Ventricular Septal Defects


Repair of ventricular septal defects (VSD) is performed with cardiopulmonary bypass and moderate hypothermia, aortic cross-clamping with cardioplegia, and profound local cardiac cooling. In small infants with associated complex anomalies, maximal exposure may be gained with cardiopulmonary bypass, deep hypothermia, and low-flow cerebral perfusion (about 0.25–0.5 L/min/m2) because total circulatory arrest is almost never used. The two cavae are selectively cannulated, and this allows work within the heart to progress during cooling and rewarming.


Tricuspid Valve Ventricular Septal Defect Ventricular Septal Defect Main Pulmonary Artery Congenital Heart Surgery 
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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

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