Advertisement

Surgery pp 259-272 | Cite as

Intraabdominal Infections

  • Michael A. West
  • Michael B. Shapiro

Abstract

A century ago, infectious complications severely limited the capacity of surgeons to care for abdominal pathology. Advances in medical care over the past 100 years have made abdominal surgery remarkably safe. There is a sense that even extensive procedures are “routine,” particularly in patients who do not have major comorbidities. Although we often think that progress has limited infectious complications, the reality is that in 2006 infections are the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in surgical patients.1, 2, 3

Keywords

Acute Appendicitis Acute Cholecystitis Abdominal Trauma Laparoscopic Appendectomy Open Appendectomy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Cheadle WG, Spain DA. The continuing challenge of intraabdominal infection. Am J Surg 2003;186(5A):15S–22S; discussion 31S–34S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Raymond DP, Pelletier SJ, Crabtree TD, et al. Surgical infection and the aging population. Am Surg 2001;67:827–832; discussion 832–833.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barie PS. Serious intra-abdominal infections. Curr Opin Crit Care 2001;7:263–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Uggeri FR, Perego E, Franciosi C, Uggeri FA. Surgical approach to the intraabdominal infections. Minerva Anestesiol 2004;70:175–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Marshall JC, Innes M. Intensive care unit management of intra-abdominal infection. Crit Care Med 2003;31:2228–2237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brook I. Microbiology and management of intra-abdominal infections in children. Pediatr Int 2003;45:123–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    van Goor H. Surgical treatment of severe intra-abdominal infection. Hepatogastroenterology 1997;44:975–981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Barie PS. Management of complicated intra-abdominal infections. J Chemother 1999;11:464–477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hau T. Management of peritonitis. Curr Surg 1984;41:165–167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Solomkin JS, Wittman DW, West MA, Barie PS. Intraabdominal Infections. In: Schwartz SI, Shires GT, Spencer FC, et al., eds. Principles of Surgery, 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999:1515–1550.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Solomkin JS, Dellinger EP, Christou NV, Busuttil RW. Results of a multicenter trial comparing imipenem/cilastatin to tobramycin/clindamycin for intra-abdominal infections. Ann Surg 1990;212:581–591.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mosdell DM, Morris DM, Voltura A, et al. Antibiotic treatment for surgical peritonitis. Ann Surg 1991;214:543–549.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Onderdonk AB, Weinstein WM, Sullivan NM, et al. Experimental intra-abdominal abscesses in rats: quantitative bacteriology of infected animals. Infect Immun 1974;10:1256–1259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Onderdonk AB, Kasper DL, Mansheim Bf, Louie TG, Gorbach SL, Bartlett JG. Experimental animal models for anaerobic infections. Rev Infect Dis 1979;1:291–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Polk BF, Kasper DL. Bacteroides fragilis subspecies in clinical isolates. Ann Intern Med 1977;86:569–571.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zaleznik DF, Kasper DL. The role of anaerobic bacteria in abscess formation. Annu Rev Med 1982;33:217–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Onderdonk AB, Kasper DL, Cisneros RL, Bartlett JG. The capsular polysaccharide of Bacteroides fragilis as a virulence factor: comparison of the pathogenic potential of encapsulated and unencapsulated strains. J Infect Dis 1977;136:82–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bartlett JG, Onderdonk AB, Louie T, et al. A review. Lessons from an animal model of intra-abdominal sepsis. Arch Surg 1978;113:853–857.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rotstein OD, Kao J. The spectrum of Escherichia coli-Bacteroides fragilis pathogenic synergy in an intraabdominal infection model. Can J Microbiol 1988;34:352–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dunn DL, Rotstein OD, Simmons RL. Fibrin in peritonitis. IV. Synergistic intraperitoneal infection caused by Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis within fibrin clots. Arch Surg 1984;119:139–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Evans HL, Sawyer RG. Cycling chemotherapy: a promising approach to reducing the morbidity and mortality of nosocomial infections. Drugs Today (Barc) 2003;39:733–738.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Noskin GA. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci: clinical, microbiologic, and epidemiologic features. J Lab Clin Med 1997;130:14–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mylotte JM, Goodnough S, Tayara A. Antibiotic-resistant organisms among long-term care facility residents on admission to an inpatient geriatrics unit: retrospective and prospective surveillance. Am J Infect Control 2001;29:139–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Raymond DP, Kuehnert MJ, Sawyer RG. Preventing antimicrobial-resistant bacterial infections in surgical patients. Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2002;3:375–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Heemken R, Gandawidjaja L, Hau T. Peritonitis: pathophysiology and local defense mechanisms. Hepatogastroenterology 1997;44:927–936.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hau T, Ahrenholz DH, Simmons RL. Secondary bacterial peritonitis: the biologic basis of treatment. Curr Probl Surg 1979;16:1–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dallegri F, Ottonello L. Tissue injury in neutrophilic inflammation. Inflamm Res 1997;46:382–391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Suntres ZE, Omri A, Shek PN. Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced lung injury: role of oxidative stress. Microb Pathog 2002;32:27–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hesse DG, Tracey KJ, Fong Y, et al. Cytokine appearance in human endotoxemia and primate bacteremia. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1988;166:147–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Malangoni MA. Pathogenesis and treatment of intra-abdominal infection. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1990;171(suppl):31–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wittmann DH, Schein M, Condon RE. Management of secondary peritonitis. Ann Surg 1996;224:10–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Schwan A, Ryden AC, Laurell G. Fecal bacterial flora of four nordic population groups with diverse incidence of large bowel cancer. Nutr Cancer 1982;4:74–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mai V, Morris JG Jr. Colonic bacterial flora: changing understandings in the molecular age. J Nutr 2004;134:459–464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Farthmann EH, Schoffel U. Epidemiology and pathophysiology of intraabdominal infections (IAI). Infection 1998;26:329–334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dellinger EP, Wertz MJ, Meakins JL, et al. Surgical infection stratification system for intra-abdominal infection. Multicenter trial. Arch Surg 1985;120:21–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Davis JL. Treatment of peritonitis. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2003;19:765–778.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kirkpatrick AW, Baxter KA, Simons RK, et al. Intra-abdominal complications after surgical repair of small bowel injuries: an international review. J Trauma 2003;55:399–406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dobremez E, Lavrand F, Lefevre Y, et al. Treatment of post-appendectomy intra-abdominal deep abscesses. Eur J Pediatr Surg 2003;13:393–397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Schein M. Surgical management of intra-abdominal infection: is there any evidence? Langenbecks Arch Surg 2002;387:1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Evans HL, Raymond DP, Pelletier SJ, et al. Diagnosis of intraabdominal infection in the critically ill patient. Curr Opin Crit Care 2001;7:117–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Jimenez MF, Marshall JC. Source control in the management of sepsis. Intensive Care Med 2001;27(suppl 1):S49–S62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Marshall JC, Maier RV, Jimenez M, Dellinger EP. Source control in the management of severe sepsis and septic shock: an evidence-based review. Crit Care Med 2004;32(11 suppl):S513–S526.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Berger D, Buttenschoen K. Management of abdominal sepsis. Langenbecks Arch Surg 1998;383:35–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Dunn DL, Barke RA, Knight NB, et al. Role of resident macrophages, peripheral neutrophils, and translymphatic absorption in bacterial clearance from the peritoneal cavity. Infect Immun 1985;49:257–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Burke JF, Miles AA. The sequence of vascular events in early infective inflammation. J Pathol Bacteriol 1958;76:1–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Pruett TL, Rotstein OD, Wells CL, et al. Mechanism of the adjuvant effect of hemoglobin in experimental peritonitis. IX: The infection-potentiating effect of hemoglobin in Escherichia coli peritonitis is strain specific. Surgery 1985;98:371–377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hau T, Lee JT Jr, Simmons RL. Mechanisms of the adjuvant effect of hemoglobin in experimental peritonitis. IV. The adjuvant effect of hemoglobin in granulocytopenic rats. Surgery 1981;89:187–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rotstein OD. Role of fibrin deposition in the pathogenesis of intraabdominal infection. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1992;11:1064–1068.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Sganga G. New perspectives in antibiotic prophylaxis for intraabdominal surgery. J Hosp Infect 2002;50(suppl A):S17–S21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Fabian TC. Infection in penetrating abdominal trauma: risk factors and preventive antibiotics. Am Surg 2002;68:29–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Mazuski JE, Sawyer RG, Nathens AB, et al. The Surgical Infection Society Guidelines on antimicrobial therapy for intraabdominal infections: an executive summary. Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2002;3:161–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Mangram Af. A brief overview of the 1999 CDC Guideline for the Prevention of Surgical Site Infection. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. J Chemother 2001;13 (spec no 1):35–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Guenaga KF, Matos D, Castro AA, et al. Mechanical bowel preparation for elective colorectal surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003:CD001544.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Solomkin JS, Mazuski JE, Baron EJ, et al. Guidelines for the selection of anti-infective agents for complicated intraabdominal infections. Clin Infect Dis 2003;37:997–1005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Arkilic CF, Taguchi A, Sharma N, et al. Supplemental perioperative fluid administration increases tissue oxygen pressure. Surgery 2003;133:49–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Mathieson A. Pre-op warming reduces infections. Br J Perioper Nurs 2000;10:541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Saadat D, Lowenfels AB. Effect of preoperative warming on wound infection. Lancet 2002;359:445–446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Greif R, Sessler DI. Supplemental oxygen and risk of surgical site infection. JAMA 2004;291:1957; author reply 1958–1959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Akca O, Sessler DI. Supplemental oxygen and risk of surgical site infection. JAMA 2004;291:1956–1957; author reply 1958–1959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Guvener M, Pasaoglu I, Demircin M, Oc M. Perioperative hyperglycemia is a strong correlate of postoperative infection in type II diabetic patients after coronary artery bypass grafting. Endocr J 2002;49:531–537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Furnary AP, Wu Y, Bookin SO. Effect of hyperglycemia and continuous intravenous insulin infusions on outcomes of cardiac surgical procedures: the Portland Diabetic Project. Endocr Pract 2004;10(suppl 2):21–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Balague Ponz C, Trias M. Laparoscopic surgery and surgical infection. J Chemother 2001;13 (spec no 1):17–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Mowat C, Stanley AJ. Review article: spontaneous bacterial peritonitis—diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2001;15:1851–1859.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Malangoni MA. Evaluation and management of tertiary peritonitis. Am Surg 2000;66:157–161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Nathens AB, Rotstein OD, Marshall JC. Tertiary peritonitis: clinical features of a complex nosocomial infection. World J Surg 1998;22:158–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Evans HL, Raymond DP, Pelletier SJ, et al. Tertiary peritonitis (recurrent diffuse or localized disease) is not an independent predictor of mortality in surgical patients with intraabdominal infection. Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2001;2:255–263; discussion 264–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Bosscha K, van Vroonhoven TJ, van der Werken C. Surgical management of severe secondary peritonitis. Br J Surg 1999;86:1371–1377.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Holzheimer RG, Dralle H. Antibiotic therapy in intraabdominal infections—a review on randomised clinical trials. Eur J Med Res 2001;6:277–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Fabian TC, Croce MA, Payne LW, et al. Duration of antibiotic therapy for penetrating abdominal trauma: a prospective trial. Surgery 1992;112:788–794; discussion 794–795.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Marshall JC, Cook DJ, Christou NV, et al. Multiple organ dysfunction score: a reliable descriptor of a complex clinical outcome. Grit Care Med 1995;23:1638–1652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Livingston DH, Mosenthal AC, Deitch EA. Sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome: a clinical-mechanistic overview. New Horiz 1995;3:257–266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Rotstein OD. Pathogenesis of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome: gut origin, protection, and decontamination. Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2000;1:217–223; discussion 223–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Bohnen JM, Marshall JC, Fry DE, et al. Clinical and scientific importance of source control in abdominal infections: summary of a symposium. Can J Surg 1999;42:122–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Jaffe TA, Nelson RC, Delong DM, Paulson EK. Practice patterns in percutaneous image-guided intraabdominal abscess drainage: survey of academic and private practice centers. Radiology 2004;233:750–756.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Sirinek KR. Diagnosis and treatment of intra-abdominal abscesses. Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2000;1:31–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Dougherty SH, Simmons RL. The biology and practice of surgical drains. Part 1. Curr Probl Surg 1992;29:559–623.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Nathens AB, Rotstein OD. Antimicrobial therapy for intraabdominal infection. Am J Surg 1996;172(6A):1S–6S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Farber MS, Abrams JH. Antibiotics for the acute abdomen. Surg Clin North Am 1997;77:1395–1417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Solomkin JS, Umanskiy K. Intraabdominal sepsis: newer interventional and antimicrobial therapies for infected necrotizing pancreatitis. Curr Opin Crit Care 2003;9:424–427.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Burnett RJ, Haverstock DC, Dellinger EP, et al. Definition of the role of enterococcus in intraabdominal infection: analysis of a prospective randomized trial. Surgery 1995;118:716–271; discussion 721–723.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Wacha H, Hau T, Dittmer R, Ohmann C. Risk factors associated with intraabdominal infections: a prospective multicenter study. Peritonitis Study Group. Langenbecks Arch Surg 1999;384:24–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Smith RL 2nd, Sawyer RG, Pruett TL. Hospital-acquired infections in the surgical intensive care: epidemiology and prevention. Zentralbl Chir 2003;128:1047–1061.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Rosengren D, Brown AF, Chu K. Radiological imaging to improve the emergency department diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Emerg Med Australas 2004;16:410–416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Katkhouda N, Mason RJ, Towfigh S, et al. Laparoscopic versus open appendectomy: a prospective randomized double-blind study. Ann Surg 2005;242:439–448; discussion 448–450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Guller U, Hervey S, Purves H, et al. Laparoscopic versus open appendectomy: outcomes comparison based on a large administrative database. Ann Surg 2004;239:43–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Eypasch E, Sauerland S, Lefering R, Neugebauer EA. Laparoscopic versus open appendectomy: between evidence and common sense. Dig Surg 2002;19:518–522.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Ignacio RC, Burke R, Spencer D, et al. Laparoscopic versus open appendectomy: what is the real difference? Results of a prospective randomized double-blinded trial. Surg Endosc 2004;18:334–337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Carbonell AM, Burns JM, Lincourt AE, Harold KL. Outcomes of laparoscopic versus open appendectomy. Am Surg 2004;70:759–765; discussion 765–766.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Mancini GJ, Mancini ML, Nelson HS Jr. Efficacy of laparoscopic appendectomy in appendicitis with peritonitis. Am Surg 2005;71:1–4; discussion 4–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Ball CG, Kortbeek JB, Kirkpatrick AW, Mitchell P. Laparoscopic appendectomy for complicated appendicitis: an evaluation of postoperative factors. Surg Endosc 2004;18:969–973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Sauerland S, Lefering R, Neugebauer EA. Laparoscopic versus open surgery for suspected appendicitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002:CD001546.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Andersen BR, Kallehave FL, Andersen HK. Antibiotics versus placebo for prevention of postoperative infection after appendicectomy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003:CD001439.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Wittmann DH, Schein M. Let us shorten antibiotic prophylaxis and therapy in surgery. Am J Surg 1996;172(6A):26S–32S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Mui LM, Ng CS, Wong SK, et al. Optimum duration of prophylactic antibiotics in acute non-perforated appendicitis. ANZ J Surg 2005;75:425–428.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Gorecki P, Schein M, Rucinski JC, Wise L. Antibiotic administration in patients undergoing common surgical procedures in a community teaching hospital: the chaos continues. World J Surg 1999;23:429–432; discussion 433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Brown CV, Abrishami M, Muller M, Velmahos GC. Appendiceal abscess: immediate operation or percutaneous drainage? Am Surg 2003;69:829–832.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Yamini D, Vargas H, Bongard F, et al. Perforated appendicitis: is it truly a surgical urgency? Am Surg 1998;64:970–975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Barie PS, Eachempati SR. Acute acalculous cholecystitis. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2003;5:302–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Trowbridge RL, Rutkowski NK, Shojania KG. Does this patient have acute cholecystitis? JAMA 2003;289:80–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Kanafani ZA, Khalife N, Kanj SS, et al. Antibiotic use in acute cholecystitis: practice patterns in the absence of evidence-based guidelines. J Infect 2005;51:128–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Ito K, Fujita N, Noda Y, et al. Percutaneous cholecystostomy versus gallbladder aspiration for acute cholecystitis: a prospective randomized controlled trial. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2004;183:193–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Glavic Z, Begic L, Simlesa D, Rukavina A. Treatment of acute cholecystitis. A comparison of open versus laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Surg Endosc 2001;15:398–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Koperna T, Kisser M, Schulz F. Laparoscopic versus open treatment of patients with acute cholecystitis. Hepatogastroenterology 1999;46:753–757.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Chandler CF, Lane JS, Ferguson P, et al. Prospective evaluation of early versus delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy for treatment of acute cholecystitis. Am Surg 2000;66:896–900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Kanaan SA, Murayama KM, Merriam LT, et al. Risk factors for conversion of laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy. J Surg Res 2002;106:20–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Lee WJ, Chang KJ, Lee CS, Chen KM. Surgery in cholangitis: bacteriology and choice of antibiotic. Hepatogastroenterology 1992;39:347–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Teppler H, McCarroll K, Gesser RM, Woods GL. Surgical infections with enterococcus: outcome in patients treated with ertapenem versus piperacillin-tazobactam. Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2002;3:337–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Petrowsky H, Demartines N, Rousson V, Clavien PA. Evidence-based value of prophylactic drainage in gastrointestinal surgery: a systematic review and meta-analyses. Ann Surg 2004;240:1074–1084; discussion 1084–1085.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Floch MH, Bina I. The natural history of diverticulitis: fact and theory. J Clin Gastroenterol 2004;38(5 suppl):S2–S7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Acosta JA, Grebenc ML, Doberneck RC, et al. Colonic diverticular disease in patients 40 years old or younger. Am Surg 1992;58:605–607.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Buchanan GN, Kenefick NJ, Cohen CR. Diverticulitis. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2002;16:635–647.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Gooszen AW, Gooszen HG, Veerman W, et al. Operative treatment of acute complications of diverticular disease: primary or secondary anastomosis after sigmoid resection. Eur J Surg 2001;167:35–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Salem L, Flum DR. Primary anastomosis or Hartman’s procedure for patients with diverticular peritonitis? A systematic review. Dis Colon Rectum 2004;47:1953–1964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Pessaux P, Muscari F, Ouellet JF, et al. Risk factors for mortality and morbidity after elective sigmoid resection for diverticulitis: prospective multicenter multivariate analysis of 582 patients. World J Surg 2004;28:92–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Tursi A. Acute diverticulitis of the colon—current medical therapeutic management. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2004;5:55–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Schilling MK, Maurer CA, Kollmar O, Buchler MW. Primary versus secondary anastomosis after sigmoid colon resection for perforated diverticulitis (Hinchey stage HI and IV): a prospective outcome and cost analysis. Dis Colon Rectum 2001;44:699–703; discussion 703–705.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Yasuhara H. Acute mesenteric ischemia: the challenge of gastroenterology. Surg Today 2005;35:185–195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Revelly JP, Ayuse T, Brienza N, et al. Endotoxic shock alters distribution of blood flow within the intestinal wall. Crit Care Med 1996;24:1345–1351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Hiltebrand LB, Krejci V, Banic A, et al. Dynamic study of the distribution of microcirculatory blood flow in multiple splanchnic organs in septic shock. Crit Care Med 2000;28:3233–3241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Hiltebrand LB, Krejci V, tenHoevel ME, et al. Redistribution of microcirculatory blood flow within the intestinal wall during sepsis and general anesthesia. Anesthesiology 2003;98:658–669.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Tsunooka N, Hamada Y, Imagawa H, et al. Ischemia of the intestinal mucosa during cardiopulmonary bypass. J Artif Organs 2003;6:149–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Tsunooka N, Maeyama K, Hamada Y, et al. Bacterial translocation secondary to small intestinal mucosal ischemia during cardiopulmonary bypass. Measurement by diamine oxidase and peptidoglycan. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2004;25:275–280.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Meddah AT, Leke L, Romond MB, et al. The effects of mesenteric ischemia on ileal colonization, intestinal integrity, and bacterial translocation in newborn piglets. Pediatr Surg Int 2001;17:515–520.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Wiesner W, Khurana B, Ji H, Ros PR. CT of acute bowel ischemia. Radiology 2003;226:635–650.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Park WM, Gloviczki P, Cherry KJ Jr, et al. Contemporary management of acute mesenteric ischemia: factors associated with survival. J Vasc Surg 2002;35:445–452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Bulkley GB, Zuidema GD, Hamilton SR, et al. Intraoperative determination of small intestinal viability following ischemic injury: a prospective, controlled trial of two adjuvant methods (Doppler and fluorescein) compared with standard clinical judgment. Ann Surg 1981;193:628–637.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Johansson K, Ahn H, Lindhagen J. Intraoperative assessment of blood flow and tissue viability in small-bowel ischemia by laser Doppler flowmetry. Acta Chir Scand 1989;155:341–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Anadol AZ, Ersoy E, Taneri F, Tekin EH. Laparoscopic “second-look” in the management of mesenteric ischemia. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2004;14:191–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Moore EE, Burch JM, Franciose RJ, et al. Staged physiologic restoration and damage control surgery. World J Surg 1998;22:1184–1190; discussion 1190–1191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Nicholas JM, Rix EP, Easley KA, et al. Changing patterns in the management of penetrating abdominal trauma: the more things change, the more they stay the same. J Trauma 2003;55:1095–1108; discussion 1108–1110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Johnson JW, Gracias VH, Schwab CW, et al. Evolution in damage control for exsanguinating penetrating abdominal injury. J Trauma 2001;51:261–269; discussion 269–271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Finlay IG, Edwards TJ, Lambert AW. Damage control laparotomy. Br J Surg 2004;91:83–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Sharp KW, Locicero RJ. Abdominal packing for surgically uncontrollable hemorrhage. Ann Surg 1992;215:467–474; discussion 474–475.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Hau T, Ohmann C, Wolmershauser A, et al. Planned relaparotomy versus relaparotomy on demand in the treatment of intra-abdominal infections. The Peritonitis Study Group of the Surgical Infection Society-Europe. Arch Surg 1995;130:1193–1196; discussion 1196–1197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Sherck J, Seiver A, Shatney C, et al. Covering the “open abdomen”: a better technique. Am Surg 1998;64:854–857.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Wittmann DH. Operative and nonoperative therapy of intraabdominal infections. Infection 1998;26:335–341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    McGilvray ID, Rotstein OD. Management of infection in the surgical patient: an update. Surg Technol Int 2003;11:39–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Chambers WM, Mortensen NJ. Postoperative leakage and abscess formation after colorectal surgery. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2004;18:865–880.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Fry DE. Noninvasive imaging tests in the diagnosis and treatment of intra-abdominal abscesses in the postoperative patient. Surg Clin North Am 1994;74:693–709.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Danielson D, West MA. Recent developments in clinical management of surgical sepsis. Curr Opin Crit Care 2001;7:367–370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Falconi M, Pederzoli P. The relevance of gastrointestinal fistulae in clinical practice: a review. Gut 2001;49(suppl 4):iv2–ivlO.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Curtin JP, Burt LL. Successful treatment of small intestine fistula with somatostatin analog. Gynecol Oncol 1990;39:225–227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Freeark RJ. Penetrating wounds of the abdomen. N Engl J Med 1974;291:185–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Morales CH, Villegas MI, Villavicencio R, et al. Intra-abdominal infection in patients with abdominal trauma. Arch Surg 2004;139:1278–1285; discussion 1285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Shapiro MB, Jenkins DH, Schwab CW, Rotondo MF. Damage control: collective review. J Trauma 2000;49:969–978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Granchi TS, Abikhaled JA, Hirshberg A, et al. Patterns of microbiology in intra-abdominal packing for trauma. J Trauma 2004;56:45–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Schein M, Saadia R. To wash or not to wash? Intra-operative peritoneal lavage in the contaminated peritoneal cavity. S Afr J Surg 1989;27:22–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Kimmelstiel F, Anaise D, Waltzer WC, Rapaport FT. Continuous postoperative peritoneal lavage for the management of intraabdominal sepsis in renal allograft recipients. Transplant Proc 1988;20:101–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Schein M, Gecelter G, Freinkel W, et al. Peritoneal lavage in abdominal sepsis. A controlled clinical study. Arch Surg 1990;125:1132–1135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Whiteside OJ, Tytherleigh MG, Thrush S, et al. Intra-operative peritoneal lavage—who does it and why? Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2005;87:255–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Dunn DL, Barke RA, Ahrenholz DH, et al. The adjuvant effect of peritoneal fluid in experimental peritonitis. Mechanism and clinical implications. Ann Surg 1984;199:37–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Kirton OC, O’Neill PA, Kestner M, Tortella BJ. Perioperative antibiotic use in high-risk penetrating hollow viscus injury: a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-control trial of 24h versus 5 days. J Trauma 2000;49:822–832.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Cornwell EE 3rd, Dougherty WR, Berne TV, et al. Duration of antibiotic prophylaxis in high-risk patients with penetrating abdominal trauma: a prospective randomized trial. J Gastrointest Surg 1999;3:648–653.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Bozorgzadeh A, Pizzi WF, Barie PS, et al. The duration of antibiotic administration in penetrating abdominal trauma. Am J Surg 1999;177:125–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Kamwendo NY, Modiba MC, Matlala NS, Becker PJ. Randomized clinical trial to determine if delay from time of penetrating colonic injury precludes primary repair. Br J Surg 2002;89:993–998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Griswold JA, Muakkassa FF, Betcher E, Poole GV. injury severity dictates individualized antibiotic therapy in penetrating abdominal trauma. Am Surg 1993;59:34–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Solomkin JS. Antibiotic resistance in postoperative infections. Crit Care Med 2001;29(4 suppl):N97–N99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Greif R, Akca O, Horn EP, Kurz A, Sessler DI. Supplemental perioperative oxygen to reduce the incidence of surgical-wound infection. Outcomes Research Group. N Engl J Med 2000;342:161–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Pryor KO, Fahey TJ 3rd, Lien CA, Goldstein PA. Surgical site infection and the routine use of perioperative hyperoxia in a general surgical population: a randomized controlled trial. Jama 2004;291:79–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Wille-Jorgensen P, Guenaga KF, Castro AA, Matos D. Clinical value of preoperative mechanical bowel cleansing in elective colorectal surgery: a systematic review. Dis Colon Rectum 2003;46:1013–1020.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Zmora O, Mahajna A, Bar-Zakai B, et al. Colon and rectal surgery without mechanical bowel preparation: a randomized prospective trial. Ann Surg 2003;237:363–367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Bucher P, Mermillod B, Morel P, Soravia C. Does mechanical bowel preparation have a role in preventing postoperative complications in elective colorectal surgery? Swiss Med Wkly 2004;134:69–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Nathens AB, Marshall JC. Selective decontamination of the digestive tract in surgical patients: a systematic review of the evidence. Arch Surg 1999;134:170–176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Jesus EC, Karliczek A, Matos D, et al. Prophylactic anastomotic drainage for colorectal surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004:CD002100.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Cohn SM, Giannotti G, Ong AW, et al. Prospective randomized trial of two wound management strategies for dirty abdominal wounds. Ann Surg 2001;233:409–413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Wong PF, Gilliam AD, Kumar S, et al. Antibiotic regimens for secondary peritonitis of gastrointestinal origin in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005:CD004539.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Sims EH, Thadepalli H, Ganesan K, Mandal AK. How many antibiotics are necessary to treat abdominal trauma victims? Am Surg 1997;63:525–535.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Bratzler DW, Houck PM, Richards C, et al. Use of antimicrobial prophylaxis for major surgery: baseline results from the National Surgical Infection Prevention Project. Arch Surg 2005;140:174–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Sauerland S, Lefering R, Neugebauer EA. Laparoscopic versus open surgery for suspected appendicitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004:CD001546.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Zeitoun G, Laurent A, Rouffet F, et al. Multicentre, randomized clinical trial of primary versus secondary sigmoid resection in generalized peritonitis complicating sigmoid diverticulitis. Br J Surg 2000;87:1366–1374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Velmahos GC, Toutouzas KG, Sarkisyan G, et al. Severe trauma is not an excuse for prolonged antibiotic prophylaxis. Arch Surg 2002;137:537–541; discussion 541–542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Weinstein WM, Onderdonk AB, Bartlett JG, Gorbach SL. Experimental intra-abdominal abscesses in rats: development of an experimental model. Infect Immun 1974;10:1250–1265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Howard R, Simmons R. Surgical Infectious Diseases, 3rd ed. Norwalk, CT: Appleton and Lange, 1995.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael A. West
    • 1
  • Michael B. Shapiro
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Surgery, Trauma and Critical Care, Feinberg School of MedicineNorthwestern UniversityChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations