Surgery pp 771-790 | Cite as

Principles of Minimally Invasive Surgery

  • Theodore N. Pappas
  • Alison M. Fecher


The historical development of laparoscopy can be traced to early in the 19th century when Bozzini, an Italian physician living in Germany, first examined the abdominal cavity using reflected candlelight.1 In 1901, George Kelling, a German, described the establishment of a pneumoperitoneum (PNP) and trocar placement through which a cystoscope was placed. In the early 1930s throughout Europe, modern laparoscopy was popularized by Kalk, who used room air to create a PNP.2,3 Laparoscopy was initially applied in gynecological procedures, and it was not until 1991 that general surgeons began to take notice when Muhe introduced the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in Germany.4


Laparoscopic Surgery Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Mean Arterial Pressure Central Venous Pressure Pulmonary Capillary Wedge Pressure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Theodore N. Pappas
    • 1
    • 2
  • Alison M. Fecher
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Administration and SurgeryDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Private Diagnostic ClinicDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA
  3. 3.Department of SurgeryDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA

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