitis [see comments]. Lancet 1989;2:201–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wilson C, Heath DI, Imrie CW. Prediction of outcome in acute pancreatitis: a comparative study of APACHE II, clinical assessment and multiple factor scoring systems. Br J Surg 1990;77:1260–1264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Balthazar EJ, Freeny PC, vanSonnenberg E. Imaging and intervention in aeute pancreatitis. Radiology 1994;193:297–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Balthazar EJ, Robinson DL, Megibow AJ, et al. Acute pancreatitis: value of CT in establishing prognosis. Radiology 1990;174:331–436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Andriulli A, Leandro G, Clemente R, et al. Meta-analysis of somatostatin, octreotide and gabexate mesilate in the therapy of acute pancreatitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1998;12:237–245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Andriulli A, Caruso N, Quitadamo M, et al. Antisecretory versus antiproteasic drugs in the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis: the evidence-based medicine derived from a meta-analysis study. JOP 2003;4:41–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Seta T, Noguchi Y, Shimada T, Shikata S, Fukui T. Treatment of acute pancreatitis with protease inhibitors: a meta-analysis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2004;16:1287–1293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sarr MG, Sanfey H, Cameron JL. Prospective, randomized trial of nasogastric suction in patients with acute pancreatitis. Surgery (St. Louis) 1986;100:500–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Z’graggen K, Uhl W, Friess H, Buchler MW. How to do a safe pancreatic anastomosis. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 2002;9:733–737.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Griniatsos J, Karvounis E, Isla A. Early versus delayed singlestage laparoscopic eradication for both gallstones and common bile duct stones in mild acute biliary pancreatitis. Am Surg 2005;71:682–686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chang EG. Repair of common bile duct injury with the round and falciform ligament after clip necrosis: case report. JSLS 2000;4:163–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tang E, Stain SC, Tang G, et al. Timing of laparoscopic surgery in gallstone pancreatitis. Arch Surg 1995;130:496–499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Schwesinger WH, Page CP, Gross GW, et al. Biliary pancreatitis: the era of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Arch Surg 1998;133:1103–1106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bulkin AJ, Tebyani N, Dorazio RA. Gallstone pancreatitis in the era of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Am Surg 1997;63:900–903.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Uhl W, Gloor B, Buchler MW. Pancreatic surgery. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 1999;15:410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ong AM, Bhayani SB, Hsu TH, et al. Bipolar needle electrocautery for laparoscopic partial nephrectomy without renal vascular occlusion in a porcine model. Urology 2003;62:1144–1148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Burch JM, Feliciano DV, Mattox KL, et al. Gallstone pancreatitis. The question of time. Arch Surg 1990;125:853–859.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Cameron DR, Goodman AJ. Delayed cholecystectomy for gallstone pancreatitis: re-admissions and outcomes. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2004;86:358–362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Alimoglu O, Ozkan OV, Sahin M, Akcakaya A, Eryilmaz R, Bas G. Timing of cholecystectomy for acute biliary pancreatitis: outcomes of cholecystectomy on first admission and after recurrent biliary pancreatitis. World J Surg 2003;27:256–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ayub K, Imada R, Slavin J. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in gallstone-associated acute pancreatitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004 Oct 18;(4):CD003630.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Buchler MW, Gloor B, Muller CA, Friess H, Seiler CA, Uhl W. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis: treatment strategy according to the status of infection. Ann Surg 2000;232:619–626.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Uomo G, Visconti M, Manes G, et al. Nonsurgical treatment of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Pancreas 1996;12:142–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bradley ELD, Allen K. A prospective longitudinal study of observation versus surgical intervention in the management of necrotizing pancreatitis. Am J Surg 1991;161:19–24; discussion 24–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Rau B, Pralle U, Uhl W, et al. Management of sterile necrosis in instances of severe acute pancreatitis. J Am Coll Surg 1995;181:279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Beger HG, Krautzberger W, Bittner R, et al. Results of surgical treatment of necrotizing pancreatitis. World J Surg 1985;9:972–979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bassi C, Butturini G, Molinari E, et al. Pancreatic fistula rate after pancreatic resection. The importance of definitions. Dig Surg 2004;21:54–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Rau BM, Kruger CM, Schilling MK. Anti-cytokine strategies in acute pancreatitis: pathophysiological insights and clinical implications. Rocz Akad Med Bialymst 2005;50:106–115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Beger HG, Büchler M, Bittner R, et al. Necrosectomy and postoperative local lavage in necrotizing pancreatitis. Br J Surg 1988;75:207–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    vanSonnenberg E, Wittich GR, Chon KS, et al. Percutaneous radiologic drainage of pancreatic abscesses. