Surgery pp 2217-2232 | Cite as


  • Philip Starr


The brain and spinal cord are bathed in 150mL cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), covered by three layers of connective tissue, the meninges, and encased in bone. The meninges, from innermost to outermost layers, consist of the pia mater, the arachnoid mater, and the dura mater. CSF is secreted mainly by the choroid plexus within the cerebral ventricles, flows through the ventricular system, and exits from the fourth ventricle into the subarachnoid space. Approximately 500 mL CSF is produced per day. CSF is absorbed into the venous system at the arachnoid granulations, which are specialized villi of the arachnoid membrane invaginating into the superior sagittal sinus.


Cervical Spine Deep Brain Stim Head Trauma Disk Herniation Carpal Tunnel 
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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philip Starr
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Functional Neurosurgery Program, Department of Neurological SurgeryUniversity of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Parkinson’s Disease ResearchEducation and Care Center (PADRECC) at San Francisco Veteran’s Affairs Medical CenterSan FranciscoUSA

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