Advertisement

Surgery pp 2151-2171 | Cite as

Regional Therapy of Cancer

  • Douglas L. Fraker

Abstract

Surgical resection is the primary treatment and typically the only curative therapy for most solid malignancies. Throughout this surgical textbook, virtually all chapters dealing with individual organs have some portion of that chapter devoted to the surgical treatment of primary cancer at that site. For example, Chapter 96 on breast disease primarily discusses the treatment of cancer because this is by far the predominant surgical disease in that organ. On the other hand, Chapter 49 on the small intestine has a much smaller proportion dealing with cancer as primary malignancies comprise a smaller fraction of the surgical diseases involving the small intestine. A specialized type or category of surgical treatment for cancer can be categorized as regional therapy. As opposed to straightforward surgical resection, in this type of therapy a specific region or area of the body is treated. Regional therapy is primarily applicable to metastatic disease limited to one site or area of the body. There are two broad categories of regional therapy of cancer: (1) vascular-based treatments and (2) intracavitary treatments. The most successfully treated areas of the body by vascular means are the extremities and the liver.

Keywords

Peritoneal Carcinomatosis Regional Therapy Isolate Limb Perfusion Hepatic Arterial Infusion Isolate Limb Infusion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Cavaliere R, Ciogatto EC, Giovanelli BC, et al. Selective heat sensitivity of cancer cells. Cancer (PHila) 1967;20:1351–1381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    DiFilippo F, Anza M, Rossi CR, et al. The application of hyperthermia in regional chemotherapy. Semin Surg Oncol 1998;14(3):215–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Christophi C, Winkworth A, Muralihdaran V, Evans P. The treatment of malignancy by hyperthermia. Surg Oncol 1998;7(1–2):83–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dougherty TJ, Gomer CJ, Henderson BW, et al. Photodynamic therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998;90(12):889–905.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kessel D. Photodynamic therapy. Sci Med 1998:46–55.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rodriguez E, Baas P, Friedberg JS. Innovative therapies: photodynamic therapy. Thorac Surg Clin 2004;14(4):557–566.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Van der Eb MM, Hoeben RC, van de Velde CJ. Towards gene therapy for colorectal liver metastases. Recent Results Cancer Res 1998;147:173–186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Albelda SM, Wiewrodt R, Sterman DH. Gene therapy for lung neoplasms. Clin Chest Med 2002;23(1):265–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Milas M, Feig B, Yu D, et al. Isolated limb perfusion in the sarcoma-bearing rat: a novel preclinical gene delivery system. Clin Cancer Res 1997;3:2197–2203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Collins JM. Pharmacologic rationale for hepatic arterial therapy. Recent Results Cancer Res 1986;100:140–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sigurdson ER, Ridge JA, Kemeny N, Daly JM. Tumor and liver drug uptake following hepatic artery and portal vein infusion in man. J Clin Oncol 1987;5:1836–1840.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Guadagni S, Aigner KR, Palumbo G, et al. Pharmacokinetics of mitomycin C in pelvic stop flow infusion and hypoxic pelvic perfusion with and without hemofiltration: a pilot study of patients with recurrent unresectable rectal cancer. J Clin Pharmacol 1998;38(10):936–944.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lorenz M, Petrowsky H, Heinrich S, et al. Isolated hypoxic perfusion with mitomycin C in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol 1998;24(6):542–547.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Thompson JF, Kam PC, Waugh RC, Harman CR. Isolated limb perfusion with cytotoxic agents: a simple alternative to isolated limb perfusion. Semin Surg Oncol 1998;14(3):238–247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Creech O, Krementz ET, Ryan RF, Winblad JN. Chemotherapy of cancer: regional perfusion utilizing an extracorporeal circuit. Ann Surg 1958;148:616–632.