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1997;168:979–984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gerzof SG, Banks PA, Robbins AH, et al. Early diagnosis of pancreatic infection by computed tomography-guided aspiration. Gastroenterology 1987;93:1315–1320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Tsiotos GG, Luque-de Leon E, Seoreide JA, et al. Management of necrotizing pancreatitis by repeated operative necrosectomy using a zipper technique. Am J Surg 1998;175:91–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Fernandez-del Castillo C, Rattner DW, Makary MA, et al. Debridement and closed packing for the treatment of necrotizing pancreatitis. Ann Surg 1998;228:676–684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hartwig W, Werner J, Muller CA, Uhl W, Buchler MW. Surgical management of severe pancreatitis including sterile necrosis. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 2002;9:429–435.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Schroder T, Sainio V, Kivisaari L, et al. Pancreatic resection versus peritoneal lavage in acute necrotizing pancreatitis. A prospective randomized trial [see comments]. Ann Surg 1991;214:663–666.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Mayer AD, McMahon MJ, Corfield AP, et al. Controlled clinical trial of peritoneal lavage for the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis. N Engl J Med 1985;312:399–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Broome AH, Eisen GM, Harland RC, et al. Quality of life after treatment for pancreatitis [see comments]. Ann Surg 1996;223:665–670; discussion 670–672.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Stroud WH, Cullom JW, Anderson MC. Hemorrhagic complications of severe pancreatitis. Surgery (St. Louis) 1981;90:657–665.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Bergert H, Hinterseher I, Kersting S, Leonhardt J, Bloomenthal A, Saeger HD. Management and outcome of hemorrhage due to arterial pseudoaneurysms in pancreatitis. Surgery 2005;437:323–328.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Warshaw AL, Simeone JF, Schapiro RH, et al. Evaluation and treatment of the dominant dorsal duct syndrome (pancreas divisum redefined). Am J Surg 1990;159:59–64; discussion 64–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Bradley EL, Stephan RN. Accessory duct sphincteroplasty is preferred for long-term prevention of recurrent acute pancreatitis in patients with pancreas divisum. J Am Coll Surg 1996 Jul;183:65–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Chintapalli KN, Ghiatas AA, Chopra S, Escobar B, Esola CC, Dodd GD 3rd. Sonographic findings in cases of missed gallstones. J Clin Ultrasound 1999;27:117–121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Steer ML, Waxman I, Freedman S. Chronic pancreatitis. N Engl J Med 1995;332:1482–1490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Freedman SD, Sakamoto K, Venu RP. GP2, the homologue to the renal cast protein uromodulin, is a major component of intraductal plugs in chronic pancreatitis. J Clin Invest 1993;92:83–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Schmiegel W, Burchert M, Kalthoff H, et al. Immunochemical characterization and quantitative distribution of pancreatic stone protein in sera and pancreatic secretions in pancreatic disorders [see comments]. Gastroenterology 1990;99:1421–1430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Teich N, Mossner J. Genetic aspects of chronic pancreatitis. Med Sci Monit 2004;10:RA325–RA328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Bradley EL. Pancreatic duct pressure in chronic pancreatitis. Am J Surg 1982;144:313–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Di Sebastiano P, di Mola FF, Buchler MW, Friess H. Pathogenesis of pain in chronic pancreatitis. Dig Dis 2004;22:267–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Bockman DE, Buchler M, Malfertheiner P, et al. Analysis of nerves in chronic pancreatitis. Gastroenterology 1988;94:1459–1469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Luetmer PH, Stephens DH, Ward EM. Chronic pancreatitis: reassessment with current CT. Radiology 1989;171:353–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Talamini G, Bassi C, Falconi M, et al. Pain relapses in the first 10 years of chronic pancreatitis. Am J Surg 1996;171:565–659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Nealon WH, Thompson JC. Progressive loss of pancreatic function in chronic pancreatitis is delayed by main pancreatic duct decompression. A longitudinal prospective analysis of the modified Puestow procedure. Ann Surg 1993;217:458–466; discussion 466–468.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Brand B, Kahl M, Sidhu S, Nam VC, Sriram PV, Jaeckle S, Thonke F, Soehendra N. Prospective evaluation of morphology, function, and quality of life after extracorporeal Shockwave lithotripsy and endoscopic treatment of chronic calcific pancreatitis. Am J Gastroenterol 2000;95:3428–3438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Topazian M, Aslanian H, Andersen D. Outcome following endoscopic stenting of pancreatic duct strictures in chronic pancreatitis. J Clin Gastroenterol 2005;39:908–911.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Mallet-Guy PA. Late and very late results of resections of the nervous system in the treatment of chronic relapsing pancreatitis. Am J Surg 1983;145:234–238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kozarek RA. Pancreatic stents can induce ductal changes consistent with chronic pancreatitis. Gastrointest Endosc 1990;36:93–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Conwell DL, Vargo JJ, Zuccaro G, et al. Role of differential neu-roaxial blockade in the evaluation and management of pain in chronic pancreatitis. Am J Gastroenterol 2001;96:431–436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Gress FG, Hawes RH, Savides TJ, et al. Role of EUS in the preoperative staging of pancreatic cancer: a large single-center experience. Gastrointest Endosc 1999;50:786–791.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Buscher HC, Jansen JB, van Dongen R, Bleichrodt RP, van Goor H. Long-term results of bilateral thoracoscopic splanchnicectomy in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Br J Surg 2002;89:158–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Howard TJ, Swofford JB, Wagner DL, Sherman S, Lehman GA. Quality of life after bilateral thoracoscopic splanchnicectomy: long-term evaluation in patients with chronic pancreatitis. J Gastrointest Surg 2002;6:845–852.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Bradley EL 3rd, Bern J. Nerve blocks and neuroablative surgery for chronic pancreatitis. World J Surg 2003;27:1241–1248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Bradley EL, Clements JL Jr, Gonzalez AC. The natural history of pancreatic pseudocysts: a unified concept of management. Am J Surg 1979;137:135–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Crass RA, Way LW. Acute and chronic pancreatic pseudocysts are different. Am J Surg 1981;142:660–663.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Warshaw AL, Rattner DW. Timing of surgical drainage for pancreatic pseudocyst. Clinical and chemical criteria. Ann Surg 1985;202:720–724.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Yeo CJ, Bastidas J A, Lynch-Nyhan A, et al. The natural history of pancreatic pseudocysts documented by computed tomography. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1990;170:411–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Vitas GJ, Sarr MG. Selected management of pancreatic pseudocysts: operative versus expectant management. Surgery (St. Louis) 1992;111:123–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    D’Agostino HB, van Sonnenberg E, Sanchez RB, et al. Treatment of pancreatic pseudocysts with percutaneous drainage and octreotide. Work in progress. Radiology 1993;187:685–688.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    D’Egidio A, Schein M. Percutaneous drainage of pancreatic pseudocyst: a prospective study. World J Surg 1991;16:141–146.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    van Sonnenberg E, Wittich GR, Casola G, et al. Percutaneous drainage of infected and noninfected pancreatic pseudocysts: experience in 101 cases. Radiology 1989;170(3 pt 1):757–761.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Spivak H, Galloway JR, Amerson JR, et al. Management of pancreatic pseudocysts. J Am Coll Surg 1998;186:507–511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Criado E, Destefano AA, Weiner TM, et al. Long term results of percutaneous catheter drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1992;175:293–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Morton JM, Brown A, Galanko JA, et al. A national comparison of surgical versus percutaneous drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts: 1997–2001. J Gastrointest Surg 2005;9:15–20; discussion 20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Heider R, Meyer AA, Galanko JA, et al. Percutaneous drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts is associated with a higher failure rate than surgical treatment in unselected patients. Ann Surg 1999;229:781–787.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Nealon WH, Walser E. Surgical management of complications associated with percutaneous and/or endoscopic management of pseudocyst of the pancreas. Ann Surg 2005;241:948–957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Nealon WH, Walser E. Main pancreatic ductal anatomy can direct choice of modality for treating pancreatic pseudocysts (surgery vs. percutaneous drainage). Ann Surg 2002;235:751–758.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Beckingham IJ, Krige JE, Bornman PC, et al. Endoscopic management of pancreatic pseudocysts. Br J Surg 1997;84:1638–1645.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Baron TH, Harwood GC, Morgan ED, et al. Outcome differences after endoscopic drainage of pancreatic necrosis, acute pancreatic pseudocysts, and chronic pancreatic pseudocysts. Gastrointest Endosc 2002;56:7–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Edino ST, Yakubu AA. Experience with surgical internal drainage of pancreatic pseudocyst. J Natl Med Assoc 2006;98:1945–1948.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Becker WF, Pratt HS, Ganji H. Pseudocysts of the pancreas. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1968;127:744–747.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Grace PA, Williamson RC. Modern management of pancreatic pseudocysts. Br J Surg 1993;80:573–578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Newell KA, Liu T, Aranha GV, et al. Are cystgastrostomy and cystjejunostomy equivalent operations for pancreatic pseudocysts? Surgery (St. Louis) 1990;108:635–639; discussion 639–640.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Howard TJ, et al. The role of pancreatic resection in the treatment of pancreatic pseudocysts. J Gastrointest Surg 1997;1:205–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Hauters P, Weerts J, Navez B, et al. Laparoscopic treatment of pancreatic pseudocysts. Surg Endosc 2004;18:1645–1648.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Obermeyer RJ, Fisher WE, Salameh JR, Jeyapalan M, Sweeney JF, Brunicardi FC. Laparoscopic pancreatic cystogastrostomy. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2003;13:250–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Konner J, O’Reilly E. Pancreatic cancer: epidemiology, genetics, and approaches to screening. Oncology (Williston Park) 2002;16:1615–1622, 1631–1632.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Parkin DM. Global cancer statistics in the year 2000. Lancet Oncol 2001;2:533–543.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Jemal A, Kulldorff M, Devesa SS, Hayes RB, Fraumeni JF Jr. A geographic analysis of prostate cancer mortality in the United States, 1970–89. Int J Cancer 2002;101:168–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Qiu D, Kurosawa M, Lin Y, et al. for the JACC Study Group. Overview of the epidemiology of pancreatic cancer focusing on the JACC Study. J Epidemiol 2005;15(suppl 2):S157–S167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Haddock G, Carter DC. Aetiology of pancreatic cancer [see comments]. Br J Surg 1990;77:1159–1166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Bansal P, Sonnenberg A. Pancreatitis is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer [see comments]. Gastroenterology 1995;109:247–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Everhart J, Wright D. Diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. A meta-analysis. JAMA 1995;273:1605–1609.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Gullo L, Pezzilli R, Morselli-Labate AM. Diabetes and the risk of pancreatic cancer. Italian Pancreatic Cancer Study Group. N Engl J Med 1994;331:81–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Tascilar M, van Rees BP, Sturm PD, et al. Pancreatic cancer after remote peptic ulcer surgery. J Clin Pathol 2002;55:340–345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Michaud DS. Epidemiology of pancreatic cancer. Minerva Chir 2004;59:99–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Hilgers W, Kern SE. Molecular genetic basis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 1999;26:1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Berthelemy P, Bouisson M, Escourrou J, et al. Identification of K-ras mutations in pancreatic juice in the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer [see comments]. Ann Intern Med 1995;123:188–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Rail CJ, Yan YX, Graeme-Cook F, et al. Ki-ias and p53 mutations in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Pancreas 1996;12:10–17.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Bold RJ, et al. Prognostic factors in resectable pancreatic cancer: p53 and Bcl-2. J Gastrointest Surg 1999;3:263–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Lei S, Appert HE, Nakata B, et al. Overexpression of HER2-neu oncogene in pancreatic cancer correlates with shortened survival. Int J Pancreatol 1995;17:15–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Schutte M, Hruban RH, Geradts J, et al. Abrogation of the Rb/pl6 tumor-suppressive pathway in virtually all pancreatic carcinomas. Cancer Res 1997;57:3126–3130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Goldstein AM, Fraser MC, Struewing JP, et al. Increased risk of pancreatic cancer in melanoma-prone kindreds with pl61NK4 mutations [see comments]. N Engl J Med 1995;333:970–974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Hahn SA, Schutte M, Hoque AT, et al. DPC4, a candidate tumor suppressor gene at human chromosome 18q21.1. Science 1996;271:350–353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Coyle WJ, Pineau BC, Tarnasky PR, et al. Evaluation of unexplained acute and acute recurrent pancreatitis using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, sphincter of Oddi manometry and endoscopic ultrasound. Endoscopy 2002;34:617–623.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Schima W, Fugger R. Evaluation of focal pancreatic masses: comparison of mangafodipir-enhanced MR imaging and contrast-enhanced helical CT. Eur Radiol 2002;12:2998–3008.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Lopez Hanninen E, Amthauer H, Hosten N, et al. Prospective evaluation of pancreatic tumors: accuracy of MR imaging with MR cholangiopancreatography and MR angiography. Radiology 2002;224:34–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Jhala NC, Jhala DN, Chhieng DC, Eloubeidi MA, Eltoum IA. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration. A cytopa-thologist’s perspective. Am J Clin Pathol 2003;120:351–367.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Mertz HR, Sechopoulos P, Delbeke D, Leach SD. EUS, PET, and CT scanning for evaluation of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Gastrointest Endosc 2000;52:367–371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Heinrich S, Goerres GW, Schafer M, et al. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography influences on the management of resectable pancreatic cancer and its cost-effectiveness. Ann Surg 2005;242:235–243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Rose DM, Delbeke D, Beauchamp RD, et al. 18Fluorodeoxyglu-cose-positron emission tomography in the management of patients with suspected pancreatic cancer. Ann Surg 1999;229:729–737; discussion 737–738.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Ruf J, Lopez Hanninen E, Oettle H, et al. Detection of recurrent pancreatic cancer: comparison of FDG-PET with CT/MRI. Pancreatology 2005;5:266–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Saleh MM, Norregaard P, Jorgensen HL, Andersen PK, Matzen P. Preoperative endoscopic stent placement before pancreaticoduodenectomy: a meta-analysis of the effect on morbidity and mortality. Gastrointest Endosc 2002;56:529–534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Sohn TA, Yeo CJ. The molecular genetics of pancreatic ductal carcinoma: a review. Surg Oncol 2000;9:95–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Pisters PW, Hudec WA, Hess KR, et al. Effect of preoperative biliary decompression on pancreaticoduodenectomy-associated morbidity in 300 consecutive patients. Ann Surg 2001;234:47–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Povoski SP, Karpeh MS Jr, Conlon KC, et al. Association of preoperative biliary drainage with postoperative outcome following pancreaticoduodenectomy [see comments]. Ann Surg 1999;230:131–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Sewnath ME, Birjmohun RS, Rauws EA, Huibregtse K, Obertop H, Gouma DJ. The effect of preoperative biliary drainage on postoperative complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy. J Am Coll Surg 2001;192:726–734.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Traverso LW, Longmire WP Jr. Preservation of the pylorus in pancreaticoduodenectomy. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1978;146:959–962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Traverso LW, Longmire WP Jr. Preservation of the pylorus in pancreaticoduodenectomy a follow-up evaluation. Ann Surg 1980;192:306–310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Glasgow RE, Mulvihill SJ. Hospital volume influences outcome in patients undergoing pancreatic resection for cancer. West J Med 1996;165:294–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Yeo CJ, Cameron JL, Lillemoe KD, et al. Pancreaticoduodenectomy for cancer of the head of the pancreas. 