Alternative Minimally Invasive Options: Gastric Pacing

  • Scott Shikora


It is estimated that 66% of all adult Americans are overweight or obese (1). Furthermore, 4.8% are extremely (morbidly) obese, which is defined as a body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to 40. Calculations suggest that the number of extremely obese adults in the United States has reached a staggering 14 to 16 million people. These individuals suffer from a wide range of comorbidities and make up the second largest group of preventable deaths after smoking (>300,000 yearly) (2). The cost of treating the obese is staggering, at approximately $70 billion yearly (3). The impact of obesity is also not limited to the United States but is spreading worldwide. Globally, the prevalence of overweight/obesity was recently estimated at 1.7 billion people (4). This accounts for over 2.5 million deaths per year (5). Not far behind obesity in adults is the growing epidemic of overweight adolescents. Currently, surgery is rarely offered to these patients for fear of operative complications and longterm noncompliance.


Gastric Emptying Excess Weight Loss Gastric Motility Proximal Stomach Gastric Electrical Stimulation 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Scott Shikora
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryTufts University School of Medicine, Tufts-New England Medical CenterBostonUSA

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