Surgery pp 2345-2354 | Cite as

Energy Transfer in the Practice of Surgery

  • James Wall
  • Michael E. Gertner


Energy is a fundamental tool of the modern surgeon. Transduction of energy can take many forms, including the oldest, which is basically manual energy transduction, to effect a change. Modem surgical instruments use electrons, photons, and sound waves to transfer energy to human tissue. Surgeons expect specific and repeatable results from these tools. An understanding of the basic underpinnings of energy transfer and its effects on biological tissue is necessary to adapt current technologies to specific surgical situations.


Harmonic Scalpel Bipolar Vessel Electrothermal Bipolar Vessel Sealer Argon Beam Coagulator Argon Beam Coagulation 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • James Wall
    • 1
  • Michael E. Gertner
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryUniversity of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryStanford UniversityStanfordUSA

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