201 patients. Ann Surgery 1995;221:721–731; discussion 731–733.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Fortner JG. Regional pancreatectomy for cancer of the pancreas, ampulla, and other related sites. Tumor staging and results. Ann Surg 1984;199:418–425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Nguyen TC, Sohn TA, Cameron JL, et al. Standard versus radical pancreaticoduodenectomy for periampullary adenocarcinoma: a prospective, randomized trial evaluating quality of life in pancreaticoduodenectomy survivors. J Gastrointest Surg 2003;7:1–9; discussion 9–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Yeo CJ, Cameron JL, Lillemoe KD, et al. Pancreaticoduodenectomy with or without distal gastrectomy and extended retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy for periampullary adenocarcinoma, part 2: randomized controlled trial evaluating survival, morbidity, and mortality. Ann Surg 2002;236:355–366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Bold RJ, et al. Major vascular resection as part of pancreaticoduodenectomy for cancer: radiologic, intraoperative, and pathologic analysis. J Gastrointest Surg 1999;3:233–243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Tseng JF, Raut CP, Lee JE, et al. Pancreaticoduodenectomy with vascular resection: margin status and survival duration. J Gastrointest Surg 2004;8:935–949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Neoptolemos JP, Cunningham D, Friess H, et al. Adjuvant therapy in pancreatic cancer: historical and current perspectives. Ann Oncol 2003;14:675–692.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Stocken DD, Buchler MW, Dervenis C, et al. Meta-analysis of randomised adjuvant therapy trials for pancreatic cancer. Br J Cancer 2005;92:1372–1381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Crane CH, Beddar AS, Evans DB. The role of intraoperative radiotherapy in pancreatic cancer. Surg Oncol Clin N Am 2003;12:965–977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Schwarz RE, Smith DD, Keny H, et al. Impact of intraoperative radiation on postoperative and disease-specific outcome after pancreatoduodenectomy for adenocarcinoma: a propensity score analysis. Am J Clin Oncol 2003;26:16–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Evans DB, Pisters PW, Lee JE, et al. Preoperative chemoradiation strategies for localized adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surg 1998;5:242–250.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Sasson AR, Wetherington RW, Hoffman JP, et al. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for adenocarcinoma of the pancreas: analysis of histopathology and outcome. Int J Gastrointest Cancer 2003;34:121–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Jordan GL Jr. Pancreatic resection for pancreatic cancer. Surg Clin North Am 1989;69:569–597.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Christein JD, Kendrick ML, Iqbal CW, Nagorney DM, Farnell MB. Distal pancreatectomy for resectable adenocarcinoma of the body and tail of the pancreas. J Gastrointest Surg 2005;9:922–927.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Brennan MF, Moccia RD, Klimstra D. Management of adenocarcinoma of the body and tail of the pancreas. Ann Surg 1996;223:506–511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Dalton RR, Sarr MG, van Heerden JA, et al. Carcinoma of the body and tail of the pancreas: is curative resection justified? Surgery (St. Louis) 1992;111:489–494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Lillemoe KD, Kaushal S, Cameron JL, et al. Distal pancreatectomy: indications and outcomes in 235 patients. Ann Surg 1999;229:693–698; discussion 698–700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Lillemoe KD, Cameron JL, Kaufman HS, et al. Chemical splanch-nicectomy in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer. A prospective randomized trial. Ann Surg 1993;217:447–455; discussion 456–457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Eisenberg E, Carr DB, Chalmers TC. Neurolytic celiac plexus block for treatment of cancer pain: a meta-analysis [published erratum appears in Anesth Analg 1995;811:213]. Anesth Analg 1995;80:290–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Polati E, Finco G, Gottin L, et al. Prospective randomized double-blind trial of neurolytic coeliac plexus block in patients with pancreatic cancer. Br J Surg 1998;85:199–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Gordon RL, Ring EJ, LaBerge JM, et al. Malignant biliary obstruction: treatment with expandable metallic stents-follow-up of 50 consecutive patients. Radiology 1992;182:697–701.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Smith AC, Dowsett JF, Russell RC, et al. Randomised trial of endoscopic stenting versus surgical bypass in malignant low bile duct obstruction. Lancet 1994;344:1655–1660.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Sarr MG, Cameron JL. Surgical management of unresectable carcinoma of the pancreas. Surgery (St. Louis) 1982;91:123–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Lillemoe KD, Cameron JL, Hardacre JM, et al. Is prophylactic gastrojejunostomy indicated for unresectable periampullary cancer? A prospective, randomized trial. Ann Surg 1999;230:322–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Lindsay JO, Andreyev HJ, Vlavianos P, Westaby D. Self-expanding metal stents for the palliation of malignant gastroduodenal obstruction in patients unsuitable for surgical bypass. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004;19:901–905.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Burris HA III, Moore MJ, Andersen J, et al. Improvements in survival and clinical benefit with gemcitabine as first-line therapy for patients with advanced pancreas cancer: a randomized trial [see comments]. J Clin Oncol 1997;15:2403–2413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Adjei AA. Preclinical and clinical studies with combinations of pemetrexed and gemcitabine. Semin Oncol 2002;29(6 suppl 18):30–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group. A multi-institutional comparative trial of radiation therapy alone and in combination with 5-fluorouracil for locally unresectable pancreatic carcinoma. Ann Surg 1979;189:205–208.