Environmental Catalysts

  • Lawrie Lloyd
Part of the Fundamental and Applied Catalysis book series (FACA)


The effects of atmospheric pollution from the combustion of fossil fuel have been recognized for many years. Acid rain from industrial areas of Europe and North America devastated forests. The pea-souper fogs in Donora, Pennsylvania, London, UK and Belgium caused by emissions from power plants, steelworks and metal smelters as well as domestic coal fires affected public health and led to thousands of deaths. All this, together with the photochemical smogs in Los Angeles, California brought a growing demand for environmental protection. 1 Early measures were almost all restricted to imposing limits on particulate emission and in the UK, the first Clean Air Act of 1956 resulted in the introduction of smokeless zones. Since then further legislation has led to the development of catalytic processes that also reduce the concentration of nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in the various exhaust emissions to specified levels.


Sulfur Dioxide Selective Catalytic Reduction Nitrogen Oxide Platinum Group Metal Vanadium Pentoxide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lawrie Lloyd
    • 1
  1. 1.BathUK

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