Surgery pp 75-100 | Cite as

Mediators of Inflammation and Injury

  • Stephen F. Lowry
  • Edward Lin
  • Steve E. Calvano


The response to injury or infection in the surgical patient is characterized by diverse endocrine, metabolic, and immunological alterations. If the inciting injury is minor and of limited duration, then wound healing and restoration of metabolic and immune homeostasis occur with relatively minimal intervention. By contrast, major insults to the host are associated with greater alterations in endogenous regulatory processes that, without appropriate and timely intervention, impact negatively on survival or full restoration of cellular and organ function. The spectrum of metabolic and immunological dysfunction arising from major injuries or severe infections is complex. Conceptually, it is beneficial to consider the initial response to injury—be it surgical, traumatic, or infectious—as inherently inflammatory, marked by the activation of cellular processes designed to restore or maintain function within tissues while also promoting the eradication of invading microorganisms. The initial proinflammatory processes are followed by antiinflammatory or counterregulatory processes that are equally important in the restoration of homeostasis to the host (Fig. 4.1).1


Luteinizing Hormone Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Neutrophil Apoptosis Reactive Oxygen Metabolite 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen F. Lowry
    • 1
  • Edward Lin
    • 2
  • Steve E. Calvano
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryUniversity of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical SchoolNew BrunswickUSA
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryEmory University School of MedicineAtlantaUSA

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