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group. Therapy of locally unresectable pancreatic carcinoma: a randomized comparison of high dose (6000 rad) radiation alone, moderated dose radiation (4000rad 15-fluorouracil), and high dose radiation 15-fluorouracil. Cancer (Phila) 1981;48:1705–1710.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group. Treatment of locally unresectable carcinoma of the pancreas: comparison of combined-modality therapy (chemotherapy plus radiotherapy) to chemotherapy alone. J Natl Cancer Inst 1988;80:751–755.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Allema JH, Reinders ME, van Gulik TM, et al. Prognostic factors for survival after pancreaticoduodenectomy for patients with carcinoma of the pancreatic head region. Cancer (Phila) 1995;75:2069–2076.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Nitecki SS, Sarr MG, Colby TV, et al. Long-term survival after resection for ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Is it really improving? Ann Surg 1995;221:59–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Mannell A, van Heerden JA, Weiland LH, et al. Factors influencing survival after resection for ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Ann Surg 1986;203:403–407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Cameron JL, Crist DW, Sitzmann JV, et al. Factors influencing survival after pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic cancer. Am J Surg 1991;161:120–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Murr MM, Sarr MG, Oishi AJ, et al. Pancreatic cancer. CA Cancer J Clin 1994;44:304–318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Lillemoe KD. Current management of pancreatic carcinoma. Ann Surg 1995;221:133–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Bramhall SR, Allum WH, Jones AG, et al. Treatment and survival in 13,560 patients with pancreatic cancer, and incidence of the disease, in the West Midlands: an epidemiological study [see comments]. Br J Surg 1995;82:111–115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Geer RJ, Brennan MF. Prognostic indicators for survival after resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Am J Surg 1993;165:68–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Janes RH Jr, Niederhuber JE, Chmiel JS, et al. National patterns of care for pancreatic cancer. Results of a survey of the Commission on Cancer. Ann Surg 1996;223:261–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Fong Y, Gonen M, Rubin D, Radzyner M, Brennan MF. Longterm survival is superior after resection for cancer in high-volume centers. Ann Surg 2005;242:540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Eskelinen M, Lipponen P. A review of prognostic factors in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Cancer Detect Prevent 1992;16:287–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Yamamoto M, Saitoh Y, Hermanek P. Exocrine pancreatic carcinoma. In: Hermanek P, et al. eds. Prognostic Factors in Cancer. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 1995:105–117.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Eskelinen M, Lipponen P, Marin S, et al. DNA ploidy, S-phase fraction, and G2 fraction as prognostic determinants in human pancreatic cancer. Scand J Gastroenterol 1992;27:39–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Alanen KA, Joensuu H, Klemi PJ, et al. Clinical significance of nuclear DNA content in pancreatic carcinoma. J Pathol 1990;160:313–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Nakamori S, Ishikawa O, Ohhigashi H, et al. Expression of nucleoside diphosphate kinase/nm23 gene product in human pancreatic cancer: an association with lymph node metastasis and tumor invasion. Clin Exp Metastasis 1993;11:151–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Yamanaka Y, Friess H, Kobrin MS, et al. Coexpression of epidermal growth factor receptors and ligands in human pancreatic cancer is associated with enhanced tumor aggressiveness. Anticancer Res 1993;13:565–570.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Martin I, Hammond P, Scott J, et al. Cystic tumours of the pancreas. Br J Surg 1998;85:1484–1486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Le Borgne J, de Calan L, Partensky C. Cystadenomas and cystadenocarcinomas of the pancreas: a multiinstitutional retrospective study of 398 cases. French Surgical Association. Ann Surg 1999;230:152–161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Mao C, Guvendi M, Domenico DR, et al. Papillary cystic and solid tumors of the pancreas: a pancreatic embryonic tumor? Studies of three cases and cumulative review of the world’s literature. Surgery (St. Louis) 1995;118:821–828.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Brat DJ, Lillemoe KD, Yeo CJ, et al. Progression of pancreatic intraductal neoplasias to infiltrating adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Am J Surg Pathol 1998;22:163–169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Sugiyama M, Atomi Y. Intraductal papillary mucinous tumors of the pancreas: imaging studies and treatment strategies. Ann Surg 1998;228:685–691.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Rivera JA, Fernandez-del Castillo C, Pins M, et al. Pancreatic mucinous ductal ectasia and intraductal papillary neoplasms. A single malignant clinicopathologic entity. Ann Surg 1997;225:637–644; discussion 644–646.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Bouvet M, Staerkel GA, Spitz FR, et al. Primary pancreatic lymphoma. Surgery (St. Louis) 1998;123:382–390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Behrns KE, Sarr MG, Strickler JG. Pancreatic lymphoma: is it a surgical disease? Pancreas 1994;9:662–667.