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chung WB, Moore JR, Mersereau W. A technique of isolated perfusion of the liver. Surgery (St. Louis) 1962;51:508–511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shingleton WW, Parker RT, Mahaley S. Abdominal perfusion for cancer: regional perfusion utilizing an extracorporeal circuit. Ann Surg 1969;152:583–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mulcare RJ, Solis A, Fortner JG. Isolation and perfusion of the liver for cancer chemotherapy. J Surg Res 1973;15:87–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Alexander HR, Bartlett DL, Libutti SK, Fraker DL, Moser T, Rosenberg SA. Isolated hepatic perfusion with tumor necrosis factor and melphalan for unresectable cancers confined to the liver. J Clin Oncol 1998;16(4):1479–1489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Oldhafer KJ, Lang H, Frerker M, et al. First experience and technical aspects of isolated liver perfusion for extensive liver metastasis. Surgery (St. Louis) 1998;126(6):622–631.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pass HI, Mew DJ, Kranda KC, Temeck BK, Donington JS, Rosenberg SA. Isolated lung perfusion with tumor necrosis factor for pulmonary metastases. Ann Thorac Surg 1996;61(6):1609–1617.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hendriks JM, Van Schil PE. Isolated lung perfusion for the treatment of pulmonary metastases. Surg Oncol 1998;7(1–2):59–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Turk PS, Belleveau JF, Dranowski JW, Weinberg MC, Leenen L, Wanebo HJ. Isolated pelvic perfusion for unresectable cancer using a balloon occlusion technique. Arch Surg 1993;128(5):533–538, discussion 538–539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wanebo HJ, Chung MA, Levy Al, Turk PS, Vezeridis MP, Belliveau JF. Preoperative therapy for advanced pelvic malignancy by isolated pelvic perfusion with the balloon-occlusion technique. Ann Surg Oncol 1996;3(3):295–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Walther MM, Jennings SB, Choyke PL, et al. Isolated perfusion of the kidney with tumor necrosis factor for localized renal-cell carcinoma. World J Urol 1996;14:S2–S7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Deraco M, Santoro N, Carraro O, et al. Peritoneal carcinomatosis: feature of dissemination. A review. Tumori 1999;85(1):1–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sugarbaker PH. Observations concerning cancer spread within the peritoneal cavity and concepts supporting an ordered pathophysiology. In: Sugerbaker PH (ed) Peritoneal Carcinomatosis, Diagnosis, and Treatment. Boston: Kluwer, 1995.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Berek JS, Bertelsen K, duBois A, et al. Advanced epithelial ovarian cancer: 1998 consensus statements. Ann Oncol 1999;10(1):87–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Eltabbakh GH, Piver MS, Natarajan N, Mettline CJ. Epidemiologic differences between women with extraovarian primary peritoneal carcinoma and women with epithelial ovarian cancer. Obstet Gynecol 1998;91(2):254–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jacquet P, Vidal-Jove J, Zhu B, Sugarbaker PH. Peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastrointestinal malignancy. Natural history and new prospects for management. Acta Belg Chir 1994;94:191–197.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sugarbaker PH, Schillinx MET, Chang D, Koslowe P, Meyenfeldt MV van. Peritoneal carcinomatosis from adenocarcinoma of the colon. World J Surg 1996;20:585–592.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Vasseur B, Cadiot G, Zins M, et al. Peritoneal carcinomatosis in patients with digestive endocrine tumors. Cancer (Phila) 1996;78(8):1686–1692.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ng EH, Pollock RE, Munsell MF, Atkinson ENM, Romsdahl MM. Prognostic factors influencing survival in gastrointestinal leiomyosarcomas. Implications for surgical management and staging. Ann Surg 1992;215:68–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Jaques DP, Coit DG, Hajdu SI, Brennan MF. Management of primary and recurrent soft-tissue sarcoma of the retroperitoneum Ann Surg 1990;212(12):511–518.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Shen P, Levine EA, Loggie BW. Peritoneal carcinomatosis: what can we do about it? J Clin Oncol 2004;22(1):202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sugarbaker PH. Perionectomy procedures. Ann Surg 1995;221(1):29–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wong CS, Harwood AR, Cummings BJ, Keane TJ, Thomas GM, Rider WD. Total abdominal irradiation for cancer of the colon. Radiother Oncol 1984;2(3):209–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fabian C, Giri S, Estes N, et al. Adjuvant continuous infusion 5-FU, whole-abdominal radiation, and tumor bed boost in high-risk stage HI colon carcinoma: a Southwest Oncology Group Pilot study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1995;32(2):457–464.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Markmann M. Intraperitoneal therapy of ovarian cancer. Oncologist 1996;1:18–21.