The theme of this chapter was stated with exuberance and in an idealistic deterministic extreme by the Marquis Pierre-Simon de Laplace (1759–1827): “Thus, we must consider the present state of the universe as the effect of its previous state and as the cause of those states to follow. An intelligent being which, for a given point in time, knows all the forces acting upon the universe and the positions of the objects of which it is composed, supplied with facilities large enough to submit these data to numerical analysis, would include in the same formula the movements of the largest bodies of the universe and those of the lightest atom. Nothing would be uncertain for it, and the past and future would be known to it.” [Trans. John H. Van Drie (http://www.johnvandrie.com)]
KeywordsDisplacement Field Strain Tensor Material Filament Deformation Gradient Geometric Interpretation
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