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Madura JA, Jarman BT, Doherty MG, et al. Adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas. Arch Surg 1999;134:599–603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Palade GE. Structure and function at the cellular level. JAMA 1966;198:815–825.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Neoptolemos JP, Carr-Locke DL, London NJ, et al. Controlled trial of urgent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic sphincterotomy versus conservative treatment for acute pancreatitis due to gallstones. Lancet 1988;2:979–983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Fan ST, Lai EC, Mok FP, et al. Early treatment of acute biliary pancreatitis by endoscopic papillotomy [see comments]. N Engl J Med 1993;328:228–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Folsch UR, Nitsche R, Ludtke R, Hilgers RA, Creutzfeldt W. Early ERCP and papillotomy compared with conservative treatment for acute biliary pancreatitis. The German Study Group on Acute Biliary Pancreatitis. N Engl J Med 1997;336:237–242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Beger HG, Bittner R, Block S, et al. Bacterial contamination of pancreatic necrosis. A prospective clinical study. Gastroenterology 1986;91:433–438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Pederzoli P, Bassi C, Vesentini S, et al. A randomized multicenter clinical trial of antibiotic prophylaxis of septic complications in acute necrotizing pancreatitis with imipenem. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1993;176:480–483.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Sainio V, Kemppainen E, Puolakkainen P, et al. Early antibiotic treatment in acute necrotising pancreatitis [see comments]. Lancet 1995;346:663–667.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Schwarz M, Isenmann R, Meyer H, et al. Antibiotic use in necrotizing pancreatitis. Results of a controlled study [in German]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1997;122:356–361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Nordback I, Sand J, Saaristo R, et al. Early treatment with antibiotics reduces the need for surgery in acute necrotizing pancreatitis—a single-center randomized study. J Gastrointest Surg 2001;5:113–118; discussion 118–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Isenmann R, Runzi M, Kron M, et al. for the German Antibiotics in Severe Acute Pancreatitis Study Group. Prophylactic antibiotic treatment in patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis: a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Gastroenterology 2004;126:997–1004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Luiten EJ, Hop WC, Lange JF, et al. Controlled clinical trial of selective decontamination for the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis. Ann Surg 1995;222:57–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Partington PF, Rochelle REL. Modified Puestow procedure for retrograde drainage of the pancreatic duct. Ann Surg 1960;152:1037–1043.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Warshaw AL, Popp JW Jr, Schapiro RH. Long-term patency, pancreatic function, and pain relief after lateral pancreaticoduodenectomy for chronic pancreatitis. Gastroenterology 1980;79:289–293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Prinz RA, Greenlee HB. Pancreatic duct drainage in 100 patients with chronic pancreatitis. Ann Surg 1981;194:313–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Holmberg JT. Chronic pancreatitis. Ann Surg 1985;160:3.Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Munn JS, Aranha GV, Greenlee HB, et al. Simultaneous treatment of chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic pseudocyst. Arch Surg 1987;122:662–667.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Bradley ELD. Long-term results of pancreatojejunostomy in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Am J Surg 1987;153:207–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Nealon WH, Townsend CM Jr, Thompson JC. Operative drainage of the pancreatic duct delays functional impairment in patients with chronic pancreatitis. A prospective analysis. Ann Surg 1988;208:321–329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Greenlee HB, Prinz RA, Aranha GV. Long-term results of side-to-side pancreaticojejunostomy. World J Surg 1990;14:70–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Adams DB, Ford MC, Anderson MC. Outcome after lateral pancreaticojejunostomy for chronic pancreatitis. Ann Surg 1994;219:481–487; discussion 487–489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Rios GA, Adams DB, Yeoh KG, et al. Outcome of lateral pancreaticojejunostomy in the management of chronic pancreatitis with nondilated pancreatic ducts. J Gastrointest Surg 1998;2:223–229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Lucas CE, McIntosh B, Paley D, et al. Chronic pancreatitis. Surgery (St. Louis) 1999;126:790.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Nealon WH, Matin S. Analysis of surgical success in preventing recurrent acute exacerbations in chronic pancreatitis. Ann Surg 2001;233:793–800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Buchler MW, Friess H, Müller MW, et al. Randomized trial of duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection versus pylorus-preserving Whipple in chronic pancreatitis. Am J Surg 1995;169:65–69; discussion 69–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Izbicki JR, Bloechle C, Knoefel WT, et al. Duodenum-preserving resection of the head of the pancreas in chronic pancreatitis. A prospective, randomized trial. Ann Surg 1995;221:350–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Izbicki JR, Bloeunle C, Broering DC, et al. Extended drainage versus resection in surgery for chronic pancreatitis: a prospective randomized trial comparing the longitudinal pancreaticojejunostomy combined with local pancreatic head excision with the pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. Ann Surg 1998;228:771–779.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Strate T, Taherpour Z, Bloechle C, et al. Long-term follow-up of a randomized trial comparing the Beger and Frey procedures for patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis. Ann Surg 2005;241:591–598.