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Price B. Analysis of current trends in United Stated mesothelioma incidence. Am J Epidemiol 1997;145(3):211–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fraker DL. Hyperthermic regional perfusion for melanoma and sarcoma of the limbs. Curr Probl Surg 1999;36(11):841–908.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Eggermont AM, Brunstein F, Grunhagen D, ten Hagen TL. Regional treatment of metastasis: role of regional perfusion. State of the art isolated limb perfusion for limb salvage. Ann Oncol 2004;15(4):107–112.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Barker WC, Andrich MP, Alexander HR, Fraker DL. Continuous intraoperative external monitoring of perfusate leak using iodine-131 human serum albumin during isolated perfusion of the liver and limbs. Eur J Nucl Med 1995;22:1242–1248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Balch CM, Houghton AN, Peters LJ. Cutaneous melanoma. In: DeVita VT, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA, eds. Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1997:1947–1997.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Koops HS, Vaglini M, Cuciu S, et al. Prophylactic isolated limb perfusion for localized, high risk limb melanoma: results of a multicenter randomized phase III trial. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Malignant Melanoma Cooperative Group Protocol 18832, the World Health Organization Melanoma Program Trial 15, and the North American Perfusion Group Southwest Oncology Group-8593. J Clin Oncol 1998;16:2906–2912.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hayes AJ, Clark MA, Harries M, Thomas JM. Management of in transit metastases from cutaneous malignant melanoma. Br J Surg 2004;91(6):673–682.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Jaques DP, Coit DG, Brennan MF. Major amputation for advanced malignant melanoma. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1989;169:1–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kang JC, Wanek LA, Essner R, Faries MB, Foshag LJ, Morton DL. Sentinel lymphadenectomy does not increase the incidence of in-transit metastases in primary melanoma. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:4764–4770.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Pawlik TM, Ross MI, Thompson JF, Eggermont AMM, Gershenwald JE. The risk of in-transit melanoma metastasis depends on tumor biology and not the surgical approach to regional lymph nodes. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:4588–4590.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Krementz ET, Carter RD, Sutherland CM, Muchmore JH, Ryan RF, Creech O Jr. Regional chemotherapy for melanoma: a 35 year experience. Ann Surg 1994;220:520–535.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ghussen F, Nagel K, Groth W, Muller JM, Stutzer H. A prospective randomized study of regional extremity perfusion in patients with malignant melanoma. Ann Surg 1984;200:764–768.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ghussen F, Kruger I, Groth W, Stutzer H. The role of regional hyperthermic cytostatic perfusion in the treatment of extremity melanoma. Cancer (Phila) 1988;61:654–659.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hafstrom L, Rudenstam CM, Blomquist E, et al. Regional hyperthermic perfusion with melphalan after surgery for recurrent malignant melanoma of the extremities. J Clin Oncol 1991;9:209–214.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Thompson JF, Giantoutsos MP. Isolated limb perfusion for melanoma: effectiveness and toxicity of cisplatin compared with that of melphalan and other drugs. World J Surg 1992;16:227–233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Noorda EM, Vrouenraets BC, Nieweg OE, Van Coevorden F, Kroon BB. Isolated limb perfusion: what is the evidence for its use? Ann Surg Oncol 2004;11(9):837–845.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lens MB, Dawes M. Isolated limb perfusion with melphalan in the treatment of malignant melanoma of the extremities: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Lancet Oncol 2003;4(6):359–364.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Wieberdink J, Benckhuysen C, Braat RP, van Slooten EA, Olthuis GAA. Dosimetry in isolation perfusion of the limbs by assessment of perfused tissue volume and grading of toxic tissue reactions. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 1982;18:905–910.