Surgery pp 461-469 | Cite as

Traumatic Brain Injury

  • Kyle Chappie
  • Roger Hartl


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is graded as mild, moderate, or severe based on the level of consciousness or the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score after resuscitation (Table 26.1). Mild TBI is defined with a GCS score between 13 and 15. In most cases it represents a concussion, and there is full neurological recovery, although many patients reveal short-term memory and concentration deficits. Patients with moderate TBI are typically stuporous and lethargic with a GCS score between 9 and 13. A comatose patient who is unable to open his or her eyes or follow commands has a GCS score of less than 9 and by definition has a severe TBI.


Traumatic Brain Injury Glasgow Coma Scale Intracranial Hypertension Cerebral Perfusion Pressure Hypertonic Saline 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kyle Chappie
    • 1
  • Roger Hartl
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Neurological SurgeryWeill Cornell Medical CollegeNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Neurological SurgeryWeill Cornell Medical CollegeNew YorkUSA

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