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Braasch JW, Vito L, Nugent FW. Total pancreatectomy of end-stage chronic pancreatitis. Ann Surg 1978;188:317–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Rossi RL, Rothschild J, Braasch JW, et al. Pancreatoduodenectomy in the management of chronic pancreatitis. Arch Surg 1987;122:416–420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Beger HG, Büchler M, Bittner RR, et al. Duodenum-preserving resection of the head of the pancreas in severe chronic pancreatitis. Early and late results. Ann Surg 1989;209:273–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Easter DW, Cuschieri A. Total pancreatectomy with preservation of the duodenum and pylorus for chronic pancreatitis. Ann Surg 1991;214:575–580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Frey CF, Amikura K. Local resection of the head of the pancreas combined with longitudinal pancreaticojejunostomy in the management of patients with chronic pancreatitis. Ann Surg 1994;220:492–504; discussion 504–507.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Sawyer R, Frey CF. Is there still a role for distal pancreatectomy in surgery for chronic pancreatitis? Am J Surg 1994;168:6–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Martin RF, Rossi RL, Leslie KA. Long-term results of pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy for chronic pancreatitis. Arch Surg 1996;131:247–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Rattner DW, Fernandez-del Castillo C, Warshaw AL. Pitfalls of distal pancreatectomy for relief of pain in chronic pancreatitis. Am J Surg 1996;171:142–145; discussion 145–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Traverso LW, Kozarek RA. Pancreatoduodenectomy for chronic pancreatitis: anatomic selection criteria and subsequent long-term outcome analysis. Ann Surg 1997;226:429–434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Eddes EH, Masclee AM, Gooszen HG, et al. Effect of duodenum-preserving resection of the head of the pancreas on endocrine and exocrine pancreatic function in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Am J Surg 1997;174:387–392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Beger H. Chronic pancreatitis. Ann Surg 1999;230:512.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Lin PW, Lin YJ. Prospective randomized comparison between pylorus-preserving and standard pancreaticoduodenectomy. Br J Surg 1999;86:603–607.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Tran KT, Smeenk HG, van Eijck CH, et al. Pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy versus standard Whipple procedure: a prospective, randomized, multicenter analysis of 170 patients with pancreatic and periampullary tumors. Ann Surg 2004;240:738–745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Seiler CA, Wagner M, Bachmann T, et al. Randomized clinical trial of pylorus-preserving duodenopancreatectomy versus classical Whipple resection-long term results. Br J Surg 2005;92:547–556.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Kaiser MH, Ellenberg SS. Pancreatic cancer. Adjuvant combined radiation and chemotherapy following curative resection. Arch Surg 1985;120:899–903.Google Scholar
  243. 243.
    Bakkevold KE, Kambestad B. Morbidity and mortality after radical and palliative pancreatic cancer surgery. Risk factors influencing the short-term results. Ann Surg 1993;217:356–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Lygidakis NJ, Stringaris K. Adjuvant therapy following pancreatic resection for pancreatic duct carcinoma: a prospective randomized study. Hepato-Gastroenterology 1996;43:671–680.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Klinkenbijl JH, Jeekel J, Sahmoud T, et al. Adjuvant radiotherapy and 5-fluorouracil after curative resection of cancer of the pancreas and periampullary region: phase III trial of the EORTC gastrointestinal tract cancer cooperative group. Ann Surg 1999;230:776–782.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Takada T, Amano H, Yasuda H, et al. Is postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy useful for gallbladder carcinoma? A phase III multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial in patients with resected pancreaticobiliary carcinoma. Cancer 2002;95:1685–1695.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Neoptolemos JP, Stocken DD, Dunn JA, et al. Influence of resection margins on survival for patients with pancreatic cancer treated by adjuvant chemoradiation and/or chemotherapy in the ESPAC-1 randomized controlled trial. Ann Surg 2001;234:758–768.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Neoptolemos JP, Stocken DD, Friess H, et al. A randomized trial of chemoradiotherapy and chemotherapy after resection of pancreatic cancer [erratum in N Engl J Med 2004;351:726]. N Engl J Med 2004;350:1200–1210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Trede M, Schwall G, Saeger HD. Survival after pancreatoduodenectomy. 118 consecutive resections without an operative mortality. Ann Surg 1990;211:447–458.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Nagakawa T, Nagamori M, Futakami F, et al. Results of extensive surgery for pancreatic carcinoma. Cancer (Phila) 1996;77:640–645.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Conlon KC, Klimstra DS, Brennan MF. Long-term survival after curative resection for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Clinicopathologic analysis of 5-year survivors. Ann Surg 1996;223:273–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Sohn TA, Yeo CJ, Cameron JL, et al. Resected adenocarcinoma of the pancreas-616 patients: results, outcomes, and prognostic indicators. J Gastrointest Surg 2000;4(6):567–569.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert E. Glasgow
    • 1
  • Sean J. Mulvihill
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryThe University of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA
  3. 3.Huntsman Cancer InstituteThe University of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA

Personalised recommendations