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Cheng TY, Grubbs E, Abdul-Wahab O, et al. Marked variability of melphalan plasma drug levels during regional hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion. Am J Surg 2003;186(5):460–467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Klaase JM, Kroon BBR, van Geel AN, Eggermont AMM, Franklin HR, Hart AAM. Prognostic factors for tumor response and limb recurrence-free interval in patients with advanced melanoma of the limbs treated with regional isolated perfusion with melphalan. Surgery (St. Louis) 1994;115:39–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Noorda EM, Vrouenraets BC, Nieweg OE, vanGeel BN, Eggermont AM, Kroon BB. Isolated limb perfusion for unresectable melanoma of the extremities. Arch Surg 2004;139(11):1237–1242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Vaglini M, Belli F, Marolda R, Prada A, Santinami M, Cascinelli N. Hyperthermic antiblastic perfusion with DTIC in stage IIIA-IQB melanoma of the extremities. Eur J Surg Oncol 1987;13:127–129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Carswell EA, Old LJ, Kassel R, Green S, Fiore N, Williamson B. An endotoxin-induced serum factor that causes necrosis of tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1975;72:3666–3670.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Fraker DL, Alexander HR, Pass HI. Biologic therapy of tumor necrosis factor: clinical applications by systemic and regional administration. In: DeVita V, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA, eds. Biologic Therapy of Cancer, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1995:329–346.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lejeune FI. High dose recombinant tumour necrosis factor (rTNFi-I) administered by isolation perfusion for advanced tumours of the limbs: a model for biochemotherapy of cancer. Eur J Cancer 1995;31:1009–1016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Posner MC, Lienard D, Lejeune FJ, Rosenfelder D, Kirkwood J. Hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion with tumor necrosis factor alone for melanoma. Cancer J Sci Am 1995;1:274–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Leinard D, Lejeune F, Delmotte J, et al. High doses of rTNF in combination with IFN-gamma and melphalan in isolation perfusion of the limbs for melanoma and sarcoma. J Clin Oncol 1992;10:52–60.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lienard D, Lejeune F, Ewalenko I. In transit metastases of malignant melanoma treated by high dose rTNF in combination with interferon-gamma and melphalan in isolation perfusion. World J Surg 1992;16:234–240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lienard D, Eggermont AM, Kroon B, Schraffordt Koops H, Lejeune FJ. Isolated limb perfusion in primary and recurrent melanoma: indications and results. Semin Surg Oncol 1998;14:202–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Fraker DL, Alexander HR, Bartlett DL, Rosenberg SA. A prospective randomized trial of therapeutic isolated limb perfusion (ILP) comparing melphalan (M) versus melphalan, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interferon: an initial report [abstract]. Proc Soc Surg Oncol 1996;49:6.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Fraker DL, Alexander HR, Andrich M, Rosenberg SA. Treatment of patients with melanoma of the extremity using hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion with melphalan, tumor necrosis factor, and interferon-gamma: results of a TNF dose escalation study. J Clin Oncol 1996;14:479–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Bartlett DL, Ma G, Alexander HR, Libutti SK, Fraker DL. Isolated limb reperfusion with tumor necrosis factor and melphalan in patients with extremity melanoma after failure of isolated limb perfusion with chemotherapeutics. Cancer (Phila) 1997;80:2084–2090.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Takkenberg RB, Vrouenraets BC, vanGeel AN, et al. Palliative isolated limb perfusion for advanced limb disease in stage IV melanoma patients. J Surg Oncol 2005;91(2):107–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Fraker DL, Alexander HR, Andrich M, Rosenberg SA. Palliation of regional symptoms of advanced extremity melanoma by isolated limb perfusion with melphalan and high-dose tumor necrosis factor. Cancer J Sci Am 1995;1:122–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Thorn AK, Alexander HR, Andrich MP, Barker WC, Rosenberg SA, Fraker DL. Cytokine levels and systemic toxicity in patients undergoing isolated limb perfusion with high dose tumor necrosis factor, interferon-gamma and melphalan. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:264–273.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Van Geel AN, van Wijk J, Weieberdink J. Functional morbidity after regional isolated perfusion of the limb for melanoma. Cancer (Phila) 1989;63:1092–1096.