Pulmonary Venous Anomalies
Total repair is carried out soon after establishing the diagnosis and medical stabilization of the patient. The procedure can be emergent shortly after birth when there is obstruction of the common pulmonary venous channel (as with a subdiaphragmatic connection), or in the early days of life when there is obstruction at the atrial septal level (supracardiac or intracardiac connection). When there is no obstruction to pulmonary venous return, surgery is required in the early weeks of life because the large left-to-right shunt causes congestive heart failure or failure to thrive with or without pulmonary artery hypertension.
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