Surgery pp 305-321 | Cite as

Shock and Resuscitation

  • Avery B. Nathens
  • Ronald V. Maier


In 1872, Gross referred to shock as the “manifestation of the rude unhinging of the machinery of life.”1 We now know that shock, at its most fundamental level, represents the clinical syndrome arising as a result of inadequate tissue perfusion. The discrepancy between substrate delivery and the cellular substrate requirement leads to cellular metabolic dysfunction. Inadequate oxygen delivery is implicated as the principal defect in shock states. The clinical manifestations of shock are caused by end-organ dysfunction secondary to impaired perfusion and the body’s sympathetic and neuroendocrine response to an insufficient cellular supply/demand ratio for oxygen.


Spinal Cord Injury Septic Shock Cardiogenic Shock Systemic Vascular Resistance Hemorrhagic Shock 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Avery B. Nathens
    • 1
  • Ronald V. Maier
    • 2
  1. 1.Surgical Critical Care, Department of SurgeryUniversity of Washington/Harborview Medical CenterSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryHarborview Medical CenterSeattleUSA

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