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Olieman AFT, Koops HS, Geertzen JHB, Kingma H, Hoekstra HU, Oldhoff J. Functional morbidity of hyperthermic isolated regional perfusion of the extremities. Ann Surg Oncol 1994;3:382–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Vrouenraets BC, Klaase JM, Nieweg OE, Kroon BB. Toxicity and morbidity of isolated limb perfusion. Semin Surg Oncol 1998;14:224–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Krementz ET, Carter RD, Sutherland CM, Hutton I. Chemotherapy of sarcomas of the limbs by regional perfusion. Ann Surg 1977;195:555–564.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Williard WC, Hajdu SI, Casper ES, Brennan MF. Comparison of amputation with limb-sparing operations for adult soft tissue sarcoma of the extremity. Ann Surg 1992;215:269–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Eggermont AM, Koops HS, Lienard D, et al. Isolated limb perfusion with high dose tumor necrosis factor-α in combination with interferon-γ and melphalan for nonresectable extremity soft tissue sarcomas: a multicenter trial. J Clin Oncol 1996;14:2653–2665.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Eggermont AMM, Koops HS, Lkausner JM, et al. Isolated limb perfusion with tumor necrosis factor and melphalan for limb salvage in 186 patients with locally advanced soft tissue extremity sarcomas. Ann Surg 1996;244:756–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Gutman M, Inbar M, Lev-Shluch D, et al. High dose tumor necrosis factor-alpha and melphalan administered via limb perfusion for advanced limb soft tissue sarcoma results in a >90% response rate and limb preservation. Cancer (Phila) 1997;79:1129–1137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Noorda EM, Vrouenraets BC, Nieweg OE, van Coevorden F, van Slooten GW, Kroon BB. Isolated limb perfusion with tumor necrosis factor-alpha and melphalan for patients with unresectable soft tissue sarcoma of the extremities. Cancer (Phila) 2003;98(7):1483–1490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Bonvalot S, Laplanche A, Lejeune F, et al. Limb salvage with isolated limb perfusion for soft tissue sarcoma: could less TNF-alpha be better? Ann Oncol 2005;16(7):1061–1068.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Grunhagen DJ, Brunstein F, Graveland WJ, van Geel AN, deWilt JH, Eggermont AM. Isolated limb perfusion with tumor necrosis factor and melphalan prevents amputation in patients with multiple sarcomas in arm or leg. Ann Surg Oncol 2005;12(6):473–479.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Lans TE, Grunhagen DJ, deWilt JH, vanGeel AN, Eggermont AM. Isolated limb perfusion with tumor necrosis factor and melphalan for locally recurrent soft tissue sarcoma in previously irradiated limbs. Ann Surg Oncol 2005;12(5):4-6–4-11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Fraker DL, Alexander HR, Ross M, Tyler D, Bartlett D, Bauer T. A phase II trial of isolated limb perfusion with high dose tumor necrosis factor and melphalan for unresectable extremity sarcomas (abstract). Soc Surg Oncol Cancer Symp 1999;52:22.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Olieman AF, Lienard D, Eggermont AM, et al. Hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion with tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma, and melphalan for locally advanced nonmelanoma skin tumors of the extremities: a multicenter study. Arch Surg 1999;134(3):303–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Thompson JF, Kam PC. Isolated limb infusion for melanoma: a simple but effective alternative to isolated limb perfusion. J Surg Oncol 2004;88(1):1–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Bonenkamp JJ, Thompson JF, deWitt JH, Doubrovsky A, deFarla Lima R, Kam PC. Isolated limb perfusion with fotemustine after dacarbazine chemosensitisation for inoperative loco-regional melanoma recurrence. Eur J Surg Oncol 2004;30(10):1107–1112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Lin G, Lunderquist A, Hagerstrand I, Boijsen E. Postmortem examination of the blood supply and vascular pattern of small liver metastases in man. Surgery (St. Louis) 1984;96:517–526.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Ridge JA, Bading JR, Gelbard AS, et al. Perfusion of colorectal hepatic metastases: relative distribution of flow from the hepatic artery and portal vein. Cancer (Phila) 1987;59:1547–1553.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Soulen MC. Chemoembolization of hepatic malignancies. Oncology 1994;8:77–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Cohen AM, Minsky BD, Schilsky RL. Cancer of the Colon. In: Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed. Philadephia: Lippincott-Raven, 1997:1144–1197.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Diaz-Rubio E. New chemotherapeutic advances in pancreatic, colorectal, and gastric cancers. Oncologist 2004;9(3):282–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Neiderhuber JE, Ensminger W, Gyves J, Thrall J, Walker S, Cozzi E. Regional chemotherapy of colorectal cancer metastatic to the liver. Cancer (Phila) 1984;53:1336–1343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Allen PJ, Nissan A, Picon Al, et al. Technical complications and durability of hepatic artery infusion pumps for unresectable colorectal liver metastases: an institutional experience of 544 consecutive cases. J Am Coll Surg 2005;201:57–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Hohn DC, Stagg RJ, Friedman MA, et al. A randomized trial of continuous intravenous versus hepatic intra-arterial floxuridine in patients with colorectal cancer metastatic to the liver: the Northern California Oncology Group Trial. J Clin Oncol 1989;7:1646–1654.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kemeny N, Conti J, Cohen A, et al. A phase II study of hepatic arterial FUDR, leucovorin, and dexamethasone for unresectable liver metastases from colorectal carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 1994;12:2288–2295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Stagg R, Venook A, Chase J, et al. Alternating hepatic intraarterial floxuridine and fluorouracil: a less toxic regimen for treatment of liver metastases from colorectal cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1991;83:423–428.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Chang A, Schneider PD, Sugarbaker PH, et al. A prospective randomized trial of regional versus systemic continuous 5-fluorodeoxyuridine chemotherapy in the treatment of colorectal metastases. Ann Surg 1987;206:685–693.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Kemeny N, Daly J, Reichman B, Geller N, Botet J, Oderman P. Intrahepatic or systemic infusion of fluorodeoxyuridine in patients with liver metastases from colorectal carcinoma. Ann Intern Med 1987;107:459–465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Martin J, O’Connell M, Wieand H, et al. Intra-arterial floxuridine versus systemic fluorouracil for hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer: a randomized trial. Arch Surg 1990;125:1022–1027.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Rougier PH, Laplanche A, Huguier M, et al. Hepatic arterial infusion of floxuridine in patients with liver metastases from colorectal carcinoma: long term results of a prospective randomized trial. J Clin Oncol 1992;10:1112–1118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Allen-Mersh TG, Earlam S, Fordy C. Quality of life and survival with continuous hepatic artery infusion for colorectal liver metastases. Lancet 1994;344:1255–1260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kemeny N, Gonen M, Sullivan D, et al. Phase I study of hepatic arterial infusion of floxuridine and dexamethasone with systemic irinotecan for unresectable hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol 2001;19(10):2687–2695.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Kemeny N, Narnagin W, Gonen M, et al. Phase I/II Study of hepatic arterial therapy with floxuridine and dexamethasone in combination with intravenous irinotecan as adjuvant treatment after resection of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol 2003;21(17):3303–3309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Kemeny N, Jarnagin W, Paty P, et al. Phase I trial of systemic oxaliplatin combination chemotherapy with hepatic arterial infusion in patients with unresectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:4888–4896.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Kemeny N, Cohen A, Huang Y, et al. Randomized study of hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) and systemic chemotherapy (SYS) versus SYS alone as adjuvant therapy after resection of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 1999;18:1011.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Kemeny M, Adak S, Lipsitz S, Gray B, MacDonald J, Benson AB. Results of the Intergroup Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) and Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) prospective randomized study of surgery alone versus continuous hepatic artery infusion of FUDR and continuous systemic infusion of 5FU after hepatic resection for colorectal liver metastases. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 1999;18:1012.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Scaife CL, Curley SA, Izzo F, et al. Feasibility of adjuvant hepatic arterial infusion of chemotherapy after radiofrequency ablation with or without resection in patients with hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer. J Surg Oncol 2003;10(4):348–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Fraker DL. Combination of radiofrequency ablation and intraarterial chemotherapy for metastatic cancer in the liver. In: Ellis LM, Curley SA, Tanabe KK, eds. Radiofrequency Ablation for Cancer. New York: Springer, 2004:47–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Shaw BW, Martin DJ, Marquez JM, et al. Venous bypass in clinical liver transplantation. Ann Surg 1984;200:524–533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Walther H, Link KH. Isolated liver perfusion with MMC/5-FU: surgical technique, pharmacokinetics, clinical results. In: Aigner KR, Patt YZ, Lind KH Kreidler J, eds. Regional Cancer Treatment. Basel: Karger, 1988:229–246.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Fraker DL, Alexander HR, Thorn AK. Use of tumor necrosis factor in isolated hepatic perfusion. Circ Shock 1994;44:45–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Grover A, Alexander HR. The past decade of experience with isolated hepatic perfusion. Oncologist 2004;9:653–664.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Feldman ED, Wu PC, Beresneva T, et al. Treatment of patients with unresectable primary hepatic malignancies using hyperthermic isolated hepatic perfusion. J Gastrointest Surg 2004;8(2):200–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Ravikumar TS, Pizzorno G, Bodden W, et al. Percutaneous hepatic vein isolation and high-dose hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy for unresectable liver tumors. J Clin Oncol 1994;12:2723–2736.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Pingpank JF, Libutti SK, Chang R, et al. Phase I study of hepatic arterial melphalan infusion and hepatic venous hemofiltration using percutaneously placed catheters in patients with unresectable hepatic malignancies. J Clin Oncol 2005;23(15):3465–3474.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Furrer M, Lardinois D, Thormann W, et al. Cytostatic lung perfusion by use of an endovascular blood flow occlusion technique. Ann Thorac Surg 1998;65(6):1523–1528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Panteix G, Beaujard A, Garbit F, et al. Population pharmacokinetics of cisplatin in patients with advanced ovarian cancer during intraperitoneal hyperthermia chemotherapy. Anticancer Res 2002;22(2B):1329–1336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Fujimoto S, Shrestha RD, Kokubun M, et al. Intraperitoneal hyperthermic perfusion combined with surgery effective for gastric cancer patients with peritoneal seeding. Ann Surg 1988;208(1 ):36–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Fujimoto S, Takahashi M, Kobayashi K, et al. Cytohistologic assessment of antitumor effects of intraperitoneal hyperthermic perfusion with mitomycin C for patients with gastric cancer with peritoneal metastasis. Cancer (Phila) 1992;70(12):2754–2760.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Yonemura Y, Kawamura T, Bandou E, Takahashi S, Sawa T, Matsuki N. Treatment of peritoneal dissemination from gastric cancer by peritonectomy and chemohyperthermic peritoneal perfusion. Br J Surg 2005;92(3):370–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Koga S, Hamazoe R, Maeta M, et al. Prophylactic therapy for peritoneal recurrence of gastric cancer by continuous hyperthermic peritoneal perfusion with mitomycin C. Cancer (Phila) 1988;61:232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Kunisaki C, Shimada H, Nomura M, Akiyama H, Takahashi M, Matsuda G. Lack of efficacy of prophylactic continuous hyperthermic peritoneal perfusion on subsequent peritoneal recurrence and survival in patients with advanced gastric cancer. Surgery (St. Louis) 2002;131(5):521–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Yonemura Y, de Aretxabala X, Fujimura T, et al. Intraoperative chemohyperthermic peritoneal perfusion as an adjuvant to gastric cancer: Final results of a randomized controlled study. Hepato-Gastroenterology 2001,48(42):1776–1782.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Alexander HR, Buell JF, Fraker DL. Rationale and clinical status of continuous hyperthermic peritoneal perfusion for the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis. In: Devita VT, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA, eds. Principles and Practice of Oncology. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1995:9:1–9.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Loggie BW, Perini M, Fleming RA, Russell GB, Geisinger K. Treatment and prevention of malignant ascites associated with disseminated intraperitoneal malignancies by aggressive combined-modality therapy. Am Surg 1997;63(2):137–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Bartlett DL, Buell JF, Libutti SK, et al. A phase I trial of continuous hyperthermic peritoneal perfusion with tumor necrosis factor and cisplatin in the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis. Cancer (Phila) 1998;83(6):1251–1261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Hall JJ, Loggie BW, Shen P, et al. Cytoreductive surgery with intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer. J Gastrointest Surg 2004;8(4):454–463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Shen P, Hawksworth J, Lovato J, et al. Cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy with mitomycin C for peritoneal carcinomatosis from nonappendiceal colorectal carcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol 2004;11(2):178–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    McQuellon RP, Loggie BW, Lehman AB, et al. Long-term survivorship and quality of life after cytoreductive surgery plus intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy for peritoneal carcinomatosis. Ann Surg Oncol 2003;10(2):155–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Feldman AL, Libutti SK, Pingpank JF, et al. Analysis of factors associated with outcome in patients with malignant peritoneal mesothelioma undergoing surgical debulking and intraperitoneal chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol 2003;21(24):4560–4567.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Shido A, Ohmura S, Yamamoto K, Kobayashi T, Fujimura T, Yonemura Y. Does hyperthermia induce peritoneal damage in continuous hyperthermic peritoneal perfusion? World J Surg 2000;24(5):507–511.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Tochner Z, Mitchell JB, Harrington FS, Smith P, Russo DT, Russo A. Treatment of murine intraperitoneal ovarian ascitic tumor with hematoporphyrin derivative and laser light. Cancer Res 1985;45:2983–2987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Tochner Z, Mitchell JB, Smith P, et al. Photodynamic therapy of ascites tumours within the peritoneal cavity. Br J Cancer 1986;53:733–736.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Delaney TF, Sindelar WF, Tochner Z, et al. Phase I study of debulking and photodynamic therapy for disseminated intraperitoneal tumors. J Radiat Oncol 1993;25(3):445–447.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Sindelar WF, Sullivan FJ, Abraham E, et al. Intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy shows efficacy in phase I trial. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 1995;14:447.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Hahn SM, Fraker DL, Mick R, et al. A phase II trial of intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy for patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis. Clin Cancer Res 2006;12(8):2517–2525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Young SW, Woodburn KW, Wright M, et al. Lutetium texaphyrin (PCI-0123): a near-infrared, water-soluble photosensitizer. Photochem Photobiol 1997;63(6):892–897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Pass HI, Temeck BK, Kranda K, et al. Phase III randomized trial of surgery with or without intraoperative photodynamic therapy and postoperative immunochemotherapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Ann Surg Oncol 1997;4(8):628–633.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Pass HI. Photodynamic therapy in thoracic surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 2002;73(6):2012–2013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Sterman DH, Treat J, Litzky LA, et al. Adenovirus-mediated herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir gene therapy in patients with localized malignancy: results of a phase I clinical trial in malignant mesothelioma. Hum Gene Ther 1992;9(7):1083–1092.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Pass HI, DeLaney TF, Tochner Z, et al. Intrapleural photodynamic therapy: results of a phase I trial. Ann Surg Oncol 1994;1(1):28–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Friedberg JS, Mick R, Stevenson J, et al. A phase I study of Foxcan-mediated photodynamic therapy and surgery in patients with mesothelioma. Ann Thorac Surg 2003;75(3):952–959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Friedberg JS, Mick R, Stevenson JP, et al. Phase II trial of pleural photodynamic therapy and surgery for patients with non-small cell lung cancer with pleural spread. J Clin Oncol 2004;22(11):2192–2201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Douglas L. Fraker
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Clinical Affairs, Department